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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of February 25, 2020

Title 7Subtitle BChapter ISubchapter EPart 98 → Subpart A

Title 7: Agriculture

Subpart A—MREs, Meats, and Related Meat Food Products

§98.1   General.
§98.2   Definitions.
§98.3   Analyses performed and locations of laboratories.
§98.4   Analytical methods.
§98.5   Fees and charges.

§98.1   General.

Analytical services of meat and meat food products are performed for fat, moisture, salt, protein, and other content specifications.

§98.2   Definitions.

Words used in the regulations in this subpart in the singular form will import the plural, and vice versa, as the case may demand. As used throughout the regulations in this subpart, unless the context requires otherwise, the following terms will be construed to mean:

Lard (Edible). The fat rendered from clean and sound edible tissues from swine.

Meals, Ready-To-Eat (MRE). Meals, Ready-To-Eat are complete portions of one meal for one military person and are processed and packaged to destroy or retard the growth of spoilage-type microorganisms in order to extend product shelf life for 7 years. Composition analyses for MREs are covered by the reimbursable agreement in the Memorandums of Understanding (MOU's) between AMS, USDA and the Defense Personnel Support Center, Department of Defense (DOD). These DOD, Defense Personnel Support Center (DPSC) contracts state certain military specifications for an acceptable one meal serving, retorted pouched or 18-24 serving hermetically-sealed tray packed meat, or meal product regarding satisfactory analyses for fat, salt, protein, moisture content, added stabilizer ingredient, and sometimes microbiological composition. MREs are for use by the DOD, DPSC as a component of operational food rations, and as an item of general issue by the military.

Meat. This includes the edible part of the muscle of any cattle, sheep, swine, or goats, which is skeletal or which is found in the tongue, in the diaphragm, in the heart, or in the esophagus, and which is intended for human food, with or without the accompanying and overlying fat, and the portions of bone, skin, tendon, nerve, and blood vessels which normally accompany the muscle tissue, and which are not separated from it in the process of dressing. It does not include the muscle found in the lips, snout, or ears. This term, as applied to products of equines, shall have a meaning comparable to that provided in this paragraph with respect to cattle, sheep, swine, and goats.

Meat food product. Any article capable for use as human food (other than meat, prepared meat, or a meat by-product), which is derived or prepared wholly or in substantial part from meat or other portion of the carcass of any cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. An article exempted from definition as a meat food product by the Administrator, such as an organotherapeutic substance, meat juice, meat extract, and the like, which is used only for medicinal purposes and is advertised solely to the medical profession is not included.

Ready-to-eat. The term means consumers are likely to apply little or no additional heat to the fully-cooked and the fully-prepared food product before consumption.

Specifications. Descriptions with respect to the class, grade, other quality, quantity or condition of products, approved by the Administrator, and available for use by the industry regardless of the origin of the descriptions.

Tallow (Edible). The hard fat derived from USDA inspected and passed cattle, sheep, or goats.

Titer. The measure of the hardness or softness of the tested material as determined by the solidification point of fatty acids and expressed in degrees centigrade (°C).

§98.3   Analyses performed and locations of laboratories.

(a) Tables 1 through 4 list the special laboratory analyses rendered by the Science and Technology as a result of an agreement with the Livestock and Seed Division. The payment for such laboratory services rendered at the request of an individual or third party served shall be reimbursed pursuant to the terms as specified in the cooperative agreement.

