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e-CFR data is current as of July 14, 2020

Title 49Subtitle BChapter ISubchapter DPart 195 → Subpart E


Title 49: Transportation
PART 195—TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE


Subpart E—Pressure Testing


Contents
§195.300   Scope.
§195.302   General requirements.
§195.303   Risk-based alternative to pressure testing older hazardous liquid and carbon dioxide pipelines.
§195.304   Test pressure.
§195.305   Testing of components.
§195.306   Test medium.
§195.307   Pressure testing aboveground breakout tanks.
§195.308   Testing of tie-ins.
§195.310   Records.

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§195.300   Scope.

This subpart prescribes minimum requirements for the pressure testing of steel pipelines. However, this subpart does not apply to the movement of pipe under §195.424.

[Amdt. 195-51, 59 FR 29384, June 7, 1994]

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§195.302   General requirements.

(a) Except as otherwise provided in this section and in §195.305(b), no operator may operate a pipeline unless it has been pressure tested under this subpart without leakage. In addition, no operator may return to service a segment of pipeline that has been replaced, relocated, or otherwise changed until it has been pressure tested under this subpart without leakage.

(b) Except for pipelines converted under §195.5, the following pipelines may be operated without pressure testing under this subpart:

(1) Any hazardous liquid pipeline whose maximum operating pressure is established under §195.406(a)(5) that is—

(i) An interstate pipeline constructed before January 8, 1971;

(ii) An interstate offshore gathering line constructed before August 1, 1977;

(iii) An intrastate pipeline constructed before October 21, 1985; or

(iv) A low-stress pipeline constructed before August 11, 1994 that transports HVL.

(2) Any carbon dioxide pipeline constructed before July 12, 1991, that—

(i) Has its maximum operating pressure established under §195.406(a)(5); or

(ii) Is located in a rural area as part of a production field distribution system.

(3) Any low-stress pipeline constructed before August 11, 1994 that does not transport HVL.

(4) Those portions of older hazardous liquid and carbon dioxide pipelines for which an operator has elected the risk-based alternative under §195.303 and which are not required to be tested based on the risk-based criteria.

(c) Except for pipelines that transport HVL onshore, low-stress pipelines, and pipelines covered under §195.303, the following compliance deadlines apply to pipelines under paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2)(i) of this section that have not been pressure tested under this subpart:

(1) Before December 7, 1998, for each pipeline each operator shall—

(i) Plan and schedule testing according to this paragraph; or

(ii) Establish the pipeline's maximum operating pressure under §195.406(a)(5).

(2) For pipelines scheduled for testing, each operator shall—

(i) Before December 7, 2000, pressure test—

(A) Each pipeline identified by name, symbol, or otherwise that existing records show contains more than 50 percent by mileage (length) of electric resistance welded pipe manufactured before 1970; and

(B) At least 50 percent of the mileage (length) of all other pipelines; and

(ii) Before December 7, 2003, pressure test the remainder of the pipeline mileage (length).

[Amdt. 195-51, 59 FR 29384, June 7, 1994, as amended by Amdt. 195-53, 59 FR 35471, July 12, 1994; Amdt. 195-51B, 61 FR 43027, Aug. 20, 1996; Amdt. 195-58, 62 FR 54592, Oct. 21, 1997; Amdt. 195-63, 63 FR 37506, July 13, 1998; Amdt. 195-65, 63 FR 59479, Nov. 4, 1998]

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§195.303   Risk-based alternative to pressure testing older hazardous liquid and carbon dioxide pipelines.

(a) An operator may elect to follow a program for testing a pipeline on risk-based criteria as an alternative to the pressure testing in §195.302(b)(1)(i)-(iii) and §195.302(b)(2)(i) of this subpart. Appendix B provides guidance on how this program will work. An operator electing such a program shall assign a risk classification to each pipeline segment according to the indicators described in paragraph (b) of this section as follows:

(1) Risk Classification A if the location indicator is ranked as low or medium risk, the product and volume indicators are ranked as low risk, and the probability of failure indicator is ranked as low risk;

(2) Risk Classification C if the location indicator is ranked as high risk; or

(3) Risk Classification B.

(b) An operator shall evaluate each pipeline segment in the program according to the following indicators of risk:

(1) The location indicator is—

(i) High risk if an area is non-rural or environmentally sensitive1; or

(ii) Medium risk; or

(iii) Low risk if an area is not high or medium risk.

(2) The product indicator is1

1(See Appendix B, Table C).

