A lease shall be entered into between the PHA and each tenant of a dwelling unit which shall contain the provisions described hereinafter.
(a) Parties, dwelling unit and term.
(1) The lease shall state:
(i) The names of the PHA and the tenant;
(ii) The unit rented (address, apartment number, and any other information needed to identify the dwelling unit);
(iii) The term of the lease (lease term and renewal in accordance with paragraph (a)(2) of this section);
(iv) A statement of what utilities, services, and equipment are to be supplied by the PHA without additional cost, and what utilities and appliances are to be paid for by the tenant;
(v) The composition of the household as approved by the PHA (family members and any PHA-approved live-in aide). The family must promptly inform the PHA of the birth, adoption, or court-awarded custody of a child. The family must request PHA approval to add any other family member as an occupant of the unit;
(vi) HUD's regulations in 24 CFR part 5, subpart L (Protection for Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence, Sexual Assault, or Stalking) apply.
(2) Lease term and renewal.
(i) The lease shall have a twelve month term. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section, the lease term must be automatically renewed for the same period.
(ii) The PHA may not renew the lease if the family has violated the requirement for resident performance of community service or participation in an economic self-sufficiency program in accordance with part 960, subpart F of this chapter.
(iii) At any time, the PHA may terminate the tenancy in accordance with § 966.4(l).
(3) Execution and modification. The lease must be executed by the tenant and the PHA, except for automatic renewals of a lease. The lease may modified at any time by written agreement of the tenant and the PHA.
(b) Payments due under the lease -
(1) Tenant rent.
(i) The tenant shall pay the amount of the monthly tenant rent determined by the PHA in accordance with HUD regulations and other requirements. The amount of the tenant rent is subject to change in accordance with HUD requirements.
(ii) The lease shall specify the initial amount of the tenant rent at the beginning of the initial lease term. The PHA shall give the tenant written notice stating any change in the amount of tenant rent, and when the change is effective.
(2) PHA charges. The lease shall provide for charges to the tenant for maintenance and repair beyond normal wear and tear and for consumption of excess utilities. The lease shall state the basis for the determination of such charges (e.g., by a posted schedule of charges for repair, amounts charged for utility consumption in excess of the allowance stated in the lease, etc.). The imposition of charges for consumption of excess utilities is permissible only if such charges are determined by an individual check meter servicing the leased unit or result from the use of major tenant-supplied appliances.
(3) Late payment penalties. At the option of the PHA, the lease may provide for payment of penalties for late payment.
(4) When charges are due. The lease shall provide that charges assessed under paragraph (b) (2) and (3) of this section shall not be due and collectible until two weeks after the PHA gives written notice of the charges. Such notice constitutes a notice of adverse action, and must meet the requirements governing a notice of adverse action (see § 966.4(e)(8)).
(5) Security deposits. At the option of the PHA, the lease may provide for security deposits which shall not exceed one month's rent or such reasonable fixed amount as may be required by the PHA. Provision may be made for gradual accumulation of the security deposit by the tenant. Subject to applicable laws, interest earned on security deposits may be refunded to the tenant on vacation of the dwelling unit or used for tenant services or activities.
(c) Redetermination of rent and family composition. The lease shall provide for redetermination of rent and family composition which shall include:
(1) The frequency of regular rental redetermination and the basis for interim redetermination.
(2) An agreement by the tenant to furnish such information and certifications regarding family composition and income as may be necessary for the PHA to make determinations with respect to rent, eligibility, and the appropriateness of dwelling size.
(3) An agreement by the tenant to transfer to an appropriate size dwelling unit based on family composition, upon appropriate notice by the PHA that such a dwelling unit is available.
(4) When the PHA redetermines the amount of rent (Total Tenant Payment or Tenant Rent) payable by the tenant, not including determination of the PHA's schedule of Utility Allowances for families in the PHA's Public Housing Program, or determines that the tenant must transfer to another unit based on family composition, the PHA shall notify the tenant that the tenant may ask for an explanation stating the specific grounds of the PHA determination, and that if the tenant does not agree with the determination, the tenant shall have the right to request a hearing under the PHA grievance procedure.
