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e-CFR data is current as of July 1, 2020

Title 49Subtitle BChapter IIISubchapter BPart 382 → Subpart G


Title 49: Transportation
PART 382—CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING


Subpart G—Requirements and Procedures for Implementation of the Commercial Driver's License Drug and Alcohol Clearinghouse


Contents
§382.701   Drug and Alcohol Clearinghouse.
§382.703   Driver consent to permit access to information in the Clearinghouse.
§382.705   Reporting to the Clearinghouse.
§382.707   Notice to drivers of entry, revision, removal, or release of information.
§382.709   Drivers' access to information in the Clearinghouse.
§382.711   Clearinghouse registration.
§382.713   Duration, cancellation, and revocation of access.
§382.715   Authorization to enter information into the Clearinghouse.
§382.717   Procedures for correcting information in the database.
§382.719   Availability and removal of information.
§382.721   Fees.
§382.723   Unauthorized access or use prohibited.
§382.725   Access by State licensing authorities.
§382.727   Penalties.

Source: 81 FR 87725, Dec. 5, 2016, unless otherwise noted.

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§382.701   Drug and Alcohol Clearinghouse.

(a) Pre-employment query required. (1) Employers must not employ a driver subject to controlled substances and alcohol testing under this part to perform a safety-sensitive function without first conducting a pre-employment query of the Clearinghouse to obtain information about whether the driver has a verified positive, adulterated, or substituted controlled substances test result; has an alcohol confirmation test with a concentration of 0.04 or higher; has refused to submit to a test in violation of §382.211; or that an employer has reported actual knowledge, as defined at §382.107, that the driver used alcohol on duty in violation of §382.205, used alcohol before duty in violation of §382.207, used alcohol following an accident in violation of §382.209, or used a controlled substance, in violation of §382.213.

(2) The employer must conduct a full query under this section, which releases information in the Clearinghouse to an employer and requires that the individual driver give specific consent.

(b) Annual query required. (1) Employers must conduct a query of the Clearinghouse at least once per year for information for all employees subject to controlled substance and alcohol testing under this part to determine whether information exists in the Clearinghouse about those employees.

(2) In lieu of a full query, as described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, an employer may obtain the individual driver's consent to conduct a limited query to satisfy the annual query requirement in paragraph (b)(1) of this section. The limited query will tell the employer whether there is information about the individual driver in the Clearinghouse, but will not release that information to the employer. The individual driver may give consent to conduct limited queries that is effective for more than one year.

(3) If the limited query shows that information exists in the Clearinghouse about the individual driver, the employer must conduct a full query, in accordance with paragraph (a)(2) of this section, within 24 hours of conducting the limited query. If the employer fails to conduct a full query within 24 hours, the employer must not allow the driver to continue to perform any safety-sensitive function until the employer conducts the full query and the results confirm that the driver's Clearinghouse record contains no prohibitions as defined in paragraph (d) of this section.

(c) Employer notification. If any information described in paragraph (a) of this section is entered into the Clearinghouse about a driver during the 30-day period immediately following an employer conducting a query of that driver's records, FMCSA will notify the employer.

(d) Prohibition. No employer may allow a driver to perform any safety-sensitive function if the results of a Clearinghouse query demonstrate that the driver has a verified positive, adulterated, or substituted controlled substances test result; has an alcohol confirmation test with a concentration of 0.04 or higher; has refused to submit to a test in violation of §382.211; or that an employer has reported actual knowledge, as defined at §382.107, that the driver used alcohol on duty in violation of §382.205, used alcohol before duty in violation of §382.207, used alcohol following an accident in violation of §382.209, or used a controlled substance in violation of §382.213, except where a query of the Clearinghouse demonstrates:

(1) That the driver has successfully completed the SAP evaluation, referral, and education/treatment process set forth in part 40, subpart O, of this title; achieves a negative return-to-duty test result; and completes the follow-up testing plan prescribed by the SAP.

