(a) Requirement for a hazard analysis. Except as specified in paragraph (d) of this section, you must conduct a hazard analysis to identify and evaluate, based on experience, illness data, scientific reports, and other information, known or reasonably foreseeable hazards for each type of food you import to determine whether there are any hazards requiring a control. Your hazard analysis must be written regardless of its outcome.
(b) Hazard identification.
(1) Your analysis of the known or reasonably foreseeable hazards in each food must include the following types of hazards:
(i) Biological hazards, including microbiological hazards such as parasites, environmental pathogens, and other pathogens;
(ii) Chemical hazards, including radiological hazards, pesticide and drug residues, natural toxins, decomposition, unapproved food or color additives, food allergens, and (in animal food) nutrient deficiencies or toxicities; and
(iii) Physical hazards (such as stones, glass, and metal fragments).
(2) Your analysis must include known or reasonably foreseeable hazards that may be present in a food for any of the following reasons:
(i) The hazard occurs naturally;
(ii) The hazard may be unintentionally introduced; or
(iii) The hazard may be intentionally introduced for purposes of economic gain.
(c) Hazard evaluation.
(1) Your hazard analysis must include an evaluation of the hazards identified in paragraph (b) of this section to assess the probability that the hazard will occur in the absence of controls and the severity of the illness or injury if the hazard were to occur.
(2) The hazard evaluation required by paragraph (c)(1) of this section must include an evaluation of environmental pathogens whenever a ready-to-eat food is exposed to the environment before packaging and the packaged food does not receive a treatment or otherwise include a control or measure (such as a formulation lethal to the pathogen) that would significantly minimize the pathogen.
(3) Your hazard evaluation must consider the effect of the following on the safety of the finished food for the intended consumer:
(i) The formulation of the food;
(ii) The condition, function, and design of the establishment and equipment of a typical entity that manufactures/processes, grows, harvests, or raises this type of food;
(iii) Raw materials and other ingredients;
(iv) Transportation practices;
(v) Harvesting, raising, manufacturing, processing, and packing procedures;
(vi) Packaging and labeling activities;
(vii) Storage and distribution;
(viii) Intended or reasonably foreseeable use;
(ix) Sanitation, including employee hygiene; and
(x) Any other relevant factors, such as the temporal (e.g., weather-related) nature of some hazards (e.g., levels of natural toxins).
(d) Review of another entity's hazard analysis. If another entity (including your foreign supplier) has, using a qualified individual, analyzed the known or reasonably foreseeable hazards for the food to determine whether there are any hazards requiring a control, you may meet your requirement to determine whether there are any hazards requiring a control in a food by reviewing and assessing the hazard analysis conducted by that entity. You must document your review and assessment of that hazard analysis, including documenting that the hazard analysis was conducted by a qualified individual.
(e) Hazards in raw agricultural commodities that are fruits or vegetables. If you are importing a raw agricultural commodity that is a fruit or vegetable that is “covered produce” as defined in § 112.3 of this chapter, you are not required to determine whether there are any biological hazards requiring a control in such food because the biological hazards in such fruits or vegetables require a control and compliance with the requirements in part 112 of this chapter significantly minimizes or prevents the biological hazards. However, you must determine whether there are any other types of hazards requiring a control in such food.
(f) No hazards requiring a control. If you evaluate the known and reasonably foreseeable hazards in a food and determine that there are no hazards requiring a control, you are not required to conduct an evaluation for foreign supplier approval and verification under § 1.505 and you are not required to conduct foreign supplier verification activities under § 1.506. This paragraph (f) does not apply if the food is a raw agricultural commodity that is a fruit or vegetable that is “covered produce” as defined in § 112.3 of this chapter.