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Title 40Chapter ISubchapter CPart 61 → Subpart E


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 61—NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS


Subpart E—National Emission Standard for Mercury


Contents
§61.50   Applicability.
§61.51   Definitions.
§61.52   Emission standard.
§61.53   Stack sampling.
§61.54   Sludge sampling.
§61.55   Monitoring of emissions and operations.
§61.56   Delegation of authority.

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§61.50   Applicability.

The provisions of this subpart are applicable to those stationary sources which process mercury ore to recover mercury, use mercury chlor-alkali cells to produce chlorine gas and alkali metal hydroxide, and incinerate or dry wastewater treatment plant sludge.

[40 FR 48302, Oct. 14, 1975]

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§61.51   Definitions.

Terms used in this subpart are defined in the act, in subpart A of this part, or in this section as follows:

(a) Mercury means the element mercury, excluding any associated elements, and includes mercury in particulates, vapors, aerosols, and compounds.

(b) Mercury ore means a mineral mined specifically for its mercury content.

(c) Mercury ore processing facility means a facility processing mercury ore to obtain mercury.

(d) Condenser stack gases mean the gaseous effluent evolved from the stack of processes utilizing heat to extract mercury metal from mercury ore.

(e) Mercury chlor-alkali cell means a device which is basically composed of an electrolyzer section and a denuder (decomposer) section and utilizes mercury to produce chlorine gas, hydrogen gas, and alkali metal hydroxide.

(f) Mercury chlor-alkali electrolyzer means an electrolytic device which is part of a mercury chlor-alkali cell and utilizes a flowing mercury cathode to produce chlorine gas and alkali metal amalgam.

(g) Denuder means a horizontal or vertical container which is part of a mercury chlor-alkali cell and in which water and alkali metal amalgam are converted to alkali metal hydroxide, mercury, and hydrogen gas in a short-circuited, electrolytic reaction.

(h) Hydrogen gas stream means a hydrogen stream formed in the chlor-alkali cell denuder.

(i) End box means a container(s) located on one or both ends of a mercury chlor-alkali electrolyzer which serves as a connection between the electrolyzer and denuder for rich and stripped amalgam.

(j) End box ventilation system means a ventilation system which collects mercury emissions from the end-boxes, the mercury pump sumps, and their water collection systems.

(k) Cell room means a structure(s) housing one or more mercury electrolytic chlor-alkali cells.

(l) Sludge means sludge produced by a treatment plant that processes municipal or industrial waste waters.

(m) Sludge dryer means a device used to reduce the moisture content of sludge by heating to temperatures above 65 °C (ca. 150 °F) directly with combustion gases.

[38 FR 8826, Apr. 6, 1973, as amended at 40 FR 48302, Oct. 14, 1975]

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§61.52   Emission standard.

(a) Emissions to the atmosphere from mercury ore processing facilities and mercury cell chlor-alkali plants shall not exceed 2.3 kg (5.1 lb) of mercury per 24-hour period.

(b) Emissions to the atmosphere from sludge incineration plants, sludge drying plants, or a combination of these that process wastewater treatment plant sludges shall not exceed 3.2 kg (7.1 lb) of mercury per 24-hour period.

[40 FR 48302, Oct. 14, 1975, as amended at 65 FR 62151, Oct. 17, 2000]

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§61.53   Stack sampling.

(a) Mercury ore processing facility. (1) Unless a waiver of emission testing is obtained under §61.13, each owner or operator processing mercury ore shall test emissions from the source according to Method 101 of appendix B to this part. The emission test shall be performed—

(i) Within 90 days of the effective date in the case of an existing source or a new source which has an initial start-up date preceding the effective date; or

(ii) Within 90 days of startup in the case of a new source which did not have an initial startup date preceding the effective date.

(2) The Administrator shall be notified at least 30 days prior to an emission test, so that he may at his option observe the test.

(3) Samples shall be taken over such a period or periods as are necessary to accurately determine the maximum emissions which will occur in a 24-hour period. No changes in the operation shall be made, which would potentially increase emissions above that determined by the most recent source test, until the new emission level has been estimated by calculation and the results reported to the Administrator.

(4) All samples shall be analyzed and mercury emissions shall be determined within 30 days after the stack test. Each determination shall be reported to the Administrator by a registered letter dispatched within 15 calendar days following the date such determination is completed.

(5) Records of emission test results and other data needed to determine total emissions shall be retained at the source and made available, for inspection by the Administrator, for a minimum of 2 years.

