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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of December 5, 2019

Title 49Subtitle BChapter IIPart 214 → Subpart C


Title 49: Transportation
PART 214—RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY


Subpart C—Roadway Worker Protection


Contents
§214.301   Purpose and scope.
§214.302   [Reserved]
§214.303   Railroad on-track safety programs, generally.
§214.305   [Reserved]
§214.307   On-track safety programs.
§214.309   On-track safety manual.
§214.311   Responsibility of employers.
§214.313   Responsibility of individual roadway workers.
§214.315   Supervision and communication.
§214.317   On-track safety procedures, generally.
§214.318   Locomotive servicing and car shop repair track areas.
§214.319   Working limits, generally.
§214.320   Roadway maintenance machine movements over signalized non-controlled track.
§214.321   Exclusive track occupancy.
§214.322   Exclusive track occupancy, electronic display.
§214.323   Foul time.
§214.325   Train coordination.
§214.327   Inaccessible track.
§214.329   Train approach warning provided by watchmen/lookouts.
§214.331   Definite train location.
§214.333   Informational line-ups of trains.
§214.335   On-track safety procedures for roadway work groups, general.
§214.336   On-track safety procedures for certain roadway work groups and adjacent tracks.
§214.337   On-track safety procedures for lone workers.
§214.339   Audible warning from trains.
§214.341   Roadway maintenance machines.
§214.343   Training and qualification, general.
§214.345   Training for all roadway workers.
§214.347   Training and qualification for lone workers.
§214.349   Training and qualification of watchmen/lookouts.
§214.351   Training and qualification of flagmen.
§214.353   Training and qualification of each roadway worker in charge.
§214.355   Training and qualification of each roadway worker in on-track safety for operators of roadway maintenance machines.
§214.357   Training and qualification for operators of roadway maintenance machines equipped with a crane.

Source: 61 FR 65976, Dec. 16, 1996, unless otherwise noted.

§214.301   Purpose and scope.

(a) The purpose of this subpart is to prevent accidents and casualties caused by moving railroad cars, locomotives or roadway maintenance machines striking roadway workers or roadway maintenance machines.

(b) This subpart prescribes minimum safety standards for roadway workers. Each railroad and railroad contractor may prescribe additional or more stringent operating rules, safety rules, and other special instructions that are consistent with this subpart.

(c) This subpart prescribes safety standards related to the movement of roadway maintenance machines where such movements affect the safety of roadway workers. Except as provided for in §214.320, this subpart does not otherwise affect movements of roadway maintenance machines that are conducted under the authority of a train dispatcher, a control operator, or the operating rules of the railroad.

[61 FR 65976, Dec. 16, 1996, as amended at 81 FR 37885, June 10, 2016]

§214.302   [Reserved]

§214.303   Railroad on-track safety programs, generally.

(a) Each railroad to which this part applies shall adopt and implement a program that will afford on-track safety to all roadway workers whose duties are performed on that railroad. Each such program shall provide for the levels of protection specified in this subpart.

(b) Each on-track safety program adopted to comply with this part shall include procedures to be used by each railroad for monitoring effectiveness of and compliance with the program.

§214.305   [Reserved]

§214.307   On-track safety programs.

(a) Each railroad subject to this part shall maintain and have in effect an on-track safety program which complies with the requirements of this subpart. New railroads must have an on-track safety program in effect by the date on which operations commence. The on-track safety program shall be retained at a railroad's system headquarters and division headquarters, and shall be made available to representatives of the FRA for inspection and copying during normal business hours. Each railroad to which this part applies is authorized to retain its program by electronic recordkeeping in accordance with §§217.9(g) and 217.11(c) of this chapter.

(b) Each railroad shall notify, in writing, the Associate Administrator for Safety and Chief Safety Officer, Federal Railroad Administration, RRS-15, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590, not less than one month before its on-track safety program becomes effective. The notification shall include the effective date of the program and the name, title, address and telephone number of the primary person to be contacted with regard to review of the program. This notification procedure shall also apply to subsequent changes to a railroad's on-track safety program.

(c) Upon review of a railroad's on-track safety program, the FRA Associate Administrator for Railroad Safety and Chief Safety Officer may, for cause stated, may disapprove the program. Notification of such disapproval shall be made in writing and specify the basis for the disapproval decision. If the Associate Administrator for Railroad Safety and Chief Safety Officer disapproves the program:

(1) The railroad has 35 days from the date of the written notification of such disapproval to:

(i) Amend its program and submit it to the Associate Administrator for Railroad Safety and Chief Safety Officer for approval; or

(ii) Provide a written response in support of its program to the Associate Administrator for Railroad Safety and Chief Safety Officer.

(2) FRA's Associate Administrator for Railroad Safety and Chief Safety Officer will subsequently issue a written decision either approving or disapproving the railroad's program.

(3) Failure to submit to FRA an amended program or provide a written response in accordance with this paragraph will be considered a failure to implement an on-track safety program under this subpart.

[81 FR 37885, June 10, 2016]

§214.309   On-track safety manual.

(a) The applicable on-track safety manual (as defined by §214.7) shall be readily available to all roadway workers. Each roadway worker in charge responsible for the on-track safety of others, and each lone worker, shall be provided with and shall maintain a copy of the on-track safety manual.

(b) When it is impracticable for the on-track safety manual to be readily available to a lone worker, the employer shall establish provisions for such worker to have alternative access to the information in the manual.

(c) Changes to the on-track safety manual may be temporarily published in bulletins or notices. Such publications shall be retained along with the on-track safety manual until fully incorporated into the manual.

[81 FR 37885, June 10, 2016]

§214.311   Responsibility of employers.

(a) Each employer is responsible for the understanding and compliance by its employees with its rules and the requirements of this part.

(b) Each employer shall guarantee each employee the absolute right to challenge in good faith whether the on-track safety procedures to be applied at the job location comply with the rules of the operating railroad, and to remain clear of the track until the challenge is resolved.

(c) Each employer shall have in place a written procedure to achieve prompt and equitable resolution of challenges made in accordance with §§214.311(b) and 214.313(d).

§214.313   Responsibility of individual roadway workers.

(a) Each roadway worker is responsible for following the on-track safety rules of the railroad upon which the roadway worker is located.

(b) A roadway worker shall not foul a track except when necessary for the performance of duty.

(c) Each roadway worker is responsible to ascertain that on-track safety is being provided before fouling a track.

(d) Each roadway worker may refuse any directive to violate an on-track safety rule, and shall inform the employer in accordance with §214.311 whenever the roadway worker makes a good faith determination that on-track safety provisions to be applied at the job location do not comply with the rules of the operating railroad.

§214.315   Supervision and communication.

(a) When an employer assigns a duty to a roadway worker that calls for that employee to foul a track, the employer shall provide the employee with an on-track safety job briefing that, at a minimum, includes the following:

(1) Information on the means by which on-track safety is to be provided for each track identified to be fouled;

(2) Instruction on each on-track safety procedure to be followed;

(3) Information about any adjacent tracks, on-track safety for such tracks, if required by this subpart or deemed necessary by the roadway worker in charge, and identification of any roadway maintenance machines that will foul such tracks;

(4) A discussion of the nature of the work to be performed and the characteristics of the work location to ensure compliance with this subpart; and

(5) Information on the accessibility of the roadway worker in charge and alternative procedures in the event the roadway worker in charge is no longer accessible to the members of the roadway work group.

(b) A job briefing for on-track safety shall be deemed complete only after the roadway worker(s) has acknowledged understanding of the on-track safety procedures and instructions presented.

(c) Every roadway work group whose duties require fouling a track shall have one roadway worker in charge designated by the employer to provide on-track safety for all members of the group. The designated person shall be qualified under the rules of the railroad that conducts train operations on those tracks to provide the protection necessary for on-track safety of each individual in the group. The responsible person may be designated generally, or specifically for a particular work situation.

