(a) General requirements -
(1) Quality of fixtures. Plumbing fixtures shall have smooth impervious surfaces, be free from defects and concealed fouling surfaces, be capable of resisting road shock and vibration, and shall conform in quality and design to listed standards. Fixtures shall be permanently marked with the manufacturer's name or trademark.
(2) Strainers. The waste outlet of all plumbing fixtures, other than toilets, shall be equipped with a drain fitting that will provide an adequate unobstructed waterway.
(3) Fixture Connections. Fixture tailpieces and continuous wastes in exposed or accessible locations must be of not less than No. 20 Brown and Sharpe gauge seamless drawn-brass tubing or other approved pipe or tubing materials. Inaccessible fixture connections must be constructed according to the requirements for drainage piping. The diameter of each fixture tailpiece, continuous waste, or waste and overflow must be not less than:
(i) 11/2 inches, for sinks of two or more compartments, dishwashers, clothes washing machines, laundry tubs, bathtubs, and showers; and
(ii) Not less than 11/4 inches for lavatories or single compartment sinks having a 2-inch maximum drain opening.
(4) Concealed connections. Concealed slip joint connections shall be provided with adequately sized unobstructed access panels and shall be accessible for inspection and repair.
(5) Directional fitting. An approved or listed “Y” or other directional-type branch fitting shall be installed in every tailpiece or continuous waste that receives the discharge from food waste disposal units, dishwashing, or other force-discharge fixture or appliance. (See also § 3280.607(b)(4)(ii).)
(6) Water conservation. All lavatory faucets, showerheads, and sink faucets must not exceed a flow of 2.5 gallons per minute (gpm).
(b) Fixtures -
(1) Spacing. All plumbing fixtures shall be so installed with regard to spacing as to be reasonably accessible for their intended use.
(2) Water closets.
(i) Water closets shall be designed and manufactured according to approved or listed standards and shall be equipped with a water flushing device capable of adequately flushing and cleaning the bowl at each operation of the flushing mechanism.
(ii) Water closet flushing devices shall be designed to replace the water seal in the bowl after each operation. Flush valves, flushometer valves, flushometer tanks and ballcocks shall operate automatically to shut off at the end of each flush or when the tank is filled to operating capacity.
(iii) All water closets must be low consumption (1.6 gallons per flush (gpf)) closets.
(iv) Flush tanks shall be fitted with an overflow pipe large enough to prevent flooding at the maximum flow rate of the ball cock. Overflow pipes shall discharge into the toilet, through the tank.
(v) Floor Connection. Water closets must be securely bolted to an approved flange or other approved fitting that is secured to the floor by means of corrosion-resistant screws. The bolts must be of solid brass or other corrosion-resistant material and must not be less than1/4 inch in diameter. A watertight seal must be made between the water closet and flange or other approved fitting by use of a gasket, sealing compound, or listed connector device.
(vi) Floor connection. Water closets shall be securely bolted to an approved flange or other approved fitting which is secured to the floor by means of corrosion-resistant screws. The bolts shall be of solid brass or other corrosion-resistant material and shall be not less than one-fourth inch in diameter. A watertight seal shall be made between the water closet and flange or other approved fitting by use of a gasket or sealing compound.
(3) Shower compartment.
(i) Each compartment stall shall be provided with an approved watertight receptor with sides and back extending at least 1 inch above the finished dam or threshold. In no case shall the depth of a shower receptor be less than 2 inches or more than 9 inches measured from the top of the finished dam or threshold to the top of the drain. The wall area shall be constructed of smooth, noncorrosive, and nonabsorbent waterproof materials to a height not less than 6 feet above the bathroom floor level. Such walls shall form a watertight joint with each other and with the bathtub, receptor or shower floor. The floor of the compartment shall slope uniformly to the drain at not less than one-fourth nor more than one-half inch per foot.
(ii) The joint around the drain connection shall be made watertight by a flange, clamping ring, or other approved listed means.
(iii) Shower doors and tub and shower enclosures shall be constructed so as to be waterproof and, if glazed, glazing shall comply with the Standard for Safety Glazing Materials used in Buildings - Safety Performance Specifications and Methods of Test, ANSI Z97.1-2004 (incorporated by reference, see § 3280.4).
