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e-CFR data is current as of September 16, 2020

Title 49Subtitle BChapter ISubchapter DPart 195 → Subpart D


Title 49: Transportation
PART 195—TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE


Subpart D—Construction


Contents
§195.200   Scope.
§195.202   Compliance with specifications or standards.
§195.204   Inspection—general.
§195.205   Repair, alteration and reconstruction of aboveground breakout tanks that have been in service.
§195.206   Material inspection.
§195.207   Transportation of pipe.
§195.208   Welding of supports and braces.
§195.210   Pipeline location.
§195.212   Bending of pipe.
§195.214   Welding procedures.
§195.216   Welding: Miter joints.
§195.222   Welders and welding operators: Qualification of welders and welding operators.
§195.224   Welding: Weather.
§195.226   Welding: Arc burns.
§195.228   Welds and welding inspection: Standards of acceptability.
§195.230   Welds: Repair or removal of defects.
§195.234   Welds: Nondestructive testing.
§§195.236-195.244   [Reserved]
§195.246   Installation of pipe in a ditch.
§195.248   Cover over buried pipeline.
§195.250   Clearance between pipe and underground structures.
§195.252   Backfilling.
§195.254   Above ground components.
§195.256   Crossing of railroads and highways.
§195.258   Valves: General.
§195.260   Valves: Location.
§195.262   Pumping equipment.
§195.264   Impoundment, protection against entry, normal/emergency venting or pressure/vacuum relief for aboveground breakout tanks.
§195.266   Construction records.

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§195.200   Scope.

This subpart prescribes minimum requirements for constructing new pipeline systems with steel pipe, and for relocating, replacing, or otherwise changing existing pipeline systems that are constructed with steel pipe. However, this subpart does not apply to the movement of pipe covered by §195.424.

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§195.202   Compliance with specifications or standards.

Each pipeline system must be constructed in accordance with comprehensive written specifications or standards that are consistent with the requirements of this part.

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§195.204   Inspection—general.

Inspection must be provided to ensure that the installation of pipe or pipeline systems is in accordance with the requirements of this subpart. Any operator personnel used to perform the inspection must be trained and qualified in the phase of construction to be inspected. An operator must not use operator personnel to perform a required inspection if the operator personnel performed the construction task requiring inspection. Nothing in this section prohibits the operator from inspecting construction tasks with operator personnel who are involved in other construction tasks.

[Amdt. 195-100, 80 FR 12780, Mar. 11, 2015]

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§195.205   Repair, alteration and reconstruction of aboveground breakout tanks that have been in service.

(a) Aboveground breakout tanks that have been repaired, altered, or reconstructed and returned to service must be capable of withstanding the internal pressure produced by the hazardous liquid to be stored therein and any anticipated external loads.

(b) After October 2, 2000, compliance with paragraph (a) of this section requires the following:

(1) For tanks designed for approximate atmospheric pressure, constructed of carbon and low alloy steel, welded or riveted, and non-refrigerated; and for tanks built to API Std 650 (incorporated by reference, see §195.3) or its predecessor Standard 12C; repair, alteration; and reconstruction must be in accordance with API Std 653 (except section 6.4.3) (incorporated by reference, see §195.3).

(2) For tanks built to API Spec 12F (incorporated by reference, see §195.3) or API Std 620 (incorporated by reference, see §195.3), repair, alteration, and reconstruction must be in accordance with the design, welding, examination, and material requirements of those respective standards.

(3) For high-pressure tanks built to API Std 2510 (incorporated by reference, see §195.3), repairs, alterations, and reconstruction must be in accordance with API Std 510 (incorporated by reference, see §195.3).

[Amdt. 195-66, 64 FR 15935, Apr. 2, 1999, as amended by Amdt. 195-99, 80 FR 186, Jan. 5, 2015; 80 FR 46848, Aug. 6, 2015]

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§195.206   Material inspection.

No pipe or other component may be installed in a pipeline system unless it has been visually inspected at the site of installation to ensure that it is not damaged in a manner that could impair its strength or reduce its serviceability.

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§195.207   Transportation of pipe.