(b) Mercury chlor-alkali plant—hydrogen and end-box ventilation gas streams. (1) Unless a waiver of emission testing is obtained under §61.13, each owner or operator employing mercury chlor-alkali cell(s) shall test emissions from hydrogen streams according to Method 102 and from end-box ventilation gas streams according to Method 101 of appendix B to this part. The emission test shall be performed—

(i) Within 90 days of the effective date in the case of an existing source or a new source which has an initial startup date preceding the effective date; or

(ii) Within 90 days of startup in the case of a new source which did not have an initial startup date preceding the effective date.

(2) The Administrator shall be notified at least 30 days prior to an emission test, so that he may at his option observe the test.

(3) Samples shall be taken over such a period or periods as are necessary to accurately determine the maximum emissions which will occur in a 24-hour period. No changes in the operation shall be made, which would potentially increase emissions above that determined by the most recent source test, until the new emission has been estimated by calculation and the results reported to the Administrator.

(4) All samples shall be analyzed and mercury emissions shall be determined within 30 days after the stack test. Each determination shall be reported to the Administrator by a registered letter dispatched within 15 calendar days following the date such determination is completed.

(5) Records of emission test results and other data needed to determine total emissions shall be retained at the source and made available, for inspection by the Administrator, for a minimum of 2 years.

(c) Mercury chlor-alkali plants—cell room ventilation system. (1) Stationary sources using mercury chlor-alkali cells may test cell room emissions in accordance with paragraph (c)(2) of this section or demonstrate compliance with paragraph (c)(4) of this section and assume ventilation emissions of 1.3 kg/day (2.9 lb/day) of mercury.

(2) Unless a waiver of emission testing is obtained under §61.13, each owner or operator shall pass all cell room air in force gas streams through stacks suitable for testing and shall test emissions from the source according to Method 101 in appendix B to this part. The emission test shall be performed—

(i) Within 90 days of the effective date in the case of an existing source or a new source which has an initial startup date preceding the effective date; or

(ii) Within 90 days of startup in the case of a new source which did not have an initial startup date preceding the effective date.

(3) The Administrator shall be notified at least 30 days prior to an emission test, so that he may at his option observe the test.

(4) An owner or operator may carry out approved design, maintenance, and housekeeping practices. A list of approved practices is provided in appendix A of “Review of National Emission Standards for Mercury,” EPA-450/3-84-014a, December 1984. Copies are available from EPA's Central Docket Section, Docket item number A-84-41, III-B-1.

(d) Sludge incineration and drying plants. (1) Unless a waiver of emission testing is obtained under §61.13, each owner or operator of a source subject to the standard in §61.52(b) shall test emissions from that source. Such tests shall be conducted in accordance with the procedures set forth either in paragraph (d) of this section or in §61.54.

(2) Method 101A in appendix B or Method 29 in appendix A to part 60 shall be used to test emissions as follows:

(i) The test shall be performed by May 28, 2014 in the case of an existing source or a new source which has an initial startup date preceding February 27, 2014.

(ii) The test shall be performed within 90 days of startup in the case of a new source which did not have an initial startup date preceding February 27, 2014.

(3) The Administrator shall be notified at least 30 days prior to an emission test, so that he may at his option observe the test.

(4) Samples shall be taken over such a period or periods as are necessary to determine accurately the maximum emissions which will occur in a 24-hour period. No changes shall be made in the operation which would potentially increase emissions above the level determined by the most recent stack test, until the new emission level has been estimated by calculation and the results reported to the Administrator.

(5) All samples shall be analyzed and mercury emissions shall be determined within 30 days after the stack test. Each determination shall be reported to the Administrator by a registered letter dispatched within 15 calendar days following the date such determination is completed.

(6) Records of emission test results and other data needed to determine total emissions shall be retained at the source and shall be made available, for inspection by the Administrator, for a minimum of 2 years.

[38 FR 8826, Apr. 6, 1973, as amended at 40 FR 48302, Oct. 14, 1975; 47 FR 24704, June 8, 1982; 50 FR 46294, Nov. 7, 1985; 52 FR 8726, Mar. 19, 1987; 65 FR 62151, Oct. 17, 2000; 79 FR 11275, Feb. 27, 2014]

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§61.54   Sludge sampling.

(a) As an alternative means for demonstrating compliance with §61.52(b), an owner or operator may use Method 105 of appendix B and the procedures specified in this section.

(1) A sludge test shall be conducted within 90 days of the effective date of these regulations in the case of an existing source or a new source which has an initial startup date preceding the effective date; or

(2) A sludge test shall be conducted within 90 days of startup in the case of a new source which did not have an initial startup date preceding the effective date.

(b) The Administrator shall be notified at least 30 days prior to a sludge sampling test, so that he may at his option observe the test.

(c) Sludge shall be sampled according to paragraph (c)(1) of this section, sludge charging rate for the plant shall be determined according to paragraph (c)(2) of this section, and the sludge analysis shall be performed according to paragraph (c)(3) of this section.