(2) That, if the driver has not completed all follow-up tests as prescribed by the SAP in accordance with §40.307 of this title and specified in the SAP report required by §40.311 of this title, the driver has completed the SAP evaluation, referral, and education/treatment process set forth in part 40, subpart O, of this title and achieves a negative return-to-duty test result, and the employer assumes the responsibility for managing the follow-up testing process associated with the testing violation.

(e) Recordkeeping required. Employers must retain for 3 years a record of each query and all information received in response to each query made under this section. As of January 6, 2023, an employer who maintains a valid registration fulfills this requirement.

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§382.703   Driver consent to permit access to information in the Clearinghouse.

(a) No employer may query the Clearinghouse to determine whether a record exists for any particular driver without first obtaining that driver's written or electronic consent. The employer conducting the search must retain the consent for 3 years from the date of the last query.

(b) Before the employer may access information contained in the driver's Clearinghouse record, the driver must submit electronic consent through the Clearinghouse granting the employer access to the following specific records:

(1) A verified positive, adulterated, or substituted controlled substances test result;

(2) An alcohol confirmation test with a concentration of 0.04 or higher;

(3) A refusal to submit to a test in violation of §382.211;

(4) An employer's report of actual knowledge, as defined at §382.107, of:

(i) On duty alcohol use pursuant to §382.205;

(ii) Pre-duty alcohol use pursuant to §382.207;

(iii) Alcohol use following an accident pursuant to §382.209; and

(iv) Controlled substance use pursuant to §382.213;

(5) A SAP report of the successful completion of the return-to-duty process;

(6) A negative return-to-duty test; and

(7) An employer's report of completion of follow-up testing.

(c) No employer may permit a driver to perform a safety-sensitive function if the driver refuses to grant the consent required by paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section.

(d) A driver granting consent under this section must provide consent electronically to the Agency through the Clearinghouse prior to release of information to an employer in accordance with §382.701(a)(2) or (b)(3).

(e) A driver granting consent under this section grants consent for the Agency to release information to an employer in accordance with §382.701(c).

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§382.705   Reporting to the Clearinghouse.

(a) MROs. (1) Within 2 business days of making a determination or verification, MROs must report the following information about a driver to the Clearinghouse:

(i) Verified positive, adulterated, or substituted controlled substances test results;

(ii) Refusal-to-test determination by the MRO in accordance with 49 CFR 40.191(a)(5), (7), and (11), (b), and (d)(2).

(2) MROs must provide the following information for each controlled substances test result specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section:

(i) Reason for the test;

(ii) Federal Drug Testing Custody and Control Form specimen ID number;

(iii) Driver's name, date of birth, and CDL number and State of issuance;

(iv) Employer's name, address, and USDOT number, if applicable;

(v) Date of the test;

(vi) Date of the verified result; and

(vii) Test result. The test result must be one of the following:

(A) Positive (including the controlled substance(s) identified);

(B) Refusal to test: Adulterated;

(C) Refusal to test: Substituted; or

(D) Refusal to provide a sufficient specimen after the MRO makes a determination, in accordance with §40.193 of this title, that the employee does not have a medical condition that has, or with a high degree of probability could have, precluded the employee from providing a sufficient amount of urine. Under this subpart a refusal would also include a refusal to undergo a medical examination or evaluation to substantiate a qualifying medical condition.

(3) Within 1 business day of making any change to the results report in accordance with paragraph (a)(1) of this section, a MRO must report that changed result to the Clearinghouse.

(b) Employers. (1) Employers must report the following information about a driver to the Clearinghouse by the close of the third business day following the date on which they obtained that information:

(i) An alcohol confirmation test result with an alcohol concentration of 0.04 or greater;

(ii) A negative return-to-duty test result;

(iii) A refusal to take an alcohol test pursuant to 49 CFR 40.261;

(iv) A refusal to test determination made in accordance with 49 CFR 40.191(a)(1) through (4), (a)(6), (a)(8) through (11), or (d)(1), but in the case of a refusal to test under (a)(11), the employer may report only those admissions made to the specimen collector; and

(v) A report that the driver has successfully completed all follow-up tests as prescribed in the SAP report in accordance with §§40.307, 40.309, and 40.311 of this title.