(i) High risk if the product transported is highly toxic or is both highly volatile and flammable;

(ii) Medium risk if the product transported is flammable with a flashpoint of less than 100 °F, but not highly volatile; or

(iii) Low risk if the product transported is not high or medium risk.

(3) The volume indicator is—

(i) High risk if the line is at least 18 inches in nominal diameter;

(ii) Medium risk if the line is at least 10 inches, but less than 18 inches, in nominal diameter; or

(iii) Low risk if the line is not high or medium risk.

(4) The probability of failure indicator is—

(i) High risk if the segment has experienced more than three failures in the last 10 years due to time-dependent defects (e.g., corrosion, gouges, or problems developed during manufacture, construction or operation, etc.); or

(ii) Low risk if the segment has experienced three failures or less in the last 10 years due to time-dependent defects.

(c) The program under paragraph (a) of this section shall provide for pressure testing for a segment constructed of electric resistance-welded (ERW) pipe and lapwelded pipe manufactured prior to 1970 susceptible to longitudinal seam failures as determined through paragraph (d) of this section. The timing of such pressure test may be determined based on risk classifications discussed under paragraph (b) of this section. For other segments, the program may provide for use of a magnetic flux leakage or ultrasonic internal inspection survey as an alternative to pressure testing and, in the case of such segments in Risk Classification A, may provide for no additional measures under this subpart.

(d) All pre-1970 ERW pipe and lapwelded pipe is deemed susceptible to longitudinal seam failures unless an engineering analysis shows otherwise. In conducting an engineering analysis an operator must consider the seam-related leak history of the pipe and pipe manufacturing information as available, which may include the pipe steel's mechanical properties, including fracture toughness; the manufacturing process and controls related to seam properties, including whether the ERW process was high-frequency or low-frequency, whether the weld seam was heat treated, whether the seam was inspected, the test pressure and duration during mill hydrotest; the quality control of the steel-making process; and other factors pertinent to seam properties and quality.

(e) Pressure testing done under this section must be conducted in accordance with this subpart. Except for segments in Risk Classification B which are not constructed with pre-1970 ERW pipe, water must be the test medium.

(f) An operator electing to follow a program under paragraph (a) must develop plans that include the method of testing and a schedule for the testing by December 7, 1998. The compliance deadlines for completion of testing are as shown in the table below:

§195.303—Test Deadlines

Pipeline SegmentRisk classificationTest deadline
Pre-1970 Pipe susceptible to longitudinal seam failures [defined in §195.303(c) & (d)]C or B
A
12/7/2000
12/7/2002
All Other Pipeline SegmentsC
B
A
12/7/2002
12/7//2004
Additional testing not required

(g) An operator must review the risk classifications for those pipeline segments which have not yet been tested under paragraph (a) of this section or otherwise inspected under paragraph (c) of this section at intervals not to exceed 15 months. If the risk classification of an untested or uninspected segment changes, an operator must take appropriate action within two years, or establish the maximum operating pressure under §195.406(a)(5).

(h) An operator must maintain records establishing compliance with this section, including records verifying the risk classifications, the plans and schedule for testing, the conduct of the testing, and the review of the risk classifications.

(i) An operator may discontinue a program under this section only after written notification to the Administrator and approval, if needed, of a schedule for pressure testing.

[Amdt. 195-65, 63 FR 59480, Nov. 4, 1998]

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§195.304   Test pressure.

The test pressure for each pressure test conducted under this subpart must be maintained throughout the part of the system being tested for at least 4 continuous hours at a pressure equal to 125 percent, or more, of the maximum operating pressure and, in the case of a pipeline that is not visually inspected for leakage during the test, for at least an additional 4 continuous hours at a pressure equal to 110 percent, or more, of the maximum operating pressure.

[Amdt. 195-51, 59 FR 29384, June 7, 1994. Redesignated by Amdt. 195-65, 63 FR 59480, Nov. 4, 1998]

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§195.305   Testing of components.

(a) Each pressure test under §195.302 must test all pipe and attached fittings, including components, unless otherwise permitted by paragraph (b) of this section.

(b) A component, other than pipe, that is the only item being replaced or added to the pipeline system need not be hydrostatically tested under paragraph (a) of this section if the manufacturer certifies that either—

(1) The component was hydrostatically tested at the factory; or

(2) The component was manufactured under a quality control system that ensures each component is at least equal in strength to a prototype that was hydrostatically tested at the factory.

[Amdt. 195-22, 46 FR 38360, July 27, 1981, as amended by Amdt. 195-51, 59 FR 29385, June 7, 1994; Amdt. 195-52, 59 FR 33397, June 28, 1994. Redesignated by Amdt. 195-65, 63 FR 59480, Nov. 4, 1998]

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§195.306   Test medium.