(1) The sludge shall be sampled according to Method 105—Determination of Mercury in Wastewater Treatment Plant Sewage Sludges. A total of three composite samples shall be obtained within an operating period of 24 hours. When the 24-hour operating period is not continuous, the total sampling period shall not exceed 72 hours after the first grab sample is obtained. Samples shall not be exposed to any condition that may result in mercury contamination or loss.

(2) The maximum 24-hour period sludge incineration or drying rate shall be determined by use of a flow rate measurement device that can measure the mass rate of sludge charged to the incinerator or dryer with an accuracy of ±5 percent over its operating range. Other methods of measuring sludge mass charging rates may be used if they have received prior approval by the Administrator.

(3) The sampling, handling, preparation, and analysis of sludge samples shall be accomplished according to Method 105 in appendix B of this part.

(d) The mercury emissions shall be determined by use of the following equation.

eCFR graphic ec15no91.047.gif

View or download PDF

where:

EHg = Mercury emissions, g/day.

M = Mercury concentration of sludge on a dry solids basis, µg/g.

Q = Sludge changing rate, kg/day.

Fsm = Weight fraction of solids in the collected sludge after mixing.

1000 = Conversion factor, kg µg/g.2

(e) No changes in the operation of a plant shall be made after a sludge test has been conducted which would potentially increase emissions above the level determined by the most recent sludge test, until the new emission level has been estimated by calculation and the results reported to the Administrator.

(f) All sludge samples shall be analyzed for mercury content within 30 days after the sludge sample is collected. Each determination shall be reported to the Administrator by a registered letter dispatched within 15 calendar days following the date such determination is completed.

(g) Records of sludge sampling, charging rate determination and other data needed to determine mercury content of wastewater treatment plant sludges shall be retained at the source and made available, for inspection by the Administrator, for a minimum of 2 years.

[40 FR 48303, Oct. 14, 1975, as amended at 49 FR 35770, Sept. 12, 1984; 52 FR 8727, Mar. 19, 1987; 53 FR 36972, Sept. 23, 1988]

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§61.55   Monitoring of emissions and operations.

(a) Wastewater treatment plant sludge incineration and drying plants. All the sources for which mercury emissions exceed 1.6 kg (3.5 lb) per 24-hour period, demonstrated either by stack sampling according to §61.53 or sludge sampling according to §61.54, shall monitor mercury emissions at intervals of at least once per year by use of Method 105 of appendix B or the procedures specified in §61.53 (d) (2) and (4). The results of monitoring shall be reported and retained according to §61.53(d) (5) and (6) or §61.54 (f) and (g).

(b) Mercury cell chlor-alkali plants—hydrogen and end-box ventilation gas streams. (1) The owner or operator of each mercury cell chlor-alkali plant shall, within 1 year of the date of publication of these amendments or within 1 year of startup for a plant with initial startup after the date of publication, perform a mercury emission test that demonstrates compliance with the emission limits in §61.52, on the hydrogen stream by Method 102 and on the end-box stream by Method 101 for the purpose of establishing limits for parameters to be monitored.

(2) During tests specified in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the following control device parameters shall be monitored, except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, and recorded manually or automatically at least once every 15 minutes:

(i) The exit gas temperature from uncontrolled streams;

(ii) The outlet temperature of the gas stream for the final (i.e., the farthest downstream) cooling system when no control devices other than coolers and demisters are used;

(iii) The outlet temperature of the gas stream from the final cooling system when the cooling system is followed by a molecular sieve or carbon adsorber;

(iv) Outlet concentration of available chlorine, pH, liquid flow rate, and inlet gas temperature of chlorinated brine scrubbers and hypochlorite scrubbers;

(v) The liquid flow rate and exit gas temperature for water scrubbers;

(vi) The inlet gas temperature of carbon adsorption systems; and

(vii) The temperature during the heating phase of the regeneration cycle for carbon adsorbers or molecular sieves.

(3) The recorded parameters in paragraphs (b)(2)(i) through (b)(2)(vi) of this section shall be averaged over the test period (a minimum of 6 hours) to provide an average number. The highest temperature reading that is measured in paragraph (b)(2)(vii) of this section is to be identified as the reference temperature for use in paragraph (b)(6)(ii) of this section.

(4)(i) Immediately following completion of the emission tests specified in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the owner or operator of a mercury cell chlor-alkali plant shall monitor and record manually or automatically at least once per hour the same parameters specified in paragraphs (b)(2)(i) through (b)(2)(vi) of this section.

(ii) Immediately following completion of the emission tests specified in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the owner or operator shall monitor and record manually or automatically, during each heating phase of the regeneration cycle, the temperature specified in paragraph (b)(2)(vii) of this section.

