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e-CFR data is current as of March 4, 2021

Title 9Chapter ISubchapter APart 3Subpart D → §3.87


Title 9: Animals and Animal Products
PART 3—STANDARDS
Subpart D—Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Nonhuman Primates


§3.87   Primary enclosures used to transport nonhuman primates.

Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) must not transport or deliver for transport in commerce a nonhuman primate unless it is contained in a primary enclosure, such as a compartment, transport cage, carton, or crate, and the following requirements are met:

(a) Construction of primary enclosures. Primary enclosures used to transport nonhuman primates may be connected or attached to each other and must be constructed so that:

(1) The primary enclosure is strong enough to contain the nonhuman primate securely and comfortably and to withstand the normal rigors of transportation;

(2) The interior of the enclosure has no sharp points or edges and no protrusions that could injure the animal contained in it;

(3) The nonhuman primate is at all times securely contained within the enclosure and cannot put any part of its body outside the enclosure in a way that could result in injury to the animal, or to persons or animals nearby;

(4) The nonhuman primate can be easily and quickly removed from the enclosure in an emergency;

(5) The doors or other closures that provide access into the enclosure are secured with animal-proof devices that prevent accidental opening of the enclosure, including opening by the nonhuman primate;

(6) Unless the enclosure is permanently affixed to the conveyance, adequate devices such as handles or handholds are provided on its exterior, and enable the enclosure to be lifted without tilting it, and ensure that anyone handling the enclosure will not come into physical contact with the animal contained inside;

(7) Any material, treatment, paint, preservative, or other chemical used in or on the enclosure is nontoxic to the animal and not harmful to the health or well-being of the animal;

(8) Proper ventilation is provided to the nonhuman primate in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section;

(9) Ventilation openings are covered with bars, wire mesh, or smooth expanded metal having air spaces; and

(10) The primary enclosure has a solid, leak-proof bottom, or a removable, leak-proof collection tray under a slatted or wire mesh floor that prevents seepage of waste products, such as excreta and body fluids, outside of the enclosure. If a slatted or wire mesh floor is used in the enclosure, it must be designed and constructed so that the animal cannot put any part of its body between the slats or through the holes in the mesh. It must contain enough previously unused litter to absorb and cover excreta. The litter must be of a suitably absorbent material that is safe and nontoxic to the nonhuman primate and is appropriate for the species transported in the primary enclosure.

(b) Cleaning of primary enclosures. A primary enclosure used to hold or transport nonhuman primates in commerce must be cleaned and sanitized before each use in accordance with the methods provided in §3.84(b)(3) of this subpart.

(c) Ventilation. (1) If the primary enclosure is movable, ventilation openings must be constructed in one of the following ways:

(i) If ventilation openings are located on two opposite walls of the primary enclosure, the openings on each wall must be at least 16 percent of the total surface area of each such wall and be located above the midline of the enclosure; or

(ii) If ventilation openings are located on all four walls of the primary enclosure, the openings on every wall must be at least 8 percent of the total surface area of each such wall and be located above the midline of the enclosure.

(2) Unless the primary enclosure is permanently affixed to the conveyance, projecting rims or similar devices must be located on the exterior of each enclosure wall having a ventilation opening, in order to prevent obstruction of the openings. The projecting rims or similar devices must be large enough to provide a minimum air circulation space of 0.75 inches (1.9 centimeters) between the primary enclosure and anything the enclosure is placed against.

(3) If a primary enclosure is permanently affixed to the primary conveyance so that there is only a front ventilation opening for the enclosure, the primary enclosure must be affixed to the primary conveyance in such a way that the front ventilation opening cannot be blocked, and the front ventilation opening must open directly to an unobstructed aisle or passageway inside of the conveyance. The ventilation opening must be at least 90 percent of the total area of the front wall of the enclosure, and must be covered with bars, wire mesh, or smooth expanded metal having air spaces.

(d) Compatibility. (1) Only one live nonhuman primate may be transported in a primary enclosure, except as follows:

(i) A mother and her nursing infant may be transported together;

(ii) An established male-female pair or family group may be transported together, except that a female in estrus must not be transported with a male nonhuman primate;

(iii) A compatible pair of juveniles of the same species that have not reached puberty may be transported together.

(2) Nonhuman primates of different species must not be transported in adjacent or connecting primary enclosures.

(e) Space requirements. Primary enclosures used to transport nonhuman primates must be large enough so that each animal contained in the primary enclosure has enough space to turn around freely in a normal manner and to sit in an upright, hands down position without its head touching the top of the enclosure. However, certain larger species may be restricted in their movements, in accordance with professionally accepted standards of care, when greater freedom of movement would be dangerous to the animal, its handler, or to other persons.

(f) Marking and labeling. Primary enclosures, other than those that are permanently affixed to a conveyance, must be clearly marked in English on the top and on one or more sides with the words “Wild Animals,” or “Live Animals,” in letters at least 1 inch (2.5 cm.) high, and with arrows or other markings to indicate the correct upright position of the primary enclosure. Permanently affixed primary enclosures must be clearly marked in English with the words “Wild Animals” or “Live Animals,” in the same manner.

(g) Accompanying documents and records. Shipping documents that must accompany shipments of nonhuman primates may be held by the operator of the primary conveyance, for surface transportation only, or must be securely attached in a readily accessible manner to the outside of any primary enclosure that is part of the shipment, in a manner that allows them to be detached for examination and securely reattached, such as in a pocket or sleeve. Instructions for administration of drugs, medication, and other special care must be attached to each primary enclosure in a manner that makes them easy to notice, to detach for examination, and to reattach securely. Food and water instructions must be attached in accordance with §3.86(c) of this subpart.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0579-0093)

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