(d) Tenant's right to use and occupancy.
(1) The lease shall provide that the tenant shall have the right to exclusive use and occupancy of the leased unit by the members of the household authorized to reside in the unit in accordance with the lease, including reasonable accommodation of their guests. The term guest is defined in 24 CFR 5.100.
(2) With the consent of the PHA, members of the household may engage in legal profitmaking activities in the dwelling unit, where the PHA determines that such activities are incidental to primary use of the leased unit for residence by members of the household.
(i) With the consent of the PHA, a foster child or a live-in aide may reside in the unit. The PHA may adopt reasonable policies concerning residence by a foster child or a live-in-aide, and defining the circumstances in which PHA consent will be given or denied. Under such policies, the factors considered by the PHA may include:
(A) Whether the addition of a new occupant may necessitate a transfer of the family to another unit, and whether such units are available.
(B) The PHA's obligation to make reasonable accommodation for handicapped persons.
(ii) Live-in aide means a person who resides with an elderly, disabled or handicapped person and who:
(A) Is determined to be essential to the care and well-being of the person;
(B) Is not obligated for the support of the person; and
(C) Would not be living in the unit except to provide the necessary supportive services.
(e) The PHA's obligations. The lease shall set forth the PHA's obligations under the lease, which shall include the following:
(1) To maintain the dwelling unit and the project in decent, safe, and sanitary condition;
(2) To comply with requirements of applicable building codes, housing codes, and HUD regulations materially affecting health and safety;
(3) To make necessary repairs to the dwelling unit;
(4) To keep project buildings, facilities, and common areas, not otherwise assigned to the tenant for maintenance and upkeep, in a clean and safe condition;
(5) To maintain in good and safe working order and condition electrical, plumbing, sanitary, heating, ventilating, and other facilities and appliances, including elevators, supplied or required to be supplied by the PHA;
(6) To provide and maintain appropriate receptacles and facilities (except containers for the exclusive use of an individual tenant family) for the deposit of ashes, garbage, rubbish, and other waste removed from the dwelling unit by the tenant in accordance with paragraph (f)(7) of this section;
(7) To supply running water and reasonable amounts of hot water and reasonable amounts of heat at appropriate times of the year (according to local custom and usage), except where the building that includes the dwelling unit is not required by law to be equipped for that purpose, or where heat or hot water is generated by an installation within the exclusive control of the tenant and supplied by a direct utility connection; and
(i) To notify the tenant of the specific grounds for any proposed adverse action by the PHA. (Such adverse action includes, but is not limited to, a proposed lease termination, transfer of the tenant to another unit, or imposition of charges for maintenance and repair, or for excess consumption of utilities.)
(ii) When the PHA is required to afford the tenant the opportunity for a hearing under the PHA grievance procedure for a grievance concerning a proposed adverse action:
(A) The notice of proposed adverse action shall inform the tenant of the right to request such hearing. In the case of a lease termination, a notice of lease termination, in accordance with paragraph (l)(3) of this section, shall constitute adequate notice of proposed adverse action.
(B) In the case of a proposed adverse action other than a proposed lease termination, the PHA shall not take the proposed action until the time for the tenant to request a grievance hearing has expired, and (if a hearing was timely requested by the tenant) the grievance process has been completed.
(9) To consider lease bifurcation, as provided in 24 CFR 5.2009, in circumstances involving domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking addressed in 24 CFR part 5, subpart L (Protection for Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence, Sexual Assault, or Stalking), provided that, if a PHA chooses to bifurcate a lease, no assistance will be given for an individual who does not meet public housing eligibility and 24 CFR 5.508(h)(2) applies to submission of evidence of citizenship or eligible immigration status.
