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Title 45Subtitle ASubchapter APart 73Subpart J → §73.735-1003


Title 45: Public Welfare
PART 73—STANDARDS OF CONDUCT
Subpart J—Provisions Relating to Experts, Consultants and Advisory Committee Members


§73.735-1003   Conflicts of interest statutes.

(a) Each consultant should acquaint himself or herself with sections 203, 205, 207 and 208 of title 18, United States Code, all of which carry criminal penalties related to conflicts of interest. The restraints imposed by the four criminal sections are summarized in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section.

(b) 18 U.S.C. 203 and 205.

(1) These two sections in general operate to preclude a person who works for the Government, except in the discharge of his or her official duties, from representing anyone else before a court or Government agency in a matter in which the United States is a party or has a direct and substantial interest. The prohibition applies whether or not compensation is received for the representation. However, if the individual is a special Government employee, this restriction applies only if:

(i) The representation involves a matter in which the individual has at any time participated personally and substantially in the course of his or her Government employment; or

(ii) The individual has served the Department for more than 60 days in the immediately preceding period of 365 days, and the matter is one which is pending before the Department. This second restraint applies whether or not the matter is one in which the individual participated personally and substantially in his or her Government employment. These two provisions apply to a special Government employee on days when he or she does not serve the Government as well as on the days when services are rendered, and they apply to both paid and unpaid representation.

(2) To a considerable extent the prohibitions of sections 203 and 205 are aimed at the sale of influence to gain special favors for private businesses and other organizations and at the misuse of governmental position or information. In accordance with these aims, a consultant, even when not compelled to do so by sections 203 and 205, should make every effort in his or her private work to avoid any personal contact with respect to negotiations for contracts or grants with the component of the department in which he or she is serving, if the subject matter is related to the subject matter of his or her consultancy or other service. This will not always be possible to achieve where, for example, a consultant has an executive position with his or her regular employer which requires him or her to participate personally in contract negotiations with the department or agency he or she is advising. Whenever this is the case, the consultant should participate in the negotiations for his or her employer only after advising the responsible Government official of his or her involvement in other matters in the Department. In other instances an occasional consultant may have technical knowledge which is indispensable to his or her regular employer in his efforts to formulate a research and development contract or a research grant, and for the same reason, it is in the interest of the Government that the consultant should take part in negotiations for his or her private employer. Again, the individual should participate only after advising the responsible Government official of the relevant facts.

(3) Section 205 permits both the Government and the private employer of a special Government employee to benefit, in certain cases, from his or her performance of work under a grant or contract for which he or she would otherwise be disqualified because of having participated in the matter for the Government or because it is pending in a component in which the consultant had served more than 60 days in the past year. This provision gives the head of a department the authority, notwithstanding any prohibition in either section 203 or 205, to allow a special Government employee to represent before such department or agency either his or her regular employer or another person or organization in the performance of work under a grant or contract. As a basis for this action, the Secretary must first make a certification in writing, published in the Federal Register, that it is required by the national interest.

(4) Section 205 contains two other exemptive provisions, which apply to both special and regular Government employees. See §73.735-702.

(c) 18 U.S.C. 207 applies to individuals who have left Government service. See Subpart N of these regulations.

(d) 18 U.S.C. 208 bears on the activities of Government personnel, including special Government employees, in the course of their official duties. In general, it prevents a Government employee from participating as such in a particular matter in which, to his or her knowledge, he or she, his or her spouse, minor child, partner, or a profit or non-profit enterprise with which he or she is connected has a financial interest. However, the section permits an employee's agency to grant him or her an ad hoc exemption if the interest is not so substantial as to affect the integrity of his or her services. Insignificant interests may also be waived by a general rule or regulation. The matters in which special Government employees are disqualified by section 208 are not limited to those involving a specific party or parties in which the United States is a party or has an interest, as in the case of sections 203, 205 and 207. Section 208 therefore extends to matters in addition to contracts, grants, judicial and quasi-judicial proceedings, and other matters of an adversary nature. Accordingly, a special Government employee, like all government employees, should in general be disqualified from participating as such in a matter of any type the outcome of which will have a direct and predictable effect upon the financial interests covered by the section.

However, the power of exemption may be exercised in this situation if the special Government employee renders advice of a general nature from which no preference or advantage over others might be gained by any particular person or organization. The power of exemption may also be exercised where the financial interests involved are minimal in value.

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