55 FR 33888, Aug. 20, 1990, unless otherwise noted.
(a) Authority. This subpart is issued under 12 U.S.C. 1818, 1819(a)(Seventh and Tenth), 1831p-1 and title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act of 1989 (FIRREA) (Pub. L. 101-73, 103 Stat. 183, 12 U.S.C. 3331 et seq. (1989)).
(b) Purpose and scope.
(1) title XI provides protection for federal financial and public policy interests in real estate related transactions by requiring real estate appraisals used in connection with federally related transactions to be performed in writing, in accordance with uniform standards, by appraisers whose competency has been demonstrated and whose professional conduct will be subject to effective supervision. This subpart implements the requirements of title XI and applies to all federally related transactions entered into by the FDIC or by institutions regulated by the FDIC (regulated institutions).
(2) This subpart:
(i) Identifies which real estate-related financial transactions require the services of an appraiser;
(ii) Prescribes which categories of federally related transactions shall be appraised by a State certified appraiser and which by a State licensed appraiser; and
(iii) Prescribes minimum standards for the performance of real estate appraisals in connection with federally related transactions under the jurisdiction of the FDIC.
(a) Appraisal means a written statement independently and impartially prepared by a qualified appraiser setting forth an opinion as to the market value of an adequately described property as of a specific date(s), supported by the presentation and analysis of relevant market information.
(b) Appraisal Foundation means the Appraisal Foundation established on November 30, 1987, as a not-for-profit corporation under the laws of Illinois.
(c) Appraisal Subcommittee means the Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council.
(d) Business loan means a loan or extension of credit to any corporation, general or limited partnership, business trust, joint venture, pool, syndicate, sole proprietorship, or other business entity.
(e) Commercial real estate transaction means a real estate-related financial transaction that is not secured by a single 1-to-4 family residential property.
(f) Complex appraisal for a residential real estate transaction means one in which the property to be appraised, the form of ownership, or market conditions are atypical.
(g) Federally related transaction means any real estate-related financial transactions entered into after the effective date hereof that:
(1) The FDIC or any regulated institution engages in or contracts for; and
(2) Requires the services of an appraiser.
(h) Market value means the most probable price which a property should bring in a competitive and open market under all conditions requisite to a fair sale, the buyer and seller each acting prudently and knowledgeably, and assuming the price is not affected by undue stimulus. Implicit in this definition is the consummation of a sale as of a specified date and the passing of title from seller to buyer under conditions whereby:
(1) Buyer and seller are typically motivated;
(2) Both parties are well informed or well advised, and acting in what they consider their own best interests;
(3) A reasonable time is allowed for exposure in the open market;
(4) Payment is made in terms of cash in U.S. dollars or in terms of financial arrangements comparable thereto; and
(5) The price represents the normal consideration for the property sold unaffected by special or creative financing or sales concessions granted by anyone associated with the sale.
(i) Real estate or real property means an identified parcel or tract of land, with improvements, and includes easements, rights of way, undivided or future interests and similar rights in a tract of land, but does not include mineral rights, timber rights, growing crops, water rights and similar interests severable from the land when the transaction does not involve the associated parcel or tract of land.
(j) Real estate-related financial transaction means any transaction involving:
(1) The sale, lease, purchase, investment in or exchange of real property, including interests in property, or the financing thereof; or
(2) The refinancing of real property or interests in real property; or
(3) The use of real property or interests in property as security for a loan or investment, including mortgage-backed securities.
(k) Residential real estate transaction means a real estate-related financial transaction that is secured by a single 1-to-4 family residential property.
