(a) Test procedures. Evaluation for hypothetical accident conditions is to be based on sequential application of the tests specified in this section, in the order indicated, to determine their cumulative effect on a package or array of packages. An undamaged specimen may be used for the water immersion tests specified in paragraph (c)(6) of this section.
(b) Test conditions. With respect to the initial conditions for the tests, except for the water immersion tests, to demonstrate compliance with the requirements of this part during testing, the ambient air temperature before and after the tests must remain constant at that value between −29 °C (−20 °F) and + 38 °C ( + 100 °F) which is most unfavorable for the feature under consideration. The initial internal pressure within the containment system must be the maximum normal operating pressure, unless a lower internal pressure, consistent with the ambient temperature assumed to precede and follow the tests, is more unfavorable.
(c) Tests. Tests for hypothetical accident conditions must be conducted as follows:
(1) Free drop. A free drop of the specimen through a distance of 9 m (30 ft) onto a flat, essentially unyielding, horizontal surface, striking the surface in a position for which maximum damage is expected.
(2) Crush. Subjection of the specimen to a dynamic crush test by positioning the specimen on a flat, essentially unyielding horizontal surface so as to suffer maximum damage by the drop of a 500-kg (1100-lb) mass from 9 m (30 ft) onto the specimen. The mass must consist of a solid mild steel plate 1 m (40 in) by 1 m (40 in) and must fall in a horizontal attitude. The crush test is required only when the specimen has a mass not greater than 500 kg (1100 lb), an overall density not greater than 1000 kg/m3 (62.4 lb/ft3) based on external dimension, and radioactive contents greater than 1000 A2 not as special form radioactive material. For packages containing fissile material, the radioactive contents greater than 1000 A2 criterion does not apply.
(3) Puncture. A free drop of the specimen through a distance of 1 m (40 in) in a position for which maximum damage is expected, onto the upper end of a solid, vertical, cylindrical, mild steel bar mounted on an essentially unyielding, horizontal surface. The bar must be 15 cm (6 in) in diameter, with the top horizontal and its edge rounded to a radius of not more than 6 mm (0.25 in), and of a length as to cause maximum damage to the package, but not less than 20 cm (8 in) long. The long axis of the bar must be vertical.
(4) Thermal. Exposure of the specimen fully engulfed, except for a simple support system, in a hydrocarbon fuel/air fire of sufficient extent, and in sufficiently quiescent ambient conditions, to provide an average emissivity coefficient of at least 0.9, with an average flame temperature of at least 800 °C (1475 °F) for a period of 30 minutes, or any other thermal test that provides the equivalent total heat input to the package and which provides a time averaged environmental temperature of 800 °C. The fuel source must extend horizontally at least 1 m (40 in), but may not extend more than 3 m (10 ft), beyond any external surface of the specimen, and the specimen must be positioned 1 m (40 in) above the surface of the fuel source. For purposes of calculation, the surface absorptivity coefficient must be either that value which the package may be expected to possess if exposed to the fire specified or 0.8, whichever is greater; and the convective coefficient must be that value which may be demonstrated to exist if the package were exposed to the fire specified. Artificial cooling may not be applied after cessation of external heat input, and any combustion of materials of construction, must be allowed to proceed until it terminates naturally.
(5) Immersion - fissile material. For fissile material subject to § 71.55, in those cases where water inleakage has not been assumed for criticality analysis, immersion under a head of water of at least 0.9 m (3 ft) in the attitude for which maximum leakage is expected.
(6) Immersion - all packages. A separate, undamaged specimen must be subjected to water pressure equivalent to immersion under a head of water of at least 15 m (50 ft). For test purposes, an external pressure of water of 150 kPa (21.7 lbf/in2) gauge is considered to meet these conditions.