(d) Before any member of a roadway work group fouls a track, the roadway worker in charge designated under paragraph (c) of this section shall inform each roadway worker of the on-track safety procedures to be used and followed during the performance of the work at that time and location. Each roadway worker shall again be so informed at any time the on-track safety procedures change during the work period. Such information shall be given to all roadway workers affected before the change is effective, except in cases of emergency. Any roadway workers who, because of an emergency, cannot be notified in advance shall be immediately warned to leave the fouling space and shall not return to the fouling space until on-track safety is re-established.

(e) Each lone worker shall communicate at the beginning of each duty period with a supervisor or another designated employee to receive an on-track safety job briefing and to advise of his or her planned itinerary and the procedures that he or she intends to use for on-track safety. When communication channels are disabled, the job briefing shall be conducted as soon as possible after the beginning of the work period when communications are restored.

[61 FR 65976, Dec. 16, 1996, as amended at 76 FR 74614, Nov. 30, 2011; 81 FR 37885, June 10, 2016]

§214.317   On-track safety procedures, generally.

(a) Each employer subject to the provisions of this part shall provide on-track safety for roadway workers by adopting a program that contains specific rules for protecting roadway workers that comply with the provisions of §§214.319 through 214.337.

(b) Roadway workers may walk across any track provided that they can safely be across and clear of the track before a train or other on-track equipment would arrive at the crossing point under the following circumstances:

(1) Employers shall adopt, and roadway workers shall comply with, applicable railroad safety rules governing how to determine that it is safe to cross the track before starting across;

(2) Roadway workers shall move directly and promptly across the track; and

(3) On-track safety protection is in place for all roadway workers who are actually engaged in work, including inspection, construction, maintenance or repair, and extending to carrying tools or material that restricts motion, impairs sight or hearing, or prevents an employee from detecting and moving rapidly away from an approaching train or other on-track equipment.

(c) On non-controlled track, on-track roadway maintenance machines engaged in weed spraying or snow removal may proceed under the provisions of §214.301(c), under the following conditions:

(1) Each railroad shall establish and comply with an operating procedure for on-track snow removal and weed spray equipment to ensure that:

(i) All on-track movements in the affected area are informed of such operations;

(ii) All on-track movements shall operate at restricted speed as defined in §214.7, except on other than yard tracks and yard switching leads, where all on-track movements shall operate prepared to stop within one-half the range of vision but not exceeding 25 mph;

(iii) A means for communication between the on-track equipment and other on-track movements is provided; and

(iv) Remotely controlled hump yard facility operations are not in effect, and kicking of cars is prohibited unless agreed to by the roadway worker in charge.

(2) Roadway workers engaged in such snow removal or weed spraying operations subject to this section shall retain an absolute right to use the provisions of §214.327 (inaccessible track).

(3) Roadway workers assigned to work with this equipment may line switches (or derails operated via a switch stand) for the machine's movement but shall not engage in any roadway work activity unless protected by another form of on-track safety.

(4) Each roadway maintenance machine engaged in snow removal or weed spraying under this provision shall be equipped with and utilize:

(i) An operative 360-degree intermittent warning light or beacon;

(ii) Work lights, if the machine is operated during the period between one-half hour after sunset and one-half hour before sunrise or in dark areas such as tunnels, unless equivalent lighting is otherwise provided;

(iii) An illumination device, such as a headlight, capable of illuminating obstructions on the track ahead in the direction of travel for a distance of 300 feet under normal weather and atmospheric conditions;

(iv) A brake light activated by the application of the machine braking system, and designed to be visible for a distance of 300 feet under normal weather and atmospheric conditions; and

(v) A rearward viewing device, such as a rearview mirror.

(d) Tunnel niches or clearing bays in existence prior to April 1, 2017 that are designed to permit roadway workers to occupy a place of safety when trains or other on-track equipment pass the niche or clearing bay, but are less than four feet from the field side of the nearest rail, may continue to be used as a place of safety provided:

(1) Such niches or clearing bays are visually inspected by the roadway worker in charge or lone worker prior to making the determination that the niche or clearing bay is suitable for use as a place of safety;

(2) There is adequate sight distance to permit a roadway worker or lone worker to occupy the place of safety in the niche or clearing bay at least 15 seconds prior to the arrival of a train or other on-track equipment at the work location in accordance with §§214.329 and 214.337; and

(3) The roadway worker in charge or lone worker shall have the absolute right to designate a place of safety as a location other than that of a tunnel niche or clearing bay described by this paragraph (d), or to establish working limits.

[81 FR 37885, June 10, 2016]

§214.318   Locomotive servicing and car shop repair track areas.

(a) In lieu of the requirements of this subpart, workers (as defined by §218.5 of this chapter) within the limits of locomotive servicing and car shop repair track areas (as both are defined by §218.5 of this chapter) may utilize procedures established by a railroad in accordance with part 218, subpart B, of this chapter (Blue Signal Protection) to perform duties incidental to inspecting, testing, servicing, or repairing rolling equipment when those incidental duties involve fouling a track that is protected by Blue Signal Protection. A railroad utilizing Blue Signal Protection in lieu of the requirements of this subpart must have rules in effect governing the applicability of those protections to the incidental duties being performed.

(b) Paragraph (a) of this section applies to employees of a contractor to a railroad if such incidental duties are performed under the supervision of a railroad employee qualified (as defined by §217.4 of this chapter) on the railroad's rules and procedures implementing the Blue Signal Protection requirements.

(c) Any work performed within the limits of a locomotive servicing or car shop repair track area with the potential of fouling a track which requires a person qualified under §213.7 of this chapter to be present to inspect or supervise such work must be performed in accordance with the requirements of this subpart.

[81 FR 31886, June 10, 2016]

§214.319   Working limits, generally.

Working limits established on controlled track shall conform to the provisions of §214.321 Exclusive track occupancy, §214.323 Foul time, or §214.325 Train coordination. Working limits established on non-controlled track shall conform to the provision of §214.327 Inaccessible track.

(a) Working limits established under any procedure shall, in addition, conform to the following provisions:

(1) Only a roadway worker in charge who is qualified in accordance with §214.353 shall establish or have control over working limits for the purpose of establishing on-track safety.

(2) Only one roadway worker in charge who is qualified in accordance with §214.353 shall have control over working limits on any one segment of track.

(3) All affected roadway workers shall be notified before working limits are released for the operation of trains. Working limits shall not be released until all affected roadway workers have either left the track or have been afforded on-track safety through train approach warning in accordance with §214.329.

(b) Each Class I or Class II railroad or each railroad providing regularly scheduled intercity or commuter rail passenger transportation that utilizes controlled track working limits as a form of on-track safety (under §§214.321 through 214.323) in signalized territory shall:

(1) By July 1, 2017, evaluate its on-track safety program and identify an appropriate method(s) of providing redundant signal protections for roadway work groups who depend on a train dispatcher or control operator to provide signal protection in establishing controlled track working limits. For purposes of this section, redundant signal protections means risk mitigation measures or safety redundancies adopted to ensure the proper establishment and maintenance of signal protections for controlled track working limits until such working limits are released by the roadway worker in charge. Appropriate redundant protections could include the use of various risk mitigation measures (or a combination of risk mitigation measures) such as technology, training, supervision, or operating-based procedures; or could include use of redundant signal protection, such as shunting, designed to prevent signal system-related incursions into established controlled track working limits; and

(2) By January 1, 2018, specifically identify, implement, and comply with the method(s) of providing redundant protections in its on-track safety program.