(l) State certified appraiser means any individual who has satisfied the requirements for certification in a State or territory whose criteria for certification as a real estate appraiser currently meet the minimum criteria for certification issued by the Appraiser Qualifications Board of the Appraisal Foundation. No individual shall be a State certified appraiser unless such individual has achieved a passing grade upon a suitable examination administered by a State or territory that is consistent with and equivalent to the Uniform State Certification Examination issued or endorsed by the Appraiser Qualifications Board. In addition, the Appraisal Subcommittee must not have issued a finding that the policies, practices, or procedures of a State or territory are inconsistent with title XI of FIRREA. The FDIC may, from time to time, impose additional qualification criteria for certified appraisers performing appraisals in connection with federally related transactions within its jurisdiction.
(m) State licensed appraiser means any individual who has satisfied the requirements for licensing in a State or territory where the licensing procedures comply with title XI of FIRREA and where the Appraisal Subcommittee has not issued a finding that the policies, practices, or procedures of the State or territory are inconsistent with title XI. The FDIC may, from time to time, impose additional qualification criteria for licensed appraisers performing appraisals in connection with federally related transactions within its jurisdiction.
(n) Tract development means a project of five units or more that is constructed or is to be constructed as a single development.
(o) Transaction value means:
(1) For loans or other extensions of credit, the amount of the loan or extension of credit;
(2) For sales, leases, purchases, and investments in or exchanges of real property, the market value of the real property interest involved; and
(3) For the pooling of loans or interests in real property for resale or purchase, the amount of the loan or market value of the real property calculated with respect to each such loan or interest in real property.
(a) Appraisals required. An appraisal performed by a State certified or licensed appraiser is required for all real estate-related financial transactions except those in which:
(1) The transaction is a residential real estate transaction that has a transaction value of $400,000 or less;
(2) A lien on real estate has been taken as collateral in an abundance of caution;
(3) The transaction is not secured by real estate;
(4) A lien on real estate has been taken for purposes other than the real estate's value;
(5) The transaction is a business loan that:
(i) Has a transaction value of $1 million or less; and
(ii) Is not dependent on the sale of, or rental income derived from, real estate as the primary source of repayment;
(6) A lease of real estate is entered into, unless the lease is the economic equivalent of a purchase or sale of the leased real estate;
(7) The transaction involves an existing extension of credit at the lending institution, provided that:
(i) There has been no obvious and material change in market conditions or physical aspects of the property that threatens the adequacy of the institution's real estate collateral protection after the transaction, even with the advancement of new monies; or
(ii) There is no advancement of new monies, other than funds necessary to cover reasonable closing costs;
(8) The transaction involves the purchase, sale, investment in, exchange of, or extension of credit secured by, a loan or interest in a loan, pooled loans, or interests in real property, including mortgaged-backed securities, and each loan or interest in a loan, pooled loan, or real property interest met FDIC regulatory requirements for appraisals at the time of origination;
(9) The transaction is wholly or partially insured or guaranteed by a United States government agency or United States government sponsored agency;
(10) The transaction either:
(i) Qualifies for sale to a United States government agency or United States government sponsored agency; or
(ii) Involves a residential real estate transaction in which the appraisal conforms to the Federal National Mortgage Association or Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation appraisal standards applicable to that category of real estate;
(11) The regulated institution is acting in a fiduciary capacity and is not required to obtain an appraisal under other law;
(12) The FDIC determines that the services of an appraiser are not necessary in order to protect Federal financial and public policy interests in real estate-related financial transactions or to protect the safety and soundness of the institution;
(13) The transaction is a commercial real estate transaction that has a transaction value of $500,000 or less; or
(14) The transaction is exempted from the appraisal requirement pursuant to the rural residential exemption under 12 U.S.C. 3356.
(b) Evaluations required. For a transaction that does not require the services of a State certified or licensed appraiser under paragraphs (a)(1), (5), (7), (13), or (14) of this section, the institution shall obtain an appropriate evaluation of real property collateral that is consistent with safe and sound banking practices.
(c) Appraisals to address safety and soundness concerns. The FDIC reserves the right to require an appraisal under this subpart whenever the agency believes it is necessary to address safety and soundness concerns.