(2) The information required to be reported under paragraph (b)(1) of this section must include, as applicable:

(i) Reason for the test;

(ii) Driver's name, date of birth, and CDL number and State of issuance;

(iii) Employer name, address, and USDOT number;

(iv) Date of the test;

(v) Date the result was reported; and

(vi) Test result. The test result must be one of the following:

(A) Negative (only required for return-to-duty tests administered in accordance with §382.309);

(B) Positive; or

(C) Refusal to take a test.

(3) For each report of a violation of 49 CFR 40.261(a)(1) or 40.191(a)(1), the employer must report the following information:

(i) Documentation, including, but not limited to, electronic mail or other contemporaneous record of the time and date the driver was notified to appear at a testing site; and the time, date and testing site location at which the employee was directed to appear, or an affidavit providing evidence of such notification;

(ii) Documentation, including, but not limited to, electronic mail or other correspondence, or an affidavit, indicating the date the employee was terminated or resigned (if applicable);

(iii) Documentation, including, but not limited to, electronic mail or other correspondence, or an affidavit, showing that the C/TPA reporting the violation was designated as a service agent for an employer who employs himself/herself as a driver pursuant to paragraph (b)(6) of this section when the reported refusal occurred (if applicable); and

(iv) Documentation, including a certificate of service or other evidence, showing that the employer provided the employee with all documentation reported under paragraph (b)(3) of this section.

(4) Employers must report the following violations by the close of the third business day following the date on which the employer obtains actual knowledge, as defined at §382.107, of:

(i) On-duty alcohol use pursuant to §382.205;

(ii) Pre-duty alcohol use pursuant to §382.207;

(iii) Alcohol use following an accident pursuant to §382.209; and

(iv) Controlled substance use pursuant to §382.213.

(5) For each violation in paragraph (b)(4) of this section, the employer must report the following information:

(i) Driver's name, date of birth, CDL number and State of issuance;

(ii) Employer name, address, and USDOT number, if applicable;

(iii) Date the employer obtained actual knowledge of the violation;

(iv) Witnesses to the violation, if any, including contact information;

(v) Description of the violation;

(vi) Evidence supporting each fact alleged in the description of the violation required under paragraph (b)(4) of this section, which may include, but is not limited to, affidavits, photographs, video or audio recordings, employee statements (other than admissions pursuant to §382.121), correspondence, or other documentation; and

(vii) A certificate of service or other evidence showing that the employer provided the employee with all information reported under paragraph (b)(4) of this section.

(6) An employer who employs himself/herself as a driver must designate a C/TPA to comply with the employer requirements in paragraph (b) of this section related to his or her own alcohol and controlled substances use.

(c) C/TPAs. Any employer may designate a C/TPA to perform the employer requirements in paragraph (b) of this section. Regardless of whether it uses a C/TPA to perform its requirements, the employer retains ultimate responsibility for compliance with this section. Exception: An employer does not retain responsibility where the C/TPA is designated to comply with employer requirements as described in paragraph (b)(6) of this section.

(d) SAPs. (1) SAPs must report to the Clearinghouse for each driver who has completed the return-to-duty process in accordance with 49 CFR part 40, subpart O, the following information:

(i) SAPs name, address, and telephone number;

(ii) Driver's name, date of birth, and CDL number and State of issuance;

(iii) Date of the initial substance-abuse-professional assessment; and

(iv) Date the SAP determined that the driver demonstrated successful compliance as defined in 49 CFR part 40, subpart O, and was eligible for return-to-duty testing under this part.

(2) SAP must report the information required by paragraphs (d)(1)(i) through (iii) of this section by the close of the business day following the date of the initial substance abuse assessment, and must report the information required by paragraph (d)(1)(iv) of this section by the close of the business day following the determination that the driver has completed the return-to-duty process.

(e) Reporting truthfully and accurately. Every person or entity with access must report truthfully and accurately to the Clearinghouse and is expressly prohibited from reporting information he or she knows or should know is false or inaccurate.