(c) Upon a railroad's request, FRA will consider an exemption from the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section for each segment of track(s) for which operations are governed by a positive train control system under part 236, subpart I, of this chapter. A request for approval to exempt a segment of track must be submitted in writing to the FRA Associate Administrator for Railroad Safety and Chief Safety Officer. The FRA Associate Administrator for Railroad Safety and Chief Safety Officer will review a railroad's submission and will notify a railroad of its approval or disapproval in writing within 90 days of FRA's receipt of a railroad's written request, and shall specify the basis for any disapproval decision.

[81 FR 37886, June 10, 2016]

§214.320   Roadway maintenance machine movements over signalized non-controlled track.

Working limits must be established for roadway maintenance machine movements on non-controlled track equipped with automatic block signal systems over which trains are permitted to exceed restricted speed (for purposes of this section, on-track movements prepared to stop within on-half the range of vision but not exceeding 25 mph). This section applies unless the railroad's operating rules protect the movements of roadway maintenance machines in a manner equivalent to that provided for by limiting all train and locomotive movements to restricted speed, and such equivalent level of protection is first approved in writing by FRA's Associate Administrator for Railroad Safety and Chief Safety Officer.

[81 FR 37887, June 10, 2016]

§214.321   Exclusive track occupancy.

Working limits established on controlled track through the use of exclusive track occupancy procedures shall comply with the following requirements:

(a) The track within working limits shall be placed under the control of one roadway worker in charge by either:

(1) Authority issued to the roadway worker in charge by the train dispatcher or control operator who controls train movements on that track,

(2) Flagmen stationed at each entrance to the track within working limits and instructed by the roadway worker in charge to permit the movement of trains and equipment into the working limits only as permitted by the roadway worker in charge, or

(3) The roadway worker in charge causing fixed signals at each entrance to the working limits to display an aspect indicating “Stop.”

(b) An authority for exclusive track occupancy given to the roadway worker in charge of the working limits shall be transmitted on a written or printed document directly, by relay through a designated employee, in a data transmission, or by oral communication, to the roadway worker in charge by the train dispatcher or control operator in charge of the track.

(1) Where authority for exclusive track occupancy is transmitted orally, the authority shall be written as received by the roadway worker in charge and repeated to the issuing employee for verification.

(2) The roadway worker in charge of the working limits shall maintain possession of the written or printed authority for exclusive track occupancy while the authority for the working limits is in effect. A data transmission of an authority displayed on an electronic screen may be used as a substitute for a written or printed document required under this paragraph. Electronic displays of authority shall comply with the requirements of §214.322.

(3) The train dispatcher or control operator in charge of the track shall make a written or electronic record of all authorities issued to establish exclusive track occupancy.

(4) An authority shall specify a unique roadway work group number, an employee name, or a unique identifier. A railroad shall adopt procedures that require precise communication between trains and other on-track equipment and the roadway worker in charge or lone worker controlling the working limits in accordance with §214.319. The procedures may permit communications to be made directly between a train or other on-track equipment and a roadway worker in charge or lone worker, or through a train dispatcher or control operator.

(c) The extent of working limits established through exclusive track occupancy shall be defined by one of the following physical features clearly identifiable to a locomotive engineer or other person operating a train or railroad equipment:

(1) A flagman with instructions and capability to hold all trains and equipment clear of the working limits;

(2) A fixed signal that displays an aspect indicating “Stop”;

(3) A station shown in the time-table, and identified by name with a sign, beyond which train movement is prohibited by train movement authority or the provisions of a direct train control system.

(4) A clearly identifiable milepost sign beyond which train movement is prohibited by train movement authority or the provisions of a direct train control system; or

(5) A clearly identifiable physical location prescribed by the operating rules of the railroad that trains may not pass without proper authority.

(d) Movements of trains and roadway maintenance machines within working limits established through exclusive track occupancy shall be made only under the direction of the roadway worker in charge of the working limits. Such movements shall be at restricted speed unless a higher authorized speed has been specifically authorized by the roadway worker in charge of the working limits.

(e) Working limits established by exclusive track occupancy authority may occur behind designated trains moving through the same limits in accordance with the following provisions:

(1) The authority establishing working limits will only be considered to be in effect after it is confirmed by the roadway worker in charge or lone worker that the affected train(s) have passed the point to be occupied or fouled by:

(i) Visually identifying the affected trains(s); or

(ii) Direct radio contact with a crew member of the affected train(s); or

(iii) Receiving information about the affected train from the train dispatcher or control operator.

(2) When utilizing the provisions of paragraph (e)(1)(i) of this section, a railroad's operating rules shall include procedures prohibiting the affected train(s) from making a reverse movement into or within the limits being fouled or occupied.

(3) After the roadway worker in charge or lone worker has confirmed that the affected trains(s) have passed the point to be occupied or fouled, the roadway worker in charge shall record on the authority the time of passage and engine number(s) of the affected trains(s). If the confirmation is by direct communication with the train(s), or through confirmation by the train dispatcher or control operator, the roadway worker in charge shall record the time of such confirmation and the engine number(s) of the affected trains on the authority.

(4) A separate roadway work group afforded on-track safety by the roadway worker in charge of authority limits, and that is located away from the roadway worker in charge of authority limits, shall:

(i) Occupy or foul the track only after receiving permission from the roadway worker in charge to occupy the working limits after the roadway worker charge has fulfilled the provisions of paragraph (e)(1) of this section; and

(ii) Be accompanied by an employee qualified to the level of a roadway worker in charge who shall also have a copy of the authority and who shall independently execute the required communication requirements of paragraphs (e)(1) and (3) of this section.

(5) Any subsequent train or on-track equipment movements within working limits after the passage of the affected train(s) shall be governed by paragraph (d) of this section.

[61 FR 65976, Dec. 16, 1996, as amended at 81 FR 37887 June 10, 2016]

§214.322   Exclusive track occupancy, electronic display.

(a) While it is in effect, all the contents of an authority electronically displayed shall be readily viewable by the roadway worker in charge that is using the authority to provide on-track safety for a roadway work group.

(b) If the electronic display device malfunctions, fails, or cannot display an authority while it is in effect, the roadway worker in charge shall either obtain a written or printed copy of the authority in accordance with §214.321 (except that on-track roadway maintenance machine and hi-rail movements must stop) or establish another form of on-track safety without delay. In the event that a written or printed copy of the authority cannot be obtained or another form of on-track safety cannot be established after failure of an electronic display device, the roadway worker in charge shall instruct all roadway workers to stop work and occupy a place of safety and conduct an on-track safety job briefing to determine the safe course of action with the roadway work group.

(c) All authorized users of an electronic display system shall be uniquely identified to support individual accountability. A user may be a person, a process, or some other system that accesses or attempts to access an electronic display system to perform tasks or process an authority.

(d) All authorized users of an electronic display system must be authenticated prior to being granted access to such system. The system shall ensure the confidentiality and integrity of all internally stored authentication data and protect it from access by unauthorized users. The authentication scheme shall utilize algorithms approved by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), or any similarly recognized and FRA approved standards body.

(e) The integrity of all data must be ensured during transmission/reception, processing, and storage. All new electronic display systems implemented on or after July 1, 2017 shall utilize a Message Authentication Code (MAC) to ensure that all data is error free. The MAC shall utilize algorithms approved by NIST, or any similarly recognized and FRA approved standards body. Systems implemented prior to July 1, 2017 may utilize a Cyclical Redundancy Code (CRC) to ensure that all data is error free provided:

(1) The collision rate for the CRC check utilized shall be less than or equal to 1 in 232. Systems implemented prior to July 1, 2017 that do not utilize a CRC with a collision rate less than or equal to 1 in 232 must be retired or updated to utilize a MAC no later than July 1, 2018.