(d) Transactions requiring a State certified appraiser -
(1) All transactions of $1,000,000 or more. All federally related transactions having a transaction value of $1,000,000 or more shall require an appraisal prepared by a State certified appraiser.
(2) Commercial real estate transactions of more than $500,000. All federally related transactions that are commercial real estate transactions having a transaction value of more than $500,000 shall require an appraisal prepared by a State certified appraiser.
(3) Complex appraisals for residential real estate transactions of more than $400,000. All complex appraisals for residential real estate transactions rendered in connection with federally related transactions shall require a State certified appraiser if the transaction value is more than $400,000. A regulated institution may presume that appraisals for residential real estate transactions are not complex, unless the institution has readily available information that a given appraisal will be complex. The regulated institution shall be responsible for making the final determination of whether the appraisal is complex. If during the course of the appraisal a licensed appraiser identifies factors that would result in the property, form of ownership, or market conditions being considered atypical, then either:
(i) The regulated institution may ask the licensed appraiser to complete the appraisal and have a certified appraiser approve and co-sign the appraisal; or
(ii) The institution may engage a certified appraiser to complete the appraisal.
(e) Transactions requiring either a State certified or licensed appraiser. All appraisals for federally related transactions not requiring the services of a State certified appraiser shall be prepared by either a State certified appraiser or a State licensed appraiser.
(f) Effective date. Regulated institutions are required to use state certified or licensed appraisers as set forth in this section no later than December 31, 1992, unless otherwise required by law.
[55 FR 33888, Aug. 20, 1990, as amended at 57 FR 9050, Mar. 16, 1992; 59 FR 29501, June 7, 1994; 80 FR 32684, June 9, 2015; 83 FR 15036, Apr. 9, 2018; 84 FR 53598, Oct. 8, 2019; 85 FR 21317, Apr. 17, 2020; 85 FR 65671, Oct. 16, 2020]
For federally related transactions, all appraisals shall, at a minimum:
(a) Conform to generally accepted appraisal standards as evidenced by the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice (USPAP) promulgated by the Appraisal Standards Board of the Appraisal Foundation, 1029 Vermont Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20005, unless principles of safe and sound banking require compliance with stricter standards;
(b) Be written and contain sufficient information and analysis to support the institution's decision to engage in the transaction;
(c) Be subject to appropriate review for compliance with the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice;
(d) Analyze and report appropriate deductions and discounts for proposed construction or renovation, partially leased buildings, non-market lease terms, and tract developments with unsold units;
(e) Be based upon the definition of market value as set forth in this subpart; and
(f) Be performed by State licensed or certified appraisers in accordance with requirements set forth in this subpart.
(a) Staff appraisers. If an appraisal is prepared by a staff appraiser, that appraiser must be independent of the lending, investment, and collection functions and not involved, except as an appraiser, in the federally related transaction, and have no direct or indirect interest, financial or otherwise, in the property. If the only qualified persons available to perform an appraisal are involved in the lending, investment, or collection functions of the regulated institution, the regulated institution shall take appropriate steps to ensure that the appraisers exercise independent judgment and that the appraisal is adequate. Such steps include, but are not limited to, prohibiting an individual from performing appraisals in connection with federally related transactions in which the appraiser is otherwise involved and prohibiting directors and officers from participating in any vote or approval involving assets on which they performed an appraisal.
(b) Fee appraisers.
(1) If an appraisal is prepared by a fee appraiser, the appraiser shall be engaged directly by the regulated institution or its agent, and have no direct or indirect interest, financial or otherwise, in the property or the transaction.
(2) A regulated institution also may accept an appraisal that was prepared by an appraiser engaged directly by another financial services institution, if:
(i) The appraiser has no direct or indirect interest, financial or otherwise, in the property or the transaction; and
(ii) The regulated institution determines that the appraisal conforms to the requirements of this subpart and is otherwise acceptable.
(a) Membership in appraisal organizations. A State certified appraiser or a State licensed appraiser may not be excluded from consideration for an assignment for a federally related transaction solely by virtue of membership or lack of membership in any particular appraisal organization.