Reporting Entities and Circumstances

Reporting entityWhen information will be reported to clearinghouse
Prospective/Current Employer of CDL Driver—An alcohol confirmation test with a concentration of 0.04 or higher.
—Refusal to test (alcohol) as specified in 49 CFR 40.261.
   —Refusal to test (drug) not requiring a determination by the MRO as specified in 49 CFR 40.191.
   —Actual knowledge, as defined in 49 CFR 382.107, that a driver has used alcohol on duty, used alcohol within four hours of coming on duty, used alcohol prior to post-accident testing, or has used a controlled substance.
   —Negative return-to-duty test results (drug and alcohol testing, as applicable)
   —Completion of follow-up testing.
Service Agent acting on behalf of Current Employer of CDL Driver—An alcohol confirmation test with a concentration of 0.04 or higher.
—Refusal to test (alcohol) as specified in 49 CFR 40.261.
   —Refusal to test (drug) not requiring a determination by the MRO as specified in 49 CFR 40.191.
   —Actual knowledge, as defined in 49 CFR 382.107, that a driver has used alcohol on duty, used alcohol within four hours of coming on duty, used alcohol prior to post-accident testing, or has used a controlled substance.
   —Negative return-to-duty test results (drug and alcohol testing, as applicable)
   —Completion of follow-up testing.
MRO—Verified positive, adulterated, or substituted drug test result.
   —Refusal to test (drug) requiring a determination by the MRO as specified in 49 CFR 40.191.
SAP—Identification of driver and date the initial assessment was initiated.
   —Successful completion of treatment and/or education and the determination of eligibility for return-to-duty testing.

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§382.707   Notice to drivers of entry, revision, removal, or release of information.

(a) FMCSA must notify a driver when information concerning that driver has been added to, revised, or removed from the Clearinghouse.

(b) FMCSA must notify a driver when information concerning that driver has been released from the Clearinghouse to an employer and specify the reason for the release.

(c) Drivers will be notified by letter sent by U.S. Mail to the address on record with the State Driver Licensing Agency that issued the driver's commercial driver's license. Exception: A driver may provide the Clearinghouse with an alternative means or address for notification, including electronic mail.

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§382.709   Drivers' access to information in the Clearinghouse.

A driver may review information in the Clearinghouse about himself or herself, except as otherwise restricted by law or regulation. A driver must register with the Clearinghouse before accessing his or her information.

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§382.711   Clearinghouse registration.

(a) Clearinghouse registration required. Each employer and service agent must register with the Clearinghouse before accessing or reporting information in the Clearinghouse.

(b) Employers. (1) Employer Clearinghouse registration must include:

(i) Name, address, and telephone number;

(ii) USDOT number, except if the registrant does not have a USDOT Number, it may be requested to provide other information to verify identity; and

(iii) Name of the person(s) the employer authorizes to report information to or obtain information from the Clearinghouse and any additional information FMCSA needs to validate his or her identity.

(2) Employers must verify the names of the person(s) authorized under paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section annually.

(3) Identification of the C/TPA or other service agent used to comply with the requirements of this part, if applicable, and authorization for the C/TPA to query or report information to the Clearinghouse. Employers must update any changes to this information within 10 days.

(c) MROs and SAPs. Each MRO or SAP must provide the following to apply for Clearinghouse registration:

(1) Name, address, telephone number, and any additional information FMCSA needs to validate the applicant's identity;

(2) A certification that the applicant's access to the Clearinghouse is conditioned on his or her compliance with the applicable qualification and/or training requirements in 49 CFR part 40; and

(3) Evidence of required professional credentials to verify that the applicant currently meets the applicable qualification and/or training requirements in 49 CFR part 40.

(d) C/TPAs and other service agents. Each consortium/third party administrator or other service agent must provide the following to apply for Clearinghouse registration:

(1) Name, address, telephone number, and any additional information FMCSA needs to validate the applicant's identity; and

(2) Name, title, and telephone number of the person(s) authorized to report information to and obtain information from the Clearinghouse.

(3) Each C/TPA or other service agent must verify the names of the person(s) authorized under paragraph (d)(2) of this section annually.