(f) Tenant's obligations. The lease shall provide that the tenant shall be obligated:
(1) Not to assign the lease or to sublease the dwelling unit;
(2) Not to provide accommodations for boarders or lodgers;
(3) To use the dwelling unit solely as a private dwelling for the tenant and the tenant's household as identified in the lease, and not to use or permit its use for any other purpose;
(4) To abide by necessary and reasonable regulations promulgated by the PHA for the benefit and well-being of the housing project and the tenants which shall be posted in the project office and incorporated by reference in the lease;
(5) To comply with all obligations imposed upon tenants by applicable provisions of building and housing codes materially affecting health and safety;
(6) To keep the dwelling unit and such other areas as may be assigned to the tenant for the tenant's exclusive use in a clean and safe condition;
(7) To dispose of all ashes, garbage, rubbish, and other waste from the dwelling unit in a sanitary and safe manner;
(8) To use only in a reasonable manner all electrical, plumbing, sanitary, heating, ventilating, air-conditioning and other facilities and appurtenances including elevators;
(9) To refrain from, and to cause the household and guests to refrain from destroying, defacing, damaging, or removing any part of the dwelling unit or project;
(10) To pay reasonable charges (other than for wear and tear) for the repair of damages to the dwelling unit, or to the project (including damages to project buildings, facilities or common areas) caused by the tenant, a member of the household or a guest.
(11) To act, and cause household members or guests to act, in a manner which will not disturb other residents' peaceful enjoyment of their accommodations and will be conducive to maintaining the project in a decent, safe and sanitary condition;
(i) To assure that no tenant, member of the tenant's household, or guest engages in:
(A) Criminal activity.
(1) Any criminal activity that threatens the health, safety or right to peaceful enjoyment of the premises by other residents;
(2) Any drug-related criminal activity on or off the premises; or
(ii) To assure that no other person under the tenant's control engages in:
(A) Criminal activity.
(1) Any criminal activity that threatens the health, safety or right to peaceful enjoyment of the premises by other residents;
(2) Any drug-related criminal activity on the premises; or
(iii) To assure that no member of the household engages in an abuse or pattern of abuse of alcohol that affects the health, safety, or right to peaceful enjoyment of the premises by other residents.
(g) Tenant maintenance. The lease may provide that the tenant shall perform seasonal maintenance or other maintenance tasks, as specified in the lease, where performance of such tasks by tenants of dwellings units of a similar design and construction is customary: Provided, That such provision is included in the lease in good faith and not for the purpose of evading the obligations of the PHA. The PHA shall exempt tenants who are unable to perform such tasks because of age or disability.
(h) Defects hazardous to life, health, or safety. The lease shall set forth the rights and obligations of the tenant and the PHA if the dwelling unit is damaged to the extent that conditions are created which are hazardous to life, health, or safety of the occupants and shall provide that:
(1) The tenant shall immediately notify project management of the damage;
(2) The PHA shall be responsible for repair of the unit within a reasonable time: Provided, That if the damage was caused by the tenant, tenant's household or guests, the reasonable cost of the repairs shall be charged to the tenant;
(3) The PHA shall offer standard alternative accommodations, if available, where necessary repairs cannot be made within a reasonable time; and
(4) Provisions shall be made for abatement of rent in proportion to the seriousness of the damage and loss in value as a dwelling if repairs are not made in accordance with paragraph (h)(2) of this section or alternative accommodations not provided in accordance with paragraph (h)(3) of this section, except that no abatement of rent shall occur if the tenant rejects the alternative accommodation or if the damage was caused by the tenant, tenant's household or guests.
(i) Pre-occupancy and pre-termination inspections. The lease shall provide that the PHA and the tenant or representative shall be obligated to inspect the dwelling unit prior to commencement of occupancy by the tenant. The PHA will furnish the tenant with a written statement of the condition of the dwelling unit, and the equipment provided with the unit. The statement shall be signed by the PHA and the tenant, and a copy of the statement shall be retained by the PHA in the tenant's folder. The PHA shall be further obligated to inspect the unit at the time the tenant vacates the unit and to furnish the tenant a statement of any charges to be made in accordance with paragraph (b)(2) of this section. Provision shall be made for the tenant's participation in the latter inspection, unless the tenant vacates without notice to the PHA.