(2) MAC and CRC checks shall only be used to verify the accuracy of an electronic authority data message and shall not be used in an error correction reconstruction of the data. An authority must fail if the MAC or CRC checks do not match.

(f) Authorities transmitted to each electronic display device shall be retained in the device's non-volatile memory for not less than 72 hours.

(g) If any electronic display device used to obtain an authority is involved in an accident/incident that is required to be reported to FRA under part 225 of this chapter, the railroad or employer that was using the device at the time of the accident shall, to the extent possible, and to the extent consistent with the safety of life and property, preserve the data recorded by each such device for analysis by FRA. This preservation requirement permits the railroad or employer to extract and analyze such data, provided the original downloaded data file, or an unanalyzed exact copy of it, shall be retained in secure custody and shall not be utilized for analysis or any other purpose except by direction of FRA or the National Transportation Safety Board. This preservation requirement shall expire one (1) year after the date of the accident unless FRA or the National Transportation Safety Board notifies the railroad in writing that the data are desired for analysis.

(h) New electronic display systems implemented on or after July 1, 2017 shall provide Level 3 assurance as defined by NIST Special Publication 800-63-2, Electronic Authentication Guideline, “Computer Security,” August 2013. Systems implemented prior to July 1, 2017 shall provide Level 2 assurance. Systems implemented prior to July 1, 2017 that do not provide Level 2 or higher assurance must be retired, or updated to provide Level 2 assurance, no later than July 1, 2018. The incorporation by reference of this NIST Special Publication was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain a copy of the incorporated document from the National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 8930, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8930, http://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialPublications/NIST.SP.800-63-2.pdf. You may inspect a copy of the document at the Federal Railroad Administration, Docket Clerk, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC, or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call (202) 741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal__register/code__of__federal__regulations/ibr__locations.html.

[81 FR 37888, June 10, 2016]

§214.323   Foul time.

Working limits established on controlled track through the use of foul time procedures shall comply with the following requirements:

(a) Foul time may be given orally or in writing by the train dispatcher or control operator only after that employee has withheld the authority of all trains or other on-track equipment to move into or within the working limits during the foul time period.

(b) Each roadway worker in charge to whom foul time is transmitted orally shall repeat the track number or identifier, track limits and time limits of the foul time to the issuing employee for verification before the foul time becomes effective.

(c) The train dispatcher or control operator shall not permit the movement of trains or other on-track equipment into working limits protected by foul time until the roadway worker in charge who obtained the foul time has reported clear of the track.

(d) The roadway worker in charge shall not permit the movement of trains or other on-track equipment into or within working limits protected by foul time.

[61 FR 65976, Dec. 16, 1996, as amended at 81 FR 37888, June 10, 2016]

§214.325   Train coordination.

Working limits established on controlled track by a roadway worker in charge through the use of train coordination shall comply with the following requirements:

(a) Working limits established by train coordination shall be within the segments of track or tracks upon which only one train holds exclusive authority to move.

(b) The roadway worker who establishes working limits by train coordination shall communicate with a member of the crew of the train holding the exclusive authority to move, and shall determine that:

(1) The train is visible to the roadway worker who is establishing the working limits,

(2) The train is stopped,

(3) Further movements of the train will be made only as permitted by the roadway worker in charge of the working limits while the working limits remain in effect, and

(4) The crew of the train will not give up its exclusive authority to move until the working limits have been released to the train crew by the roadway worker in charge of the working limits.

[61 FR 65976, Dec. 16, 1996, as amended at 81 FR 37888, June 10, 2016]

§214.327   Inaccessible track.

(a) Working limits on non-controlled track shall be established by rendering the track within working limits physically inaccessible to trains at each possible point of entry by one of the following features:

(1) A flagman with instructions and capability to hold all trains and equipment clear of the working limits;

(2) A switch or derail aligned to prevent access to the working limits and secured with an effective securing device by the roadway worker in charge of the working limits;

(3) A discontinuity in the rail that precludes passage of trains or engines into the working limits;

(4) Working limits on controlled track that connects directly with the inaccessible track, established by the roadway worker in charge of the working limits on the inaccessible track; or

(5) A remotely controlled switch aligned to prevent access to the working limits and secured by the control operator of such remotely controlled switch by application of a locking or blocking device to the control of that switch, when:

(i) The control operator has secured the remotely controlled switch by applying a locking or blocking device to the control of the switch, and

(ii) The control operator has notified the roadway worker who has established the working limits that the requested protection has been provided, and

(iii) The control operator is not permitted to remove the locking or blocking device from the control of the switch until receiving permission to do so from the roadway worker who established the working limits.

(6) A locomotive with or without cars placed to prevent access to the working limits at one or more points of entry to the working limits, provided the following conditions are met:

(i) The roadway worker in charge who is responsible for establishing working limits communicates with a member of the crew assigned to the locomotive and determines that:

(A) The locomotive is visible to the roadway worker in charge that is establishing the working limits; and

(B) The locomotive is stopped.

(ii) Further movements of the locomotive shall be made only as permitted by the roadway worker in charge controlling the working limits;

(iii) The crew of the locomotive shall not leave the locomotive unattended or go off duty unless communication occurs with the roadway worker in charge and an alternate means of on-track safety protection has been established by the roadway worker in charge; and

(iv) Cars coupled to the locomotive on the same end and on the same track as the roadway workers shall be connected to the train line air brake system and such system shall be charged with compressed air to initiate an emergency brake application in case of unintended uncoupling. Cars coupled to the locomotive on the same track on the opposite end of the roadway workers shall have sufficient braking capability to control their movement.

(7) A railroad's procedure governing block register territory that prevents trains and other on-track equipment from occupying the track when the territory is under the control of a lone worker or roadway worker in charge. The roadway worker in charge or lone worker shall have the absolute right to render block register territory inaccessible under the other provisions of paragraph (a) of this section.

(8) Railroad operating rules that prohibit train or engine or other on-track equipment movements on a main track within yard limits or restricted limits until the train or engine or on-track equipment receives notification of any working limits in effect and prohibit the train or engine or on-track equipment from entering working limits until permission is received by the roadway worker in charge. Such working limits shall be delineated with stop signs (flags), and where speeds are in excess of restricted speed and physical characteristics permit, also with advance signs (flags).

(b) Trains and roadway maintenance machines within working limits established by means of inaccessible track shall move only under the direction of the roadway worker in charge of the working limits, and shall move at restricted speed.

(c) No operable locomotives or other items of on-track equipment, except those present or moving under the direction of the roadway worker in charge of the working limits, shall be located within working limits established by means of inaccessible track.

[61 FR 65976, Dec. 16, 1996, as amended at 81 FR 37888, June 10, 2016]

§214.329   Train approach warning provided by watchmen/lookouts.

Roadway workers in a roadway work group who foul any track outside of working limits shall be given warning of approaching trains by one or more watchmen/lookouts in accordance with the following provisions:

(a) Train approach warning shall be given in sufficient time to enable each roadway worker to move to and occupy a previously arranged place of safety not less than 15 seconds before a train moving at the maximum authorized speed on that track can pass the location of the roadway worker. The place of safety to be occupied upon the approach of a train may not be on a track, unless working limits are established on that track.

(b) Watchmen/lookouts assigned to provide train approach warning shall devote full attention to detecting the approach of trains and communicating a warning thereof, and shall not be assigned any other duties while functioning as watchmen/lookouts.

(c) The means used by a watchman/lookout to communicate a train approach warning shall be distinctive and shall clearly signify to all recipients of the warning that a train or other on-track equipment is approaching.

(d) Every roadway worker who depends upon train approach warning for on-track safety shall maintain a position that will enable him or her to receive a train approach warning communicated by a watchman/lookout at any time while on-track safety is provided by train approach warning.