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§382.713   Duration, cancellation, and revocation of access.

(a) Term. Clearinghouse registration is valid for 5 years, unless cancelled or revoked.

(b) Cancellation. FMCSA will cancel Clearinghouse registrations for anyone who has not queried or reported to the Clearinghouse for 2 years.

(c) Revocation. FMCSA has the right to revoke the Clearinghouse registration of anyone who fails to comply with any of the prescribed rights and restrictions on access to the Clearinghouse, including but not limited to, submission of inaccurate or false information and misuse or misappropriation of access rights or protected information from the Clearinghouse and failure to maintain the requisite qualifications, certifications and/or training requirements as set forth in part 40 of this title.

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§382.715   Authorization to enter information into the Clearinghouse.

(a) C/TPAs. No C/TPA or other service agent may enter information into the Clearinghouse on an employer's behalf unless the employer designates the C/TPA or other service agent.

(b) SAPs. A driver must designate a SAP before that SAP can enter any information about the driver's return-to-duty process into the Clearinghouse.

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§382.717   Procedures for correcting information in the database.

(a) Petitions limited to inaccurately reported information. (1) Under this section, petitioners may challenge only the accuracy of information reporting, not the accuracy of test results or refusals.

(2) Exceptions. (i) Petitioners may request that FMCSA remove from the Clearinghouse an employer's report of actual knowledge that the driver received a traffic citation for driving a commercial motor vehicle while under the influence of alcohol or controlled substances if the citation did not result in a conviction. For the purposes of this section, conviction has the same meaning as used in 49 CFR part 383.

(ii) Petitioners may request that FMCSA remove from the Clearinghouse an employer's report of actual knowledge (other than as provided for in paragraph (a)(2)(i) of this section) if that report does not comply with the reporting requirements in §382.705(b)(5).

(iii) Petitioners may request that FMCSA remove from the Clearinghouse an employer's report of a violation under 49 CFR 40.261(a)(1) or 40.191(a)(1) if that report does not comply with the reporting requirements in §382.705(b)(3).

(b) Petition. Any driver or authorized representative of the driver may submit a petition to the FMCSA contesting the accuracy of information in the Clearinghouse. The petition must include:

(1) The petitioner's name, address, telephone number, and CDL number and State of issuance;

(2) Detailed description of the basis for the allegation that the information is not accurate; and

(3) Evidence supporting the allegation that the information is not accurate. Failure to submit evidence is cause for dismissing the petition.

(c) Submission of petition. The petitioner may submit his/her petition electronically through the Clearinghouse or in writing to: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, Office of Enforcement and Compliance, Attention: Drug and Alcohol Program Manager, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590.

(d) Notice of decision. Within 45 days of receiving a complete petition, FMCSA will inform the driver in writing of its decision to remove, retain, or correct the information in the database and provide the basis for the decision.

(e) Request for expedited treatment. (1) A driver may request expedited treatment to correct inaccurate information in his or her Clearinghouse record under paragraph (a)(1) of this section if the inaccuracy is currently preventing him or her from performing safety-sensitive functions, or to remove employer reports under paragraph (a)(2) of this section if such reports are currently preventing him or her from performing safety-sensitive functions. This request may be included in the original petition or as a separate document.

(2) If FMCSA grants expedited treatment, it will subsequently inform the driver of its decision in writing within 14 days of receipt of a complete petition.

(f) Administrative review. (1) A driver may request FMCSA to conduct an administrative review if he or she believes that a decision made in accordance with paragraph (d) or (e) of this section was in error.

(2) The request must prominently state at the top of the document: “Administrative Review of Drug and Alcohol Clearinghouse Decision” and the driver may submit his/her request electronically through the Clearinghouse or in writing to the Associate Administrator for Enforcement (MC-E), Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, 1200 New Jersey Ave. SE., Washington, DC 20590.

(3) The driver's request must explain the error he or she believes FMCSA committed and provide information and/or documents to support his or her argument.

(4) FMCSA will complete its administrative review no later than 30 days after receiving the driver's request for review. The Associate Administrator's decision will constitute the final Agency action.