(j) Entry of dwelling unit during tenancy. The lease shall set forth the circumstances under which the PHA may enter the dwelling unit during the tenant's possession thereof, which shall include provision that:
(1) The PHA shall, upon reasonable advance notification to the tenant, be permitted to enter the dwelling unit during reasonable hours for the purpose of performing routine inspections and maintenance, for making improvement or repairs, or to show the dwelling unit for re-leasing. A written statement specifying the purpose of the PHA entry delivered to the dwelling unit at least two days before such entry shall be considered reasonable advance notification;
(2) The PHA may enter the dwelling unit at any time without advance notification when there is reasonable cause to believe that an emergency exists; and
(3) If the tenant and all adult members of the household are absent from the dwelling unit at the time of entry, the PHA shall leave in the dwelling unit a written statement specifying the date, time and purpose of entry prior to leaving the dwelling unit.
(k) Notice procedures.
(1) The lease shall provide procedures to be followed by the PHA and the tenant in giving notice one to the other which shall require that:
(i) Except as provided in paragraph (j) of this section, notice to a tenant shall be in writing and delivered to the tenant or to an adult member of the tenant's household residing in the dwelling or sent by prepaid first-class mail properly addressed to the tenant; and
(ii) Notice to the PHA shall be in writing, delivered to the project office or the PHA central office or sent by prepaid first-class mail properly addressed.
(2) If the tenant is visually impaired, all notices must be in an accessible format.
(l) Termination of tenancy and eviction -
(1) Procedures. The lease shall state the procedures to be followed by the PHA and by the tenant to terminate the tenancy.
(2) Grounds for termination of tenancy. The PHA may terminate the tenancy only for:
(i) Serious or repeated violation of material terms of the lease, such as the following:
(A) Failure to make payments due under the lease;
(B) Failure to fulfill household obligations, as described in paragraph (f) of this section;
(ii) Being over the income limit for the program, as provided in 24 CFR 960.261.
(iii) Other good cause. Other good cause includes, but is not limited to, the following:
(A) Criminal activity or alcohol abuse as provided in paragraph (1)(5) of this section;
(B) Discovery after admission of facts that made the tenant ineligible;
(C) Discovery of material false statements or fraud by the tenant in connection with an application for assistance or with reexamination of income;
(D) Failure of a family member to comply with service requirement provisions of part 960, subpart F, of this chapter - as grounds only for non-renewal of the lease and termination of tenancy at the end of the twelve-month lease term; and
(E) Failure to accept the PHA's offer of a lease revision to an existing lease: that is on a form adopted by the PHA in accordance with § 966.3; with written notice of the offer of the revision at least 60 calendar days before the lease revision is scheduled to take effect; and with the offer specifying a reasonable time limit within that period for acceptance by the family.
(3) Lease termination notice.
(i) The PHA must give written notice of lease termination of:
(A) 14 days in the case of failure to pay rent;
(B) A reasonable period of time considering the seriousness of the situation (but not to exceed 30 days):
(1) If the health or safety of other residents, PHA employees, or persons residing in the immediate vicinity of the premises is threatened; or
(2) If any member of the household has engaged in any drug-related criminal activity or violent criminal activity; or
(3) If any member of the household has been convicted of a felony;
(C) 30 days in any other case, except that if a State or local law allows a shorter notice period, such shorter period shall apply.
(ii) The notice of lease termination to the tenant shall state specific grounds for termination, and shall inform the tenant of the tenant's right to make such reply as the tenant may wish. The notice shall also inform the tenant of the right (pursuant to § 966.4(m)) to examine PHA documents directly relevant to the termination or eviction. When the PHA is required to afford the tenant the opportunity for a grievance hearing, the notice shall also inform the tenant of the tenant's right to request a hearing in accordance with the PHA's grievance procedure.
(iii) A notice to vacate which is required by State or local law may be combined with, or run concurrently with, a notice of lease termination under paragraph (l)(3)(i) of this section.