(e) Watchmen/lookouts shall communicate train approach warnings by a means that does not require a warned employee to be looking in any particular direction at the time of the warning, and that can be detected by the warned employee regardless of noise or distraction of work.

(f) Every roadway worker who is assigned the duties of a watchman/lookout shall first be trained, qualified and designated in writing by the employer to do so in accordance with the provisions of §214.349.

(g) Every watchman/lookout shall be provided by the employer with the equipment necessary for compliance with the on-track safety duties which the watchman/lookout will perform.

[61 FR 65976, Dec. 16, 1996, as amended at 81 FR 37889, June 10, 2016]

§214.331   Definite train location.

A roadway worker may establish on-track safety by using definite train location only where permitted by and in accordance with the following provisions:

(a) A Class I railroad or a commuter railroad may only use definite train location to establish on-track safety at points where such procedures were in use on January 15, 1997.

(b) Each Class I or commuter railroad shall include in its on-track safety program for approval by FRA in accordance with §214.307 of this part a schedule for phase-out of the use of definite train location to establish on-track safety.

(c) A railroad other than a Class I or commuter railroad may use definite train location to establish on-track safety on subdivisions only where:

(1) Such procedures were in use on January 15, 1997, or

(2) The number of trains operated on the subdivision does not exceed:

(i) Three during any nine-hour period in which roadway workers are on duty, and

(ii) Four during any twelve-hour period in which roadway workers are on duty.

(d) Definite train location shall only be used to establish on-track safety according to the following provisions:

(1) Definite train location information shall be issued only by the one train dispatcher who is designated to authorize train movements over the track for which the information is provided.

(2) A definite train location list shall indicate all trains to be operated on the track for which the list is provided, during the time for which the list is effective.

(3) Trains not shown on the definite train location list shall not be operated on the track for which the list is provided, during the time for which the list is effective, until each roadway worker to whom the list has been issued has been notified of the train movement, has acknowledged the notification to the train dispatcher, and has canceled the list. A list thus canceled shall then be invalid for on-track safety.

(4) Definite train location shall not be used to establish on-track safety within the limits of a manual interlocking, or on track over which train movements are governed by a Traffic Control System or by a Manual Block System.

(5) Roadway workers using definite train location for on-track safety shall not foul a track within ten minutes before the earliest time that a train is due to depart the last station at which time is shown in approach to the roadway worker's location nor until that train has passed the location of the roadway worker.

(6) A railroad shall not permit a train to depart a location designated in a definite train location list before the time shown therein.

(7) Each roadway worker who uses definite train location to establish on-track safety must be qualified on the relevant physical characteristics of the territory for which the train location information is provided.

(e) Each on-track safety program that provides for the use of definite train location shall discontinue such use by June 12, 2017.

[61 FR 65976, Dec. 16, 1996, as amended at 81 FR 37889, June 10, 2016]

§214.333   Informational line-ups of trains.

(a) A railroad is permitted to include informational line-ups of trains in its on-track safety program for use only on subdivisions of that railroad upon which such procedure was in effect on March 14, 1996.

(b) Each procedure for the use of informational line-ups of trains found in an on-track safety program shall include all provisions necessary to protect roadway workers using the procedure against being struck by trains or other on-track equipment.

(c) Each on-track safety program that provides for the use of informational line-ups shall discontinue such use by June 12, 2017.

[61 FR 65976, Dec. 16, 1996, as amended at 81 FR 37889, June 10, 2016]

§214.335   On-track safety procedures for roadway work groups, general.

(a) No employer subject to the provisions of this part shall require or permit a roadway worker who is a member of a roadway work group to foul a track unless on-track safety is provided by either working limits, train approach warning, or definite train location in accordance with the applicable provisions of §214.319, §214.321, §214.323, §214.325, §214.327, §214.329, §214.331, or §214.336.

(b) No roadway worker who is a member of a roadway work group shall foul a track without having been informed by the roadway worker in charge of the roadway work group that on-track safety is provided.

[81 FR 37889, June 12, 2016]

§214.336   On-track safety procedures for certain roadway work groups and adjacent tracks.

(a) Procedures; general. (1) General rule. Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, on-track safety is required for each adjacent controlled track when a roadway work group with at least one of the roadway workers on the ground is engaged in a common task with on-track, self-propelled equipment or coupled equipment on an occupied track. The required on-track safety shall be established through §214.319 (Working limits, generally) or §214.329 (Train approach warning provided by watchmen/lookouts) and as more specifically described in this section.

(2) Special circumstance arising in territories with at least three tracks, if an occupied track is between two adjacent controlled tracks. If an occupied track has two adjacent controlled tracks, and one of these adjacent controlled tracks has one or more train or other on-track equipment movements authorized or permitted at a speed of 25 mph or less (or 40 mph or less for one or more passenger train or other passenger on-track equipment movements), and the other adjacent controlled track has one or more concurrent train or other on-track equipment movements authorized or permitted at a speed over 25 mph (or over 40 mph for one or more passenger train or other passenger on-track equipment movements), the more restrictive procedures in paragraph (b) of this section apply.

(3) Definitions. As used in this section—

Adjacent controlled track means a controlled track whose track center is spaced 19 feet or less from the track center of the occupied track.

Adjacent track means a controlled or non-controlled track whose track center is spaced less than 25 feet from the track center of the occupied track.

Inter-track barrier means a continuous barrier of a permanent or semi-permanent nature that spans the entire work area, that is at least four feet in height, and that is of sufficient strength to prevent a roadway worker from fouling the adjacent track.

Minor correction means one or more repairs of a minor nature, including, but not limited to, welding, spiking, anchoring, hand tamping, and joint bolt replacement, that are accomplished with hand tools or handheld, hand-supported, or hand-guided power tools. The term does not include machine spiking, machine tamping, or any similarly distracting repair.

Occupied track means a track on which on-track, self-propelled equipment or coupled equipment is authorized or permitted to be located while engaged in a common task with a roadway work group with at least one of the roadway workers on the ground.

(b) Procedures for adjacent-controlled-track movements over 25 mph (or over 40 mph if passenger movements). If a train or other on-track equipment is authorized to move on an adjacent controlled track at a speed greater than 25 mph, or at a speed greater than 40 mph for a passenger train or other passenger on-track equipment movement, each roadway worker in the roadway work group that is affected by such movement must comply with the following procedures:

(1) Ceasing work and occupying a predetermined place of safety. Except for the work activities as described in paragraph (e) of this section, each affected roadway worker shall, as described in Table 1 of this section, cease all on-ground work and equipment movement that is being performed on or between the rails of the occupied track or on one or both sides of the occupied track, and occupy a predetermined place of safety upon receiving either a watchman/lookout warning or, alternatively, a notification that the roadway worker in charge intends to permit one or more train or other on-track equipment movements through the working limits on the adjacent controlled track.

(2) Resuming work. (i) An affected roadway worker may resume on-ground work and equipment movement (on or between the rails of the occupied track or on one or both sides of the occupied track as described in Table 1 of this section) only after the trailing-end of all trains or other on-track equipment moving on the adjacent controlled track (for which a warning or notification has been received in accordance with paragraph (b)(1) of this section) has passed and remains ahead of that roadway worker.

(ii) If the train or other on-track equipment stops before its trailing-end has passed all of the affected roadway workers in the roadway work group, the work to be performed (on or between the rails of the occupied track or on one or both sides of the occupied track as described in Table 1 of this section) ahead of the trailing-end of the train or other on-track equipment on the adjacent controlled track may resume only—

(A) If on-track safety through train approach warning (§214.329) has been established on the adjacent controlled track; or

(B) After the roadway worker in charge has communicated with a member of the train crew or the on-track equipment operator and established that further movements of such train or other on-track equipment shall be made only as permitted by the roadway worker in charge.