(g) Subsequent notification to employers. When information is corrected or removed in accordance with this section, or in accordance with 49 CFR part 10, FMCSA will notify any employer that accessed the incorrect information that a correction or removal was made.

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§382.719   Availability and removal of information.

(a) Driver information not available. Information about a driver's drug or alcohol violation will not be available to an employer conducting a query of the Clearinghouse after all of the following conditions relating to the violation are satisfied:

(1) The SAP reports to the Clearinghouse the information required in §382.705(d);

(2) The employer reports to the Clearinghouse that the driver's return-to-duty test results are negative;

(3) The driver's current employer reports that the driver has successfully completed all follow-up tests as prescribed in the SAP report in accordance with §§40.307, 40.309, and 40.311 of this title; and

(4) Five years have passed since the date of the violation determination.

(b) Driver information remains available. Information about a particular driver's drug or alcohol violation will remain available to employers conducting a query until all requirements in paragraph (a) of this section have been met.

(c) Exceptions. (1) Within 2 business days of granting a request for removal pursuant to §382.717(a)(2)(i), FMCSA will remove information from the Clearinghouse.

(2) Information about a particular driver's drug or alcohol violation may be removed in accordance with §382.717(a)(2)(ii) and (iii) or in accordance with 49 CFR part 10.

(d) Driver information remains available. Nothing in this part shall prevent FMCSA from using information removed under this section for research, auditing, or enforcement purposes.

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§382.721   Fees.

FMCSA may collect a reasonable fee from entities required to query the Clearinghouse. Exception: No driver may be required to pay a fee to access his or her own information in the Clearinghouse.

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§382.723   Unauthorized access or use prohibited.

(a) Except as expressly authorized in this subpart, no person or entity may access the Clearinghouse. No person or entity may share, distribute, publish, or otherwise release any information in the Clearinghouse except as specifically authorized by law. No person may report inaccurate or misleading information to the Clearinghouse.

(b) An employer's use of information received from the Clearinghouse is limited to determining whether a prohibition applies to a driver performing a safety-sensitive function with respect to a commercial motor vehicle. No employer may divulge or permit any other person or entity to divulge any information from the Clearinghouse to any person or entity not directly involved in determining whether a prohibition applies to a driver performing a safety-sensitive function with respect to a commercial motor vehicle.

(c) Violations of this section are subject to civil and criminal penalties in accordance with applicable law, including those set forth at §382.507.

(d) Nothing in this part shall prohibit FMCSA from accessing information about individual drivers in the Clearinghouse for research, auditing, or enforcement purposes.

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§382.725   Access by State licensing authorities.

(a)(1) Beginning January 6, 2020, and before January 6, 2023, in order to determine whether a driver is qualified to operate a commercial motor vehicle, the chief commercial driver's licensing official of a State may obtain the driver's record from the Clearinghouse if the driver has applied for a commercial driver's license from that State.

(2) On or after January 6, 2023, in order to determine whether a driver is qualified to operate a commercial motor vehicle, the chief commercial driver's licensing official of a State must obtain the driver's record from the Clearinghouse if the driver has applied for a commercial driver's license from that State.

(b) By applying for a commercial driver's license, a driver is deemed to have consented to the release of information from the Clearinghouse in accordance with this section.

(c) The chief commercial driver's licensing official's use of information received from the Clearinghouse is limited to determining an individual's qualifications to operate a commercial motor vehicle. No chief driver's licensing official may divulge or permit any other person or entity to divulge any information from the Clearinghouse to any person or entity not directly involved in determining an individual's qualifications to operate a commercial motor vehicle.

(d) A chief commercial driver's licensing official who does not take appropriate safeguards to protect the privacy and confidentiality of information obtained under this section is subject to revocation of his or her right of access under this section.

[81 FR 87725, Dec. 5, 2016, as amended at 84 FR 68057, Dec. 13, 2019]

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§382.727   Penalties.

An employer, employee, MRO, or service agent who violates any provision of this subpart shall be subject to the civil and/or criminal penalty provisions of 49 U.S.C. 521(b)(2)(C).

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