(iv) When the PHA is required to afford the tenant the opportunity for a hearing under the PHA grievance procedure for a grievance concerning the lease termination (see § 966.51(a)(1)), the tenancy shall not terminate (even if any notice to vacate under State or local law has expired) until the time for the tenant to request a grievance hearing has expired, and (if a hearing was timely requested by the tenant) the grievance process has been completed.
(v) When the PHA is not required to afford the tenant the opportunity for a hearing under the PHA administrative grievance procedure for a grievance concerning the lease termination (see § 966.51(a)(2)), and the PHA has decided to exclude such grievance from the PHA grievance procedure, the notice of lease termination under paragraph (l)(3)(i) of this section shall:
(A) State that the tenant is not entitled to a grievance hearing on the termination.
(B) Specify the judicial eviction procedure to be used by the PHA for eviction of the tenant, and state that HUD has determined that this eviction procedure provides the opportunity for a hearing in court that contains the basic elements of due process as defined in HUD regulations.
(4) How tenant is evicted. The PHA may evict the tenant from the unit either:
(i) By bringing a court action or;
(ii) By bringing an administrative action if law of the jurisdiction permits eviction by administrative action, after a due process administrative hearing, and without a court determination of the rights and liabilities of the parties. In order to evict without bringing a court action, the PHA must afford the tenant the opportunity for a pre-eviction hearing in accordance with the PHA grievance procedure.
(5) PHA termination of tenancy for criminal activity or alcohol abuse -
(i) Evicting drug criminals.
(A) Methamphetamine conviction. The PHA must immediately terminate the tenancy if the PHA determines that any member of the household has ever been convicted of drug-related criminal activity for manufacture or production of methamphetamine on the premises of federally assisted housing.
(B) Drug crime on or off the premises. The lease must provide that drug-related criminal activity engaged in on or off the premises by any tenant, member of the tenant's household or guest, and any such activity engaged in on the premises by any other person under the tenant's control, is grounds for the PHA to terminate tenancy. In addition, the lease must provide that a PHA may evict a family when the PHA determines that a household member is illegally using a drug or when the PHA determines that a pattern of illegal use of a drug interferes with the health, safety, or right to peaceful enjoyment of the premises by other residents.
(ii) Evicting other criminals.
(A) Threat to other residents. The lease must provide that any criminal activity by a covered person that threatens the health, safety, or right to peaceful enjoyment of the premises by other residents (including PHA management staff residing on the premises) or threatens the health, safety, or right to peaceful enjoyment of their residences by persons residing in the immediate vicinity of the premises is grounds for termination of tenancy.
(B) Fugitive felon or parole violator. The PHA may terminate the tenancy if a tenant is fleeing to avoid prosecution, or custody or confinement after conviction, for a crime, or attempt to commit a crime, that is a felony under the laws of the place from which the individual flees, or that, in the case of the State of New Jersey, is a high misdemeanor; or violating a condition of probation or parole imposed under Federal or State law.
(iii) Eviction for criminal activity.
(A) Evidence. The PHA may evict the tenant by judicial action for criminal activity in accordance with this section if the PHA determines that the covered person has engaged in the criminal activity, regardless of whether the covered person has been arrested or convicted for such activity and without satisfying the standard of proof used for a criminal conviction.
(B) Notice to Post Office. When a PHA evicts an individual or family for criminal activity, the PHA must notify the local post office serving the dwelling unit that the individual or family is no longer residing in the unit.
(iv) Use of criminal record. If the PHA seeks to terminate the tenancy for criminal activity as shown by a criminal record, the PHA must notify the household of the proposed action to be based on the information and must provide the subject of the record and the tenant with a copy of the criminal record before a PHA grievance hearing or court trial concerning the termination of tenancy or eviction. The tenant must be given an opportunity to dispute the accuracy and relevance of that record in the grievance hearing or court trial.
(v) Cost of obtaining criminal record. The PHA may not pass along to the tenant the costs of a criminal records check.