(iv) Prefabricated plumbing fixtures shall be approved or listed.
(v) Shower and tub-shower combination valves must be balanced pressure, thermostatic, or combination mixing valves that conform to the requirements of ASSE 1016-2005, Performance Requirements for Automatic Compensating Valves for Individual Shower and Tub/Shower Combinations (incorporated by reference, see § 3280.4). Such valves must be equipped with handle position stops that are adjustable in accordance with the valve manufacturer's instructions and to a maximum setting of 120 °F. Hot water supplied to bathtubs and whirlpool bathtubs are to be limited to a temperature of not greater than 120 °F by a water temperature limiting device that conforms to the requirements of ASSE 1070-2004, Performance Requirements for Water Temperature Limiting Devices (incorporated by reference, see § 3280.4).
(4) Dishwashing machines.
(i) A dishwashing machine must discharge its waste through a fixed air gap installed above the machine, through a high loop as specified by the dishwashing machine manufacturer, or into an open standpipe receptor with a height greater than the washing compartment of the machine. When a standpipe is used, it must be at least 18 inches, but not more than 30 inches, above the trap weir. The drain connections from the air gap or high loop are permitted to connect to an individual trap to a directional fitting installed in the sink tailpiece or to an opening provided on the inlet side of a food waste disposal unit.
(ii) Drain from a dishwashing machine shall not be connected to a sink tailpiece, continuous waste line, or trap on the discharge side of a food waste disposal unit.
(5) Clothes washing machines.
(i) Clothes washing machines shall drain either into a properly vented trap, into a laundry tub tailpiece with watertight connections, into an open standpipe receptor, or over the rim of a laundry tub.
(ii) Standpipes must be either 11/2 inch diameter minimum nominal iron pipe size, 11/2 inch diameter nominal brass tubing of not less than No. 20 Brown and Sharp gauge, or 11/2 inch diameter approved plastic materials. Receptors must discharge into a vented trap or must be connected to a laundry tub appliance by means of an approved or listed directional fitting. Each standpipe must extend not less than 18 inches or more than 42 inches above its trap and must terminate in an accessible location no lower than the top of the clothes washing machine. A removable, tight-fitting cap or plug must be installed on the standpipe when the clothes washer is not provided.
(iii) Clothes washing machine drain shall not be connected to the tailpiece, continuous waste, or trap of any sink or dishwashing machine.
(c) Installation -
(1) Access. Each plumbing fixture and standpipe receptor shall be located and installed in a manner to be accessible for usage, cleaning, repair and replacement. Access to diverter valves and other connections from the fixture hardware is not required.
(2) Alignment. Fixtures shall be set level and in true alignment with adjacent walls. Where practical, piping from fixtures shall extend to nearest wall.
(3) Brackets. Wall-hung fixtures shall be rigidly attached to walls by metal brackets or supports without any strain being transmitted to the piping connections. Flush tanks shall be securely fastened to toilets or to the wall with corrosive-resistant materials.
(4) Tub supports. Bathtub rims at wall shall be supported on metal hangers or on end-grain wood blocking attached to the wall unless otherwise recommended by the manufacturer of the tub.
(5) Fixture fittings. Faucets and diverters shall be installed so that the flow of hot water from the fittings corresponds to the left-hand side of the fitting.
(6) Hydromassage bathtub -
(i) Access panel. A door or panel of sufficient size must be installed to provide access to the pump for repair or replacement.
(ii) Piping drainage. The circulation pump must be accessibly located above the crown weir of the trap. The pump drain line must be properly sloped to drain the volute after fixture use.
(iii) Piping. Hydromassage bathtub circulation piping must be installed to be self-draining.
(iv) Electrical. Wiring must comply with Articles 680.70, 680.71, and 680.72 of the National Electrical Code, NFPA No. 70-2005.
[40 FR 58752, Dec. 18, 1975, as amended at 42 FR 961, Jan. 4, 1977. Redesignated at 44 FR 20679, Apr. 6, 1979, as amended at 52 FR 4586, Feb. 12, 1987; 58 FR 55014, Oct. 25, 1993; 70 FR 72049, Nov. 30, 2005; 71 FR 19639, Apr. 17, 2006; 78 FR 73985, Dec. 9, 2013; 79 FR 31863, June 3, 2014]