(b) Competency. All staff and fee appraisers performing appraisals in connection with federally related transactions must be State certified or licensed, as appropriate. However, a State certified or licensed appraiser may not be considered competent solely by virtue of being certified or licensed. Any determination of competency shall be based upon the individual's experience and educational background as they relate to the particular appraisal assignment for which he or she is being considered.
Institutions and institution-affiliated parties, including staff appraisers and fee appraisers, may be subject to removal and/or prohibition orders, cease and desist orders, and the imposition of civil money penalties pursuant to the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, 12 U.S.C. 1811 et seq., as amended, or other applicable law.
80 FR 32684, June 9, 2015, unless otherwise noted.
(a) Authority. This subpart is issued pursuant to12 U.S.C. 1818, 1819 [“Seventh” and “Tenth”] and Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act (FIRREA), as amended by the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the Dodd-Frank Act) (Pub. L. 111-203, 124 Stat. 1376 (2010)), 12 U.S.C. 3331 et seq.
(c) Scope. This subpart applies to States and to appraisal management companies (AMCs) providing appraisal management services in connection with consumer credit transactions secured by a consumer's principal dwelling or securitizations of those transactions.
(d) Rule of construction. Nothing in this subpart should be construed to prevent a State from establishing requirements in addition to those in this subpart. In addition, nothing in this subpart should be construed to alter guidance in, and applicability of, the Interagency Appraisal and Evaluation Guidelines or other relevant agency guidance that cautions banks, bank holding companies, Federal savings associations, state savings association, and credit unions, as applicable, that each such entity is accountable for overseeing the activities of third-party service providers and ensuring that any services provided by a third party comply with applicable laws, regulations, and supervisory guidance applicable directly to the financial institution.
For purposes of this subpart:
(a) Affiliate has the meaning provided in 12 U.S.C. 1841.
(b) AMC National Registry means the registry of State-registered AMCs and Federally regulated AMCs maintained by the Appraisal Subcommittee.
(1) Appraisal management company (AMC) means a person that:
(i) Provides appraisal management services to creditors or to secondary mortgage market participants, including affiliates;
(ii) Provides such services in connection with valuing a consumer's principal dwelling as security for a consumer credit transaction or incorporating such transactions into securitizations; and
(2) An AMC does not include a department or division of an entity that provides appraisal management services only to that entity.
(d) Appraisal management services means one or more of the following:
(1) Recruiting, selecting, and retaining appraisers;
(2) Contracting with State-certified or State-licensed appraisers to perform appraisal assignments;
(3) Managing the process of having an appraisal performed, including providing administrative services such as receiving appraisal orders and appraisal reports, submitting completed appraisal reports to creditors and secondary market participants, collecting fees from creditors and secondary market participants for services provided, and paying appraisers for services performed; and
(4) Reviewing and verifying the work of appraisers.
(e) Appraiser panel means a network, list or roster of licensed or certified appraisers approved by an AMC to perform appraisals as independent contractors for the AMC. Appraisers on an AMC's “appraiser panel” under this part include both appraisers accepted by the AMC for consideration for future appraisal assignments in covered transactions or for secondary mortgage market participants in connection with covered transactions and appraisers engaged by the AMC to perform one or more appraisals in covered transactions or for secondary mortgage market participants in connection with covered transactions. An appraiser is an independent contractor for purposes of this subpart if the appraiser is treated as an independent contractor by the AMC for purposes of Federal income taxation.
(f) Appraisal Subcommittee means the Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council.
(g) Consumer credit means credit offered or extended to a consumer primarily for personal, family, or household purposes.
(h) Covered transaction means any consumer credit transaction secured by the consumer's principal dwelling.
(i) Creditor means:
(1) A person who regularly extends consumer credit that is subject to a finance charge or is payable by written agreement in more than four installments (not including a down payment), and to whom the obligation is initially payable, either on the face of the note or contract, or by agreement when there is no note or contract.