(c) Procedures for adjacent-controlled-track movements 25 mph or less (or 40 mph or less if passenger movements). If a train or other on-track equipment is authorized or permitted to move on an adjacent controlled track at a speed of 25 mph or less, or at a speed of 40 mph or less for a passenger train or other passenger on-track equipment movement, each roadway worker in the roadway work group that is affected by such movement must comply with the procedures listed in paragraph (b) of this section, except that equipment movement on the rails of the occupied track and on-ground work performed exclusively between the rails (i.e., not breaking the plane of the rails) of the occupied track may continue, provided that no on-ground work is performed within the areas 25 feet in front of and 25 feet behind any on-track, self-propelled equipment or coupled equipment permitted to move on the occupied track.

(d) Discretion of roadway worker in charge. Nothing in this subpart prohibits the roadway worker in charge from establishing on-track safety on one or more adjacent tracks as he or she deems necessary consistent with both the purpose and requirements of this subpart.

(e) Exceptions to certain requirements for adjacent-controlled-track on-track safety. No on-track safety (other than that required by paragraph (f) of this section or provided under paragraph (d) of this section) is required by paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section for an adjacent controlled track during the times that the roadway work group is exclusively performing one or more of the following work activities:

(1) On-ground work performed on a side of the occupied track meeting specified condition(s). A roadway work group with all of its on-ground roadway workers (other than those performing work in accordance with another exception in paragraph (e) of this section) performing work while exclusively positioned on a side of the occupied track as follows and as further specified in Table 1 of this section:

(i) The side with no adjacent track;

(ii) The side with one or more adjacent tracks, the closest of which has working limits on it and no movements permitted within such working limits by the roadway worker in charge; or

(iii) The side with one or more adjacent tracks, provided that that it has an inter-track barrier between the occupied track and the closest adjacent track on that side.

(2) Maintenance or repairs performed either alongside, or within the perimeter of, a roadway maintenance machine or coupled equipment on the occupied track. (i) One or more roadway workers performing maintenance or repairs alongside a roadway maintenance machine or coupled equipment, provided that such machine or equipment would effectively prevent the worker from fouling the adjacent controlled track on the other side of such equipment, and that such maintenance or repairs are performed while positioned on a side of the occupied track as described in paragraph (e)(1)(i), (ii), or (iii) and Table 1 of this section.

(ii) One or more roadway workers on or under a roadway maintenance machine or coupled equipment performing maintenance or repairs within the perimeter of the machine or equipment, provided that no part of their person breaks the plane of the rail of the occupied track except when toward one of the sides of the occupied track as described in paragraph (e)(1)(i), (ii), or (iii) and Table 1 of this section. A boom or other equipment extending beyond the body of a roadway maintenance machine or coupled equipment toward an adjacent controlled track is not considered to be within the perimeter of the machine or coupled equipment.

(3) Work activities involving certain equipment and purposes. One or more on-ground roadway workers engaged in a common task on an occupied track with on-track, self-propelled equipment or coupled equipment consisting exclusively of one or more of the types of equipment described in paragraphs (e)(3)(i) through (iii) of this section. If such a roadway work group (“excepted group”) is authorized or permitted to operate on the same occupied track and within the working limits of a separate roadway work group performing work that is subject to the requirements of this section (“non-excepted group”) or vice versa (i.e., a non-excepted group is authorized or permitted to operate on the same occupied track and within the working limits of an excepted group), the groups must conduct an on-track safety job briefing to determine if adjacent-controlled-track on-track safety is necessary for the excepted group. Such determination shall be made by the roadway worker in charge of the working limits; however, if the groups are in such proximity where the ability of the roadway workers in the excepted group to hear or see approaching trains and other on-track equipment is impaired by background noise, lights, sight obstructions or any other physical conditions caused by the equipment, then this exception does not apply, and adjacent-controlled-track on-track safety must be provided to both groups. This exception otherwise applies to work activities involving one or more of the following types of equipment:

(i) A hi-rail vehicle or other rail-bound vehicle (other than a catenary maintenance tower vehicle) being used for inspection or minor correction purposes, provided that such vehicle is not coupled to one or more railroad cars. In accordance with §214.315(a), where multiple hi-rail or rail-bound vehicles being used for inspection or minor correction are engaged in a common task, the on-track safety job briefing shall include discussion of the nature of the work to be performed to determine if adjacent-controlled-track on-track safety is necessary.

(ii) An automated inspection car being used for inspection or minor correction purposes.

(iii) A catenary maintenance tower car or vehicle, provided that all of the on-ground workers engaged in the common task (other than those performing work in accordance with another exception in paragraph (e) of this section) are positioned within the gage of the occupied track for the sole purpose of applying or removing grounds.

(f) Procedures for components of roadway maintenance machines fouling an adjacent controlled track. Except as provided for in §214.341(c), a component of a roadway maintenance machine shall not foul an adjacent controlled track unless working limits have been established on the adjacent-controlled-track and there are no movements permitted within the working limits by the roadway worker in charge that would affect any of the roadway workers engaged in a common task with such machine.

Table 1—Summary of On-Track Safety Procedures for Certain Roadway Work Groups and Adjacent Tracks

Example number/diagram number
(see figure 1)
“Side A” of the occupied track—the side from the vertical plane of the near running rail of the occupied track extending outward through to the fouling space of the adjacent controlled track (“`No. 1' Track” or “No. 1”) On or between the rails of the occupied track (“`No. 2' track” or “number 2”), where on-track Safety Is Established through Working Limits “Side B” of the occupied track—either (1) the side with no adjacent track or (2) the side from the vertical plane of the near running rail of the occupied track extending outward through to the fouling space of the adjacent controlled track (“`number 3' track” or “number 3”)
Method of On-Track Safety on Side ARequirementRequirementsRequirementsMethod of on-track safety on side B
1Working limits or train approach warningUpon receiving a notification or warning for movement(s) (“movement notification or warning”) for No. 1, cease work and occupy a predetermined place of safety (“PPOS”)1Upon movement notification or warning for No. 1, cease work and occupy a PPOS, except work may continue during movement(s) on No. 1 auth'd. at 25 mph or less (or 40 mph or less for passenger train movements) if maintain 25 spacing2Work3 is not required to cease during movement(s) on No. 1Not applicable (N/A), because there is no adjacent track.
2Working limitsUpon movement notification for No. 1, cease work and occupy a PPOS. Work3 is not required to cease during movement(s) on No. 3Upon movement notification for No. 1 or No. 3, cease work and occupy a PPOS, except work may continue during movement(s) on No. 1 or No. 3 auth'd. at 25 mph or less (or at 40 mph or less for passenger train movements) if maintain 25 spacing2Upon movement notification for No. 3, cease work and occupy a PPOS. Work3 is not required to cease during movement(s) on No. 1Working limits.
3Working limitsUpon movement notification for No. 1, cease work and occupy a PPOS. Work3 is not required to cease during movement(s) on No. 3Upon movement notification for No. 1 or warning for No. 3, cease work and occupy a PPOS, except work may continue during movement(s) on No. 1 or No. 3 auth'd. at 25 mph or less (or at 40 mph or less for passenger train movements) if maintain 25 spacing2Upon movement warning for No. 3 or notification for No. 1, cease work and occupy a PPOSTrain approach warning.
4Train approach warningUpon movement warning for No. 1 or No. 3, cease work and occupy a PPOSUpon movement warning for No. 1 or No. 3, cease work and occupy a PPOS, except work may continue during movement(s) on No. 1 or No. 3 auth'd. at 25 mph or less (or at 40 mph or less for passenger train movements) if maintain 25 spacing2Upon movement warning for No. 3 or No. 1, cease work and occupy safety PPOSTrain approach warning.
5None, but with inter-track barrierWork is prohibited on No. 1 and up to barrier (“Side A1”). Work is not required to cease btwn. barrier and near running rail of occupied track (“Side A2”) during movement(s) on No. 1Work is not required to cease during movement(s) on No. 1Work is not required to cease during movement(s) on No. 1N/A, because there is no adjacent track.
6None, but with inter-track barrierWork is prohibited on Side A1. Work3 is not required to cease on Side A2 during movement(s) on No. 1 or No. 3Work is not required to cease during movement(s) on No. 1. Upon movement notification or warning for No. 3, cease work and occupy a PPOS, except work may continue during movement(s) on No. 3 auth'd. at 25 mph or less (or at 40 mph or less for passenger trains) if maintain 25 spacing2Upon movement notification or warning for No. 3, cease work and occupy a PPOS. Work3 is not required to cease during movement(s) on No. 1Working limits or train approach warning.