(vi) Evicting alcohol abusers. The PHA must establish standards that allow termination of tenancy if the PHA determines that a household member has:
(A) Engaged in abuse or pattern of abuse of alcohol that threatens the health, safety, or right to peaceful enjoyment of the premises by other residents; or
(B) Furnished false or misleading information concerning illegal drug use, alcohol abuse, or rehabilitation of illegal drug users or alcohol abusers.
(vii) PHA action, generally.
(A) Assessment under PHAS. Under the Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS), PHAs that have adopted policies, implemented procedures and can document that they appropriately evict any public housing residents who engage in certain activity detrimental to the public housing community receive points. (See 24 CFR 902.43(a)(5).) This policy takes into account the importance of eviction of such residents to public housing communities and program integrity, and the demand for assisted housing by families who will adhere to lease responsibilities.
(B) Consideration of circumstances. In a manner consistent with such policies, procedures and practices, the PHA may consider all circumstances relevant to a particular case such as the seriousness of the offending action, the extent of participation by the leaseholder in the offending action, the effects that the eviction would have on family members not involved in the offending activity and the extent to which the leaseholder has shown personal responsibility and has taken all reasonable steps to prevent or mitigate the offending action.
(C) Exclusion of culpable household member. The PHA may require a tenant to exclude a household member in order to continue to reside in the assisted unit, where that household member has participated in or been culpable for action or failure to act that warrants termination.
(D) Consideration of rehabilitation. In determining whether to terminate tenancy for illegal drug use or a pattern of illegal drug use by a household member who is no longer engaging in such use, or for abuse or a pattern of abuse of alcohol by a household member who is no longer engaging in such abuse, the PHA may consider whether such household member is participating in or has successfully completed a supervised drug or alcohol rehabilitation program, or has otherwise been rehabilitated successfully (42 U.S.C. 13662). For this purpose, the PHA may require the tenant to submit evidence of the household member's current participation in, or successful completion of, a supervised drug or alcohol rehabilitation program or evidence of otherwise having been rehabilitated successfully.
(E) Length of period of mandatory prohibition on admission. If a statute requires that the PHA prohibit admission of persons for a prescribed period of time after some disqualifying behavior or event, the PHA may apply that prohibition for a longer period of time.
(F) Nondiscrimination limitation. The PHA's eviction actions must be consistent with fair housing and equal opportunity provisions of § 5.105 of this title.
(m) Eviction: Right to examine PHA documents before hearing or trial. The PHA shall provide the tenant a reasonable opportunity to examine, at the tenant's request, before a PHA grievance hearing or court trial concerning a termination of tenancy or eviction, any documents, including records and regulations, which are in the possession of the PHA, and which are directly relevant to the termination of tenancy or eviction. The tenant shall be allowed to copy any such document at the tenant's expense. A notice of lease termination pursuant to § 966.4(l) (3) shall inform the tenant of the tenant's right to examine PHA documents concerning the termination of tenancy or eviction. If the PHA does not make documents available for examination upon request by the tenant (in accordance with this § 966.4(m)), the PHA may not proceed with the eviction.
(n) Grievance procedures.
(1) The lease must provide that all disputes concerning the obligations of the tenant or the PHA must (except as provided in § 966.51(a)(2)) be resolved in accordance with the PHA grievance procedures. The grievance procedures must comply with subpart B of this part.
(2) The lease must include a description of the PHA's policies for selecting a hearing officer.
(o) Provision for modifications. The lease shall provide that modification of the lease must be accomplished by a written rider to the lease executed by both parties, except for paragraph (c) of this section and § 966.5.
(p) Signature clause. The lease shall provide a signature clause attesting that the lease has been executed by the parties.
[56 FR 51576, Oct. 11, 1991, as amended at 61 FR 13273, Mar. 26, 1996; 65 FR 16730, Mar. 29, 2000; 66 FR 28802, May 24, 2001; 66 FR 32875, June 18, 2001; 66 FR 33134, June 20, 2001; 69 FR 68791, Nov. 26, 2004; 75 FR 66262, Oct. 27, 2010; 81 FR 12374, Mar. 8, 2016; 81 FR 80815, Nov. 16, 2016; 81 FR 87444, Dec. 5, 2016]