(2) A person regularly extends consumer credit if the person extended credit (other than credit subject to the requirements of 12 CFR 1026.32) more than 5 times for transactions secured by a dwelling in the preceding calendar year. If a person did not meet these numerical standards in the preceding calendar year, the numerical standards shall be applied to the current calendar year. A person regularly extends consumer credit if, in any 12-month period, the person originates more than one credit extension that is subject to the requirements of 12 CFR 1026.32 or one or more such credit extensions through a mortgage broker.
(j) Dwelling means:
(1) A residential structure that contains one to four units, whether or not that structure is attached to real property. The term includes an individual condominium unit, cooperative unit, mobile home, and trailer, if it is used as a residence.
(2) A consumer can have only one “principal” dwelling at a time. Thus, a vacation or other second home would not be a principal dwelling. However, if a consumer buys or builds a new dwelling that will become the consumer's principal dwelling within a year or upon the completion of construction, the new dwelling is considered the principal dwelling for purposes of this section.
(k) Federally regulated AMC means an AMC that is owned and controlled by an insured depository institution, as defined in 12 U.S.C. 1813 and regulated by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, or the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.
(l) Federally related transaction regulations means regulations established by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, or the National Credit Union Administration, pursuant to sections 1112, 1113, and 1114 of FIRREA Title XI, 12 U.S.C. 3341-3343.
(m) Person means a natural person or an organization, including a corporation, partnership, proprietorship, association, cooperative, estate, trust, or government unit.
(n) Secondary mortgage market participant means a guarantor or insurer of mortgage-backed securities, or an underwriter or issuer of mortgage-backed securities. Secondary mortgage market participant only includes an individual investor in a mortgage-backed security if that investor also serves in the capacity of a guarantor, insurer, underwriter, or issuer for the mortgage-backed security.
(o) States mean the 50 States and the District of Columbia and the territories of Guam, Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands.
(p) Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice (USPAP) means the appraisal standards promulgated by the Appraisal Standards Board of the Appraisal Foundation.
For purposes of determining whether, within a 12-month period, an AMC oversees an appraiser panel of more than 15 State-certified or State-licensed appraisers in a State or 25 or more State-certified or State-licensed appraisers in two or more States pursuant to § 323.9(c)(1)(iii) -
(a) An appraiser is deemed part of the AMC's appraiser panel as of the earliest date on which the AMC:
(1) Accepts the appraiser for the AMC's consideration for future appraisal assignments in covered transactions or for secondary mortgage market participants in connection with covered transactions; or
(2) Engages the appraiser to perform one or more appraisals on behalf of a creditor for a covered transaction or secondary mortgage market participant in connection with a covered transaction.
(b) An appraiser who is deemed part of the AMC's appraiser panel pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section is deemed to remain on the panel until the date on which the AMC:
(1) Sends written notice to the appraiser removing the appraiser from the appraiser panel, with an explanation of its action; or
(2) Receives written notice from the appraiser asking to be removed from the appraiser panel or notice of the death or incapacity of the appraiser.
(c) If an appraiser is removed from an AMC's appraiser panel pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section, but the AMC subsequently accepts the appraiser for consideration for future assignments or engages the appraiser at any time during the twelve months after the AMC's removal, the removal will be deemed not to have occurred, and the appraiser will be deemed to have been part of the AMC's appraiser panel without interruption.
(d) The period for purposes of counting appraisers on an AMC's appraiser panel may be the calendar year or a 12-month period established by law or rule of each State with which the AMC is required to register.