1As used in the above table, a “predetermined place of safety” (or “PPOS”) means a specific location that an affected roadway worker must occupy upon receiving a watchman/lookout's warning of approaching movement(s) (“warning”) or a roadway worker in charge's (“RWIC's”) notification of pending movement(s) on an adjacent track (“notification”), as designated during the on-track safety job briefing required by §214.315. The PPOS may not be on a track, unless the track has working limits on it and no movements permitted within such working limits by the RWIC. Thus, under these circumstances, the space between the rails of the occupied track (No. 2 in this table) may be designated as a place to remain in position or to otherwise occupy upon receiving a warning or notification. The RWIC must determine any change to a PPOS, and communicate such change to all affected roadway workers through an updated on-track safety job briefing.

2On-ground work is prohibited in the areas 25 in front of and 25 behind equipment on the occupied track (No. 2), and must not break the plane of a rail on No. 2 towards a side of No. 2 unless work is permitted on that side. Note, however, that per §214.336(a)(2), work would no longer be permitted to continue on or between the rails of the occupied track during movement(s) on an adjacent controlled track at 25 mph or less (or at 40 mph or less for passenger trains or other passenger on-track equipment movements) if there is a simultaneous movement on the other adjacent controlled track at more than 25 mph (or at more than 40 mph per hour for passenger train movements or other passenger on-track equipment movements).

3Work that does not break the plane of the near running rail of the occupied track (No. 2) is not required to cease during such movements; work that breaks the plane of the near running rail of the occupied track may also continue: 1) during the times that work is permitted on or between the rails of the occupied track in accordance with §214.336(c) (Procedures for adjacent-controlled-track movements 25 mph or less, or 40 mph or less for passenger train movements or other passenger on-track equipment movements); or 2) if such work is performed alongside or within the perimeter of a roadway maintenance machine or coupled equipment in accordance with §214.336(e)(2).

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[76 FR 74615, Nov. 30, 2011, as amended at 79 FR 1766, Jan. 10, 2014]

§214.337   On-track safety procedures for lone workers.

(a) A lone worker who fouls a track while performing routine inspection or minor correction may use individual train detection to establish on-track safety only where permitted by this section and the on-track safety program of the railroad.

(b) A lone worker retains an absolute right to use on-track safety procedures other than individual train detection if he or she deems it necessary, and to occupy a place of safety until such other form of on-track safety can be established.

(c) Individual train detection may be used to establish on-track safety only:

(1) By a lone worker who has been trained, qualified, and designated to do so by the employer in accordance with §214.347 of this subpart;

(2) While performing routine inspection and minor correction work;

(3) On track outside the limits of a manual interlocking, a controlled point (except those consisting of signals only), or a remotely controlled hump yard facility;

(4) Where the lone worker is able to visually detect the approach of a train moving at the maximum speed authorized on that track, and move to a previously determined place of safety, not less than 15 seconds before the train would arrive at the location of the lone worker;

(5) Where no power-operated tools or roadway maintenance machines are in use within the hearing of the lone worker; and

(6) Where the ability of the lone worker to hear and see approaching trains and other on-track equipment is not impaired by background noise, lights, precipitation, fog, passing trains, or any other physical conditions.

(d) The place of safety to be occupied by a lone worker upon the approach of a train may not be on a track, unless working limits are established on that track.

(e) A lone worker using individual train detection for on-track safety while fouling a track may not occupy a position or engage in any activity that would interfere with that worker's ability to maintain a vigilant lookout for, and detect the approach of, a train moving in either direction as prescribed in this section.

(f) A lone worker who uses individual train detection to establish on-track safety shall first complete a written Statement of On-track Safety. The Statement shall designate the limits of the track for which it is prepared and the date and time for which it is valid. The statement shall show the maximum authorized speed of trains within the limits for which it is prepared, and the sight distance that provides the required warning of approaching trains. The lone worker using individual train detection to establish on-track safety shall produce the Statement of On-track Safety when requested by a representative of the Federal Railroad Administrator.

(g) Individual train detection shall not be used to provide on-track safety for a lone worker using a roadway maintenance machine, equipment, or material that cannot be readily removed by hand.

[61 FR 65976, Dec. 16, 1996, as amended at 81 FR 37889, June 10, 2016]

§214.339   Audible warning from trains.

(a) Each railroad shall have in effect and comply with written procedures that prescribe effective requirements for audible warning by horn and/or bell for trains and locomotives approaching any roadway workers or roadway maintenance machines that are either on the track on which the movement is occurring, or about the track if the roadway workers or roadway maintenance machines are at risk of fouling the track. At a minimum, such written procedures shall address:

(1) Initial horn warning;

(2) Subsequent warning(s); and

(3) Alternative warnings in areas where sounding the horn adversely affects roadway workers (e.g., in tunnels and terminals).

(b) Such audible warning shall not substitute for on-track safety procedures prescribed in this part.

[81 FR 37889, June 10, 2016]

§214.341   Roadway maintenance machines.

(a) Each employer shall include in its on-track safety program specific provisions for the safety of roadway workers who operate or work near roadway maintenance machines. Those provisions shall address:

(1) Training and qualification of operators of roadway maintenance machines.

(2) Establishment and issuance of safety procedures both for general application and for specific types of machines.

(3) Communication between machine operators and roadway workers assigned to work near or on roadway maintenance machines.

(4) Spacing between machines to prevent collisions.

(5) Space between machines and roadway workers to prevent personal injury.

(6) Maximum working and travel speeds for machines dependent upon weather, visibility, and stopping capabilities.

(b) Instructions for the safe operation of each roadway machine shall be provided and maintained with each machine large enough to carry the instruction document.

(1) No roadway worker shall operate a roadway maintenance machine without having been trained in accordance with §214.355.

(2) No roadway worker shall operate a roadway maintenance machine without having knowledge of the safety instructions applicable to that machine. For purposes of this paragraph, the safety instructions applicable to that machine means:

(i) The manufacturer's instruction manual for that machine; or

(ii) The safety instructions developed to replace the manufacturer's safety instructions when the machine has been adapted for a specific railroad use. Such instructions shall address all aspects of the safe operation of the crane and shall be as comprehensive as the manufacturer's safety instructions they replace.

(3) No employer shall assign roadway workers to work near roadway machines unless the roadway worker has been informed of the safety procedures applicable to persons working near the roadway machines and has acknowledged full understanding.

(c) Components of roadway maintenance machines shall be kept clear of trains passing on adjacent tracks. Where operating conditions permit roadway maintenance machines to be less than four feet from the rail of an adjacent track, the on-track safety program of the railroad shall include the procedural instructions necessary to provide adequate clearance between the machine and passing trains.

[61 FR 65976, Dec. 16, 1996, as amended at 79 FR 66501, Nov. 7, 2014]

§214.343   Training and qualification, general.