Table 1—Schedule Analysis

IdentityAnalyses Samples tested
Schedule BC (Beef Chunks, Canned)Fat, salt1
Schedule BJ (Beef with Natural Juices, Canned)Fat1
Schedule CS (Canned Meatball Stew)Fat3
Schedule GP (Frozen Ground Pork)Fat4
Schedule PJ (Pork with Natural Juices, Canned)Fat1
Schedule RB (Beef for Reprocessing)Fat4
Schedule RG (Beef Roasts and Ground Beef)Fat4
Schedule SB (Slab or Sliced Bacon)Moisture, fat, salt1
Schedule WS (Beef or Wafer Steaks)Fat1

Table 2—Microbiological Analysis

Type of analysisNumber of samples tested
Psychrotrophic Bacterial Plate Count1

Table 3—Nonschedule Analysis

Identity AnalysesSamples tested
Fed Specification PP-B-2120B (Ground Beef Products)Fat4
Fed Specification PP-B-81J (Sliced Bacon)Fat, salt, moisture1
Fed Specification PP-L-800E (Luncheon Meat, Canned)Fat, salt1
Ground Beef or Ground PorkFat4
Ground Beef or Ground PorkFat1
Pork SausageFat, salt4
Pork SausageFat, moisture4
Pork SausageFat4
Mil-P-44131A (Pork Steaks, Flaked, Formed, Breaded)Fat4
Milwaukee Public Schools (Breaded/Unbreaded Meat)Fat4
Chili Con Carne Without BeansFat1
A-A-20047-BFat, protein3
A-A-20148Fat, salt3
Mil-B-44133 (GL)Fat, salt3
Mil-B-44158AWater activity6
Mil-C-44253Fat, salt3
Mil-H-44159B (GL)Fat, salt1
PP-F-02154 (Army GL)Fat, salt, moisture1

Table 4—Lard and Tallow Analysis

Type of analysisNumber of samples tested
Fat Analysis Committee (FAC) Color1
Free Fatty Acids1
Insoluble Impurities1
Moisture and Volatile Matter1
Specific Gravity4 to 6
Titer Test1
Unsaponifiable Material1

(b) Meats, such as ground beef or ground pork, meat food products, and MREs, not covered by an agreement with Livestock and Seed Division, are analyzed for fat, moisture, salt, sulfur dioxide, nitrites, sulfites, ascorbates, citric acid, protein, standard plate counts, and coliform counts, among other analyses. These food product analyses are performed at any one of the Science and Technology (S&T) field laboratories as follows:

(1) USDA, AMS, Science and Technology, Midwestern Laboratory, 3570 North Avondale Avenue, Chicago, IL 60618.

(2) USDA, AMS, S&T Aflatoxin Laboratory, 107 South 4th Street, Madill, OK 73446.

(3) USDA, AMS, S&T, Eastern Laboratory, 2311-B Aberdeen Boulevard, Gastonia, NC 28054.

[58 FR 42445, Aug. 9, 1993, as amended at 59 FR 24325, May 10, 1994; 59 FR 50121, Sept. 30, 1994; 61 FR 51353, Oct. 2, 1996; 65 FR 64318, Oct. 26, 2000]

§98.4   Analytical methods.

(a) The majority of analytical methods used by the USDA laboratories to perform analyses of meat, meat food products and MREs are listed as follows:

(1) Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC INTERNATIONAL, Suite 500, 481 North Frederick Avenue, Gaithersburg, MD 20877-2417.

(2) U.S. Army Individual Protection Directorate's Military Specifications, approved analytical test methods noted therein, U.S. Army Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center, Kansas Street, Natick, MA 01760-5017.

(b) Additional analytical methods for these foods will be used, from time to time, as approved by the Director.

[58 FR 42445, Aug. 9, 1993, as amended at 61 FR 51353, Oct. 2, 1996]

§98.5   Fees and charges.

(a) The fee charged for any single laboratory analysis of meat, meat food products, and MREs, not covered by an agreement with Livestock and Seed Division, is specified in the schedules of charges in paragraph (a) of §91.37 of this subchapter.

(b) The laboratory analyses of meat, meat food products, and MREs, not covered by a cooperative agreement, shall result in an additional fee, found in Table 7 of §91.37 of this subchapter, for sample preparation or grinding.

(c) The charge for any requested laboratory analysis of meat, meat food products, and MREs not listed shall be based on the standard hourly rate specified in §91.37, paragraph (b).

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