Each State electing to register AMCs pursuant to paragraph (b)(1) of this section must:
(a) Establish and maintain within the State appraiser certifying and licensing agency a licensing program that is subject to the limitations set forth in § 323.12 and with the legal authority and mechanisms to:
(1) Review and approve or deny an AMC's application for initial registration;
(2) Review and renew or review and deny an AMC's registration periodically;
(3) Examine the books and records of an AMC operating in the State and require the AMC to submit reports, information, and documents;
(4) Verify that the appraisers on the AMC's appraiser panel hold valid State certifications or licenses, as applicable;
(5) Conduct investigations of AMCs to assess potential violations of applicable appraisal-related laws, regulations, or orders;
(6) Discipline, suspend, terminate, or deny renewal of the registration of an AMC that violates applicable appraisal-related laws, regulations, or orders; and
(7) Report an AMC's violation of applicable appraisal-related laws, regulations, or orders, as well as disciplinary and enforcement actions and other relevant information about an AMC's operations, to the Appraisal Subcommittee.
(b) Impose requirements on AMCs that are not owned and controlled by an insured depository institution and not regulated by a Federal financial institution regulatory agency to:
(1) Register with and be subject to supervision by the State appraiser certifying and licensing agency;
(2) Engage only State-certified or State-licensed appraisers for Federally regulated transactions in conformity with any Federally related transaction regulations;
(3) Establish and comply with processes and controls reasonably designed to ensure that the AMC, in engaging an appraiser, selects an appraiser who is independent of the transaction and who has the requisite education, expertise, and experience necessary to competently complete the appraisal assignment for the particular market and property type;
(4) Direct the appraiser to perform the assignment in accordance with USPAP; and
(5) Establish and comply with processes and controls reasonably designed to ensure that the AMC conducts its appraisal management services in accordance with the requirements of section 129E(a)-(i) of the Truth in Lending Act, 15 U.S.C. 1639e(a)-(i), and regulations thereunder.
(a) Appraiser certification or licensing of owners.
(1) An AMC subject to State registration pursuant to this section shall not be registered by a State or included on the AMC National Registry if such AMC, in whole or in part, directly or indirectly, is owned by any person who has had an appraiser license or certificate refused, denied, cancelled, surrendered in lieu of revocation, or revoked in any State for a substantive cause, as determined by the appropriate State appraiser certifying and licensing agency.
(2) An AMC subject to State registration pursuant to this section is not barred by § 323.11(a)(1) from being registered by a State or included on the AMC National Registry if the license or certificate of the appraiser with an ownership interest was not revoked for a substantive cause and has been reinstated by the State or States in which the appraiser was licensed or certified.
(b) Good moral character of owners. An AMC shall not be registered by a State if any person that owns more than 10 percent of the AMC -
(1) Is determined by the State appraiser certifying and licensing agency not to have good moral character; or
(2) Fails to submit to a background investigation carried out by the State appraiser certifying and licensing agency.
(a) Requirements in providing services. To provide appraisal management services for a creditor or secondary mortgage market participant relating to a covered transaction, a Federally regulated AMC must comply with the requirements in § 323.11(b)(2) through (5).
(b) Ownership limitations.
(1) A Federally regulated AMC shall not be included on the AMC National Registry if such AMC, in whole or in part, directly or indirectly, is owned by any person who has had an appraiser license or certificate refused, denied, cancelled, surrendered in lieu of revocation, or revoked in any State for a substantive cause, as determined by the ASC.
(2) A Federally regulated AMC is not barred by § 323.12(b) from being included on the AMC National Registry if the license or certificate of the appraiser with an ownership interest was not revoked for a substantive cause and has been reinstated by the State or States in which the appraiser was licensed or certified.
(c) Reporting information for the AMC National Registry. A Federally regulated AMC must report to the State or States in which it operates the information required to be submitted by the State pursuant to the Appraisal Subcommittee's policies regarding the determination of the AMC National Registry fee, including but not necessarily limited to the collection of information related to the limitations set forth in § 323.12, as applicable.
Each State electing to register AMCs for purposes of permitting AMCs to provide appraisal management services relating to covered transactions in the State must submit to the Appraisal Subcommittee the information required to be submitted by Appraisal Subcommittee regulations or guidance concerning AMCs that operate in the State.