(5) Monitoring devices used in accordance with paragraphs (b)(2) and (b)(4) of this section shall be certified by their manufacturer to be accurate to within 10 percent, and shall be operated, maintained, and calibrated according to the manufacturer's instructions. Records of the certifications and calibrations shall be retained at the chlor-alkali plant and made available for inspection by the Administrator as follows: Certification, for as long as the device is used for this purpose; calibration for a minimum of 2 years.

(6)(i) When the hourly value of a parameter monitored in accordance with paragraph (b)(4)(i) of this section exceeds, or in the case of liquid flow rate and available chlorine falls below the value of that same parameter determined in paragraph (b)(2) of this section for 24 consecutive hours, the Administrator is to be notified within the next 10 days.

(ii) When the maximum hourly value of the temperature measured in accordance with paragraph (b)(4)(ii) of this section is below the reference temperature recorded according to paragraph (b)(3) of this section for three consecutive regeneration cycles, the Administrator is to be notified within the next 10 days.

(7) Semiannual reports shall be submitted to the Administrator indicating the time and date on which the hourly value of each parameter monitored according to paragraphs (b)(4)(i) and (b)(4)(ii) of this section fell outside the value of that same parameter determined under paragraph (b)(3) of this section; and corrective action taken, and the time and date of the corrective action. Parameter excursions will be considered unacceptable operation and maintenance of the emission control system. In addition, while compliance with the emission limits is determined primarily by conducting a performance test according to the procedures in §61.53(b), reports of parameter excursions may be used as evidence in judging the duration of a violation that is determined by a performance test.

(8) Semiannual reports required in paragraph (b)(7) of this section shall be submitted to the Administrator on September 15 and March 15 of each year. The first semiannual report is to be submitted following the first full 6 month reporting period. The semiannual report due on September 15 (March 15) shall include all excursions monitored through August 31 (February 28) of the same calendar year.

(c) As an alternative to the monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements in paragraphs (b)(2) through (8) of this section, an owner or operator may develop and submit for the Administrator's review and approval a plant-specific monitoring plan. To be approved, such a plan must ensure not only compliance with the emission limits of §61.52(a) but also proper operation and maintenance of emissions control systems. Any site-specific monitoring plan submitted must, at a minimum, include the following:

(1) Identification of the critical parameter or parameters for the hydrogen stream and for the end-box ventilation stream that are to be monitored and an explanation of why the critical parameter(s) selected is the best indicator of proper control system performance and of mercury emission rates.

(2) Identification of the maximum or minimum value of each parameter (e.g., degrees temperature, concentration of mercury) that is not to be exceeded. The level(s) is to be directly correlated to the results of a performance test, conducted no more than 180 days prior to submittal of the plan, when the facility was in compliance with the emission limits of §61.52(a).

(3) Designation of the frequency for recording the parameter measurements, with justification if the frequency is less than hourly. A longer recording frequency must be justified on the basis of the amount of time that could elapse during periods of process or control system upsets before the emission limits would be exceeded, and consideration is to be given to the time that would be necessary to repair the failure.

(4) Designation of the immediate actions to be taken in the event of an excursion beyond the value of the parameter established in paragraph (c)(2) of this section.

(5) Provisions for reporting, semiannually, parameter excursions and the corrective actions taken, and provisions for reporting within 10 days any significant excursion.

(6) Identification of the accuracy of the monitoring device(s) or of the readings obtained.

(7) Recordkeeping requirements for certifications and calibrations.

(d) Mercury cell chlor-alkali plants—cell room ventilation system. (1) Stationary sources determining cell room emissions in accordance with §61.53(c)(4) shall maintain daily records of all leaks or spills of mercury. The records shall indicate the amount, location, time, and date the leaks or spills occurred, identify the cause of the leak or spill, state the immediate steps taken to minimize mercury emissions and steps taken to prevent future occurrences, and provide the time and date on which corrective steps were taken.

(2) The results of monitoring shall be recorded, retained at the source, and made available for inspection by the Administrator for a minimum of 2 years.

[52 FR 8727, Mar. 19, 1987, as amended at 65 FR 62151, Oct. 17, 2000]

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§61.56   Delegation of authority.

(a) In delegating implementation and enforcement authority to a State under section 112(d) of the Act, the authorities contained in paragraph (b) of this section shall be retained by the Administrator and not transferred to a State.

(b) Authorities which will not be delegated to States: Sections 61.53(c)(4) and 61.55(d). The authorities not delegated to States listed are in addition to the authorities in the General Provisions, subpart A of 40 CFR part 61, that will not be delegated to States (§§61.04(b), 61.12(d)(1), and 61.13(h)(1)(ii)).

[52 FR 8728, Mar. 19, 1987]

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