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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of December 12, 2019

Title 14Chapter ISubchapter FPart 91Subpart B → §91.155


Title 14: Aeronautics and Space
PART 91—GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES
Subpart B—Flight Rules


§91.155   Basic VFR weather minimums.

(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section and §91.157, no person may operate an aircraft under VFR when the flight visibility is less, or at a distance from clouds that is less, than that prescribed for the corresponding altitude and class of airspace in the following table:

AirspaceFlight visibilityDistance from clouds
Class ANot ApplicableNot Applicable.
Class B3 statute milesClear of Clouds.
Class C3 statute miles500 feet below.
   1,000 feet above.
   2,000 feet horizontal.
Class D3 statute miles500 feet below.
   1,000 feet above.
   2,000 feet horizontal.
Class E:
Less than 10,000 feet MSL3 statute miles500 feet below.
   1,000 feet above.
   2,000 feet horizontal.
At or above 10,000 feet MSL5 statute miles1,000 feet below.
   1,000 feet above.
   1 statute mile horizontal.
Class G:
1,200 feet or less above the surface (regardless of MSL altitude)
For aircraft other than helicopters:
Day, except as provided in §91.155(b)1 statute mileClear of clouds.
Night, except as provided in §91.155(b)3 statute miles500 feet below.
   1,000 feet above.
   2,000 feet horizontal.
For helicopters:
Day 12 statute mileClear of clouds
Night, except as provided in §91.155(b)1 statute mileClear of clouds.
More than 1,200 feet above the surface but less than 10,000 feet MSL
Day1 statute mile500 feet below.
   1,000 feet above.
   2,000 feet horizontal.
Night3 statute miles500 feet below.
   1,000 feet above.
   2,000 feet horizontal.
More than 1,200 feet above the surface and at or above 10,000 feet MSL5 statute miles1,000 feet below.
   1,000 feet above.
   1 statute mile horizontal.

(b) Class G Airspace. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (a) of this section, the following operations may be conducted in Class G airspace below 1,200 feet above the surface:

(1) Helicopter. A helicopter may be operated clear of clouds in an airport traffic pattern within 12 mile of the runway or helipad of intended landing if the flight visibility is not less than 12 statute mile.

(2) Airplane, powered parachute, or weight-shift-control aircraft. If the visibility is less than 3 statute miles but not less than 1 statute mile during night hours and you are operating in an airport traffic pattern within 12 mile of the runway, you may operate an airplane, powered parachute, or weight-shift-control aircraft clear of clouds.

(c) Except as provided in §91.157, no person may operate an aircraft beneath the ceiling under VFR within the lateral boundaries of controlled airspace designated to the surface for an airport when the ceiling is less than 1,000 feet.

(d) Except as provided in §91.157 of this part, no person may take off or land an aircraft, or enter the traffic pattern of an airport, under VFR, within the lateral boundaries of the surface areas of Class B, Class C, Class D, or Class E airspace designated for an airport—

(1) Unless ground visibility at that airport is at least 3 statute miles; or

(2) If ground visibility is not reported at that airport, unless flight visibility during landing or takeoff, or while operating in the traffic pattern is at least 3 statute miles.

(e) For the purpose of this section, an aircraft operating at the base altitude of a Class E airspace area is considered to be within the airspace directly below that area.

[Doc. No. 24458, 56 FR 65660, Dec. 17, 1991, as amended by Amdt. 91-235, 58 FR 51968, Oct. 5, 1993; Amdt. 91-282, 69 FR 44880, July 27, 2004; Amdt. 91-330, 79 FR 9972, Feb. 21, 2014; Amdt. 91-330A, 79 FR 41125, July 15, 2014]

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