(a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section, water must be used as the test medium.

(b) Except for offshore pipelines, liquid petroleum that does not vaporize rapidly may be used as the test medium if—

(1) The entire pipeline section under test is outside of cities and other populated areas;

(2) Each building within 300 feet (91 meters) of the test section is unoccupied while the test pressure is equal to or greater than a pressure which produces a hoop stress of 50 percent of specified minimum yield strength;

(3) The test section is kept under surveillance by regular patrols during the test; and

(4) Continuous communication is maintained along entire test section.

(c) Carbon dioxide pipelines may use inert gas or carbon dioxide as the test medium if—

(1) The entire pipeline section under test is outside of cities and other populated areas;

(2) Each building within 300 feet (91 meters) of the test section is unoccupied while the test pressure is equal to or greater than a pressure that produces a hoop stress of 50 percent of specified minimum yield strength;

(3) The maximum hoop stress during the test does not exceed 80 percent of specified minimum yield strength;

(4) Continuous communication is maintained along entire test section; and

(5) The pipe involved is new pipe having a longitudinal joint factor of 1.00.

(d) Air or inert gas may be used as the test medium in low-stress pipelines.

[Amdt. 195-22, 46 FR 38360, July 27, 1991, as amended by Amdt. 195-45, 56 FR 26926, June 12, 1991; Amdt. 195-51, 59 FR 29385, June 7, 1994; Amdt. 195-53, 59 FR 35471, July 12, 1994; Amdt. 195-51A, 59 FR 41260, Aug. 11, 1994; Amdt. 195-63, 63 FR 37506, July 13, 1998]

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§195.307   Pressure testing aboveground breakout tanks.

(a) For aboveground breakout tanks built to API Spec 12F (incorporated by reference, see §195.3) and first placed in service after October 2, 2000, pneumatic testing must be performed in accordance with section 5.3 of API Spec 12 F.

(b) For aboveground breakout tanks built to API Std 620 (incorporated by reference, see §195.3) and first placed in service after October 2, 2000, hydrostatic and pneumatic testing must be performed in accordance with section 7.18 of API Std 620.

(c) For aboveground breakout tanks built to API Std 650 (incorporated by reference, see §195.3) and first placed in service after October 2, 2000, testing must be in accordance with sections 7.3.5 and 7.3.6 of API Standard 650 (incorporated by reference, see §195.3).

(d) For aboveground atmospheric pressure breakout tanks constructed of carbon and low alloy steel, welded or riveted, and non-refrigerated tanks built to API Std 650 or its predecessor Standard 12 C that are returned to service after October 2, 2000, the necessity for the hydrostatic testing of repair, alteration, and reconstruction is covered in section 12.3 of API Standard 653 (incorporated by reference, see §195.3).

(e) For aboveground breakout tanks built to API Std 2510 (incorporated by reference, see §195.3) and first placed in service after October 2, 2000, pressure testing must be performed in accordance with 2007 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) (Section VIII, Division 1 or 2).

[Amdt. 195-99, 80 FR 187, Jan. 5, 2015, as amended by Amdt. 195-100, 80 FR 12780, Mar. 11, 2015]

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§195.308   Testing of tie-ins.

Pipe associated with tie-ins must be pressure tested, either with the section to be tied in or separately.

[Amdt. 195-22, 46 FR 38360, July 27, 1981, as amended by Amdt. 195-51, 59 FR 29385, June 7, 1994]

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§195.310   Records.

(a) A record must be made of each pressure test required by this subpart, and the record of the latest test must be retained as long as the facility tested is in use.

(b) The record required by paragraph (a) of this section must include:

(1) The pressure recording charts;

(2) Test instrument calibration data;

(3) The name of the operator, the name of the person responsible for making the test, and the name of the test company used, if any;

(4) The date and time of the test;

(5) The minimum test pressure;

(6) The test medium;

(7) A description of the facility tested and the test apparatus;

(8) An explanation of any pressure discontinuities, including test failures, that appear on the pressure recording charts;

(9) Where elevation differences in the section under test exceed 100 feet (30 meters), a profile of the pipeline that shows the elevation and test sites over the entire length of the test section; and

(10) Temperature of the test medium or pipe during the test period.

[Amdt. 195-34, 50 FR 34474, Aug. 26, 1985, as amended by Amdt. 195-51, 59 FR 29385, June 7, 1994; Amdt. 195-63, 63 FR 37506, July 13, 1998; Amdt. 195-78, 68 FR 53528, Sept. 11, 2003]

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