(a) No employer shall assign an employee to perform the duties of a roadway worker, and no employee shall accept such assignment, unless that employee has received training in the on-track safety procedures associated with the assignment to be performed, and that employee has demonstrated the ability to fulfill the responsibilities for on-track safety that are required of an individual roadway worker performing that assignment.

(b) Each employer shall provide to all roadway workers in its employ initial or recurrent training once every calendar year on the on-track safety rules and procedures that they are required to follow.

(c) Except as provided for in §214.353, railroad employees other than roadway workers, who are associated with on-track safety procedures, and whose primary duties are concerned with the movement and protection of trains, shall be trained to perform their functions related to on-track safety through the training and qualification procedures prescribed by the operating railroad for the primary position of the employee, including maintenance of records and frequency of training.

(d) Each employer of roadway workers shall maintain written or electronic records of each roadway worker qualification in effect. Each record shall include the name of the employee, the type of qualification made, and the most recent date of qualification. These records shall be kept available for inspection and photocopying by the Federal Railroad Administrator during regular business hours.

[61 FR 65976, Dec. 16, 1996, as amended at 81 FR 37889, June 10, 2016]

§214.345   Training for all roadway workers.

Consistent with §214.343(b), the training of all roadway workers shall include, as a minimum, the following:

(a) Recognition of railroad tracks and understanding of the space around them within which on-track safety is required.

(b) The functions and responsibilities of various persons involved with on-track safety procedures.

(c) Proper compliance with on-track safety instructions given by persons performing or responsible for on-track safety functions.

(d) Signals given by watchmen/lookouts, and the proper procedures upon receiving a train approach warning from a lookout.

(e) The hazards associated with working on or near railroad tracks, including review of on-track safety rules and procedures.

(f) Instruction on railroad safety rules adopted to comply with §214.317(b).

[61 FR 65976, Dec. 16, 1996, as amended at 81 FR 37889, June 10, 2016]

§214.347   Training and qualification for lone workers.

Each lone worker shall be trained and qualified by the employer to establish on-track safety in accordance with the requirements of this section, and must be authorized to do so by the railroad that conducts train operations on those tracks.

(a) The training and qualification for lone workers shall include, as a minimum, consideration of the following factors:

(1) Detection of approaching trains and prompt movement to a place of safety upon their approach.

(2) Determination of the distance along the track at which trains must be visible in order to provide the prescribed warning time.

(3) Rules and procedures prescribed by the railroad for individual train detection, establishment of working limits, and definite train location.

(4) On-track safety procedures to be used in the territory on which the employee is to be qualified and permitted to work alone.

(5) Alternative means to access the information in a railroad's on-track safety manual when a lone worker's duties make it impracticable for the on-track safety manual to be readily available.

(b) Initial and periodic (as specified by §243.201 of this chapter) qualification of a lone worker shall be evidenced by demonstrated proficiency.

[61 FR 65976, Dec. 16, 1996, as amended at 81 FR 37889, June 10, 2016]

§214.349   Training and qualification of watchmen/lookouts.

(a) The training and qualification for roadway workers assigned the duties of watchmen/lookouts shall include, as a minimum, consideration of the following factors:

(1) Detection and recognition of approaching trains.

(2) Effective warning of roadway workers of the approach of trains.

(3) Determination of the distance along the track at which trains must be visible in order to provide the prescribed warning time.

(4) Rules and procedures of the railroad to be used for train approach warning.

(b) Initial and periodic (as specified by §243.201 of this chapter) qualification of a watchman/lookout shall be evidenced by demonstrated proficiency.

[61 FR 65976, Dec. 16, 1996, as amended at 81 FR 37890, June 10, 2016]

§214.351   Training and qualification of flagmen.

(a) The training and qualification for roadway workers assigned the duties of flagmen shall include, as a minimum, the content and application of the operating rules of the railroad pertaining to giving proper stop signals to trains and holding trains clear of working limits.

(b) Initial and periodic (as specified by §243.201 of this chapter) qualification of a flagman shall be evidenced by demonstrated proficiency.

[61 FR 65976, Dec. 16, 1996, as amended at 81 FR 37890, June 10, 2016]

§214.353   Training and qualification of each roadway worker in charge.

(a) The training and qualification of each roadway worker in charge, or any other employee acting as a roadway worker in charge (e.g., a conductor or a brakeman), who provides for the on-track safety of roadway workers through establishment of working limits or the assignment and supervision of watchmen/lookouts or flagmen shall include, at a minimum:

(1) All the on-track safety training and qualification required of the roadway workers to be supervised and protected, including the railroad's procedures governing good faith challenges in §§214.311(b) and (c) and 214.313(d).

(2) The content and application of the operating rules of the railroad pertaining to the establishment of working limits.

(3) The content and application of the rules of the railroad pertaining to the establishment or train approach warning.

(4) The relevant physical characteristics of the territory of the railroad upon which the roadway worker is qualified.

(5) The procedures required to ensure that the roadway worker in charge of the on-track safety of group(s) of roadway workers remains immediately accessible and available to all roadway workers being protected under the working limits or other provisions of on-track safety established by the roadway worker in charge.

(b) Initial and periodic (as specified by §243.201 of this chapter) qualification of a roadway worker in charge shall be evidenced by demonstrated proficiency.

[61 FR 65976, Dec. 16, 1996, as amended at 81 FR 37890, June 10, 2016]

§214.355   Training and qualification of each roadway worker in on-track safety for operators of roadway maintenance machines.

(a) The training and qualification of roadway workers who operate roadway maintenance machines shall include, as a minimum:

(1) Procedures to prevent a person from being struck by the machine when the machine is in motion or operation.

(2) Procedures to prevent any part of the machine from being struck by a train or other equipment on another track.

(3) Procedures to provide for stopping the machine short of other machines or obstructions on the track.

(4) Methods to determine safe operating procedures for each machine that the operator is expected to operate.

(b) Initial and periodic (as specified by §243.201 of this chapter) qualification of a roadway worker to operate roadway maintenance machines shall be evidenced by demonstrated proficiency.

[61 FR 65976, Dec. 16, 1996, as amended at 81 FR 37890, June 10, 2016]

§214.357   Training and qualification for operators of roadway maintenance machines equipped with a crane.

(a) In addition to the general training and qualification requirements for operators of roadway maintenance machines set forth in §§214.341 and 214.355 of this subpart, each employer shall adopt and comply with a training and qualification program for operators of roadway maintenance machines equipped with a crane to ensure the safe operation of such machines.

(b) Each employer's training and qualification program for operators of roadway maintenance machines equipped with a crane shall require initial and periodic qualification of each operator of a roadway maintenance machine equipped with a crane and shall include:

(1) Procedures for determining that the operator has the skills to safely operate each machine the person is authorized to operate; and

(2) Procedures for determining that the operator has the knowledge to safely operate each machine the person is authorized to operate. Such procedures shall determine that either:

(i) The operator has knowledge of the safety instructions (i.e., the manufacturer's instruction manual) applicable to that machine; or

(ii) The operator has knowledge of the safety instructions developed to replace the manufacturer's safety instructions when the machine has been adapted for a specific railroad use. Such instructions shall address all aspects of the safe operation of the crane and shall be as comprehensive as the manufacturer's safety instructions they replace.

(c) Each employer shall maintain records that form the basis of the training and qualification determinations of each operator of roadway maintenance machines equipped with a crane that it employs.

(d) Availability of records: Each employer required to maintain records under this part shall make all records available for inspection and copying/photocopying to representatives of FRA, upon request during normal business hours.

(e) Training conducted by an employer in accordance with operator qualification and certification required by the Department of Labor (29 CFR 1926.1427) may be used to satisfy the training and qualification requirements of this section.

[79 FR 66501, Nov. 7, 2014]

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