(a) Nonprecipitation conditions. For nonprecipitation conditions, the following apply:
(1) Each pilot compartment must be arranged to give the pilots a sufficiently extensive, clear, and undistorted view, to enable them to safely perform any maneuvers within the operating limitations of the airplane, including taxiing takeoff, approach, and landing.
(2) Each pilot compartment must be free of glare and reflection that could interfere with the normal duties of the minimum flight crew (established under § 25.1523). This must be shown in day and night flight tests under nonprecipitation conditions.
(b) Precipitation conditions. For precipitation conditions, the following apply:
(1) The airplane must have a means to maintain a clear portion of the windshield, during precipitation conditions, sufficient for both pilots to have a sufficiently extensive view along the flight path in normal flight attitudes of the airplane. This means must be designed to function, without continuous attention on the part of the crew, in -
(i) Heavy rain at speeds up to 1.5 VSR1 with lift and drag devices retracted; and
(A) For airplanes certificated in accordance with § 25.1420(a)(1), the icing conditions that the airplane is certified to safely exit following detection.
(B) For airplanes certificated in accordance with § 25.1420(a)(2), the icing conditions that the airplane is certified to safely operate in and the icing conditions that the airplane is certified to safely exit following detection.
(2) No single failure of the systems used to provide the view required by paragraph (b)(1) of this section must cause the loss of that view by both pilots in the specified precipitation conditions.
(3) The first pilot must have a window that -
(i) Is openable under the conditions prescribed in paragraph (b)(1) of this section when the cabin is not pressurized;
(ii) Provides the view specified in paragraph (b)(1) of this section; and
(iii) Provides sufficient protection from the elements against impairment of the pilot's vision.
(4) The openable window specified in paragraph (b)(3) of this section need not be provided if it is shown that an area of the transparent surface will remain clear sufficient for at least one pilot to land the airplane safely in the event of -
(ii) An encounter with severe hail, birds, or insects.
(c) Internal windshield and window fogging. The airplane must have a means to prevent fogging of the internal portions of the windshield and window panels over an area which would provide the visibility specified in paragraph (a) of this section under all internal and external ambient conditions, including precipitation conditions, in which the airplane is intended to be operated.
(d) Fixed markers or other guides must be installed at each pilot station to enable the pilots to position themselves in their seats for an optimum combination of outside visibility and instrument scan. If lighted markers or guides are used they must comply with the requirements specified in § 25.1381.
(e) Vision systems with transparent displays. A vision system with a transparent display surface located in the pilot's outside field of view, such as a head up-display, head mounted display, or other equivalent display, must meet the following requirements in nonprecipitation and precipitation conditions:
(1) While the vision system display is in operation, it must compensate for interference with the pilot's outside field of view such that the combination of what is visible in the display and what remains visible through and around it, enables the pilot to perform the maneuvers and normal duties of paragraph (a) of this section.
(2) The pilot's view of the external scene may not be distorted by the transparent display surface or by the vision system imagery. When the vision system displays imagery or any symbology that is referenced to the imagery and outside scene topography, including attitude symbology, flight path vector, and flight path angle reference cue, that imagery and symbology must be aligned with, and scaled to, the external scene.
(3) The vision system must provide a means to allow the pilot using the display to immediately deactivate and reactivate the vision system imagery, on demand, without removing the pilot's hands from the primary flight controls or thrust controls.
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-23, 35 FR 5676, Apr. 8, 1970; Amdt. 25-46, 43 FR 50595, Oct. 30, 1978; Amdt. 25-72, 55 FR 29778, July 20, 1990; Amdt. 25-108, 67 FR 70827, Nov. 26, 2002; Amdt. 25-121, 72 FR 44669, Aug. 8, 2007; Amdt. 25-136, 77 FR 1618, Jan. 11, 2012; Amdt. 25-140, 79 FR 65525, Nov. 4, 2014; Docket FAA-2013-0485, Amdt. 25-144, 81 FR 90169, Dec. 13, 2016]