(a) Railroad. In a pipeline operated at a hoop stress of 20 percent or more of SMYS, an operator may not use pipe having an outer diameter to wall thickness ratio of 70 to 1, or more, that is transported by railroad unless the transportation is performed in accordance with API RP 5L1 (incorporated by reference, see §195.3).

(b) Ship or barge. In a pipeline operated at a hoop stress of 20 percent or more of SMYS, an operator may not use pipe having an outer diameter to wall thickness ratio of 70 to 1, or more, that is transported by ship or barge on both inland and marine waterways, unless the transportation is performed in accordance with API RP 5LW (incorporated by reference, see §195.3).

(c) Truck. In a pipeline to be operated at a hoop stress of 20 percent or more of SMYS, an operator may not use pipe having an outer diameter to wall thickness ratio of 70 to 1, or more, that is transported by truck unless the transportation is performed in accordance with API RP 5LT (incorporated by reference, see §195.3).

[Amdt. 195-94, 75 FR 48606, Aug. 11, 2010, as amended by Amdt. 195-99, 80 FR 186, Jan. 5, 2015]

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§195.208   Welding of supports and braces.

Supports or braces may not be welded directly to pipe that will be operated at a pressure of more than 100 p.s.i. (689 kPa) gage.

[Amdt. 195-22, 46 FR 38360, July 27, 1981, as amended by Amdt. 195-63, 63 FR 37506, July 13, 1998]

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§195.210   Pipeline location.

(a) Pipeline right-of-way must be selected to avoid, as far as practicable, areas containing private dwellings, industrial buildings, and places of public assembly.

(b) No pipeline may be located within 50 feet (15 meters) of any private dwelling, or any industrial building or place of public assembly in which persons work, congregate, or assemble, unless it is provided with at least 12 inches (305 millimeters) of cover in addition to that prescribed in §195.248.

[Amdt. 195-22, 46 FR 39360, July 27, 1981, as amended by Amdt. 195-63, 63 FR 37506, July 13, 1998]

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§195.212   Bending of pipe.

(a) Pipe must not have a wrinkle bend.

(b) Each field bend must comply with the following:

(1) A bend must not impair the serviceability of the pipe.

(2) Each bend must have a smooth contour and be free from buckling, cracks, or any other mechanical damage.

(3) On pipe containing a longitudinal weld, the longitudinal weld must be as near as practicable to the neutral axis of the bend unless—

(i) The bend is made with an internal bending mandrel; or

(ii) The pipe is 1234 in (324 mm) or less nominal outside diameter or has a diameter to wall thickness ratio less than 70.

(c) Each circumferential weld which is located where the stress during bending causes a permanent deformation in the pipe must be nondestructively tested either before or after the bending process.

[Amdt. 195-22, 46 FR 38360, July 27, 1981, as amended by Amdt. 195-52, 59 FR 33396, June 28, 1994; Amdt. 195-63, 63 FR 37506, July 13, 1998]

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§195.214   Welding procedures.

(a) Welding must be performed by a qualified welder or welding operator in accordance with welding procedures qualified under section 5, section 12, Appendix A or Appendix B of API Std 1104 (incorporated by reference, see §195.3), or Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME BPVC) (incorporated by reference, see §195.3). The quality of the test welds used to qualify the welding procedures must be determined by destructive testing.

(b) Each welding procedure must be recorded in detail, including the results of the qualifying tests. This record must be retained and followed whenever the procedure is used.

[Amdt. 195-38, 51 FR 20297, June 4, 1986, as amended at Amdt. 195-81, 69 FR 32897, June 14, 2004; Amdt. 195-99, 80 FR 186, Jan. 5, 2015; Amdt. 195-100, 80 FR 12780, Mar. 11, 2015; Amdt. 195-101, 82 FR 7999, Jan. 23, 2017]

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§195.216   Welding: Miter joints.

A miter joint is not permitted (not including deflections up to 3 degrees that are caused by misalignment).

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§195.222   Welders and welding operators: Qualification of welders and welding operators.

(a) Each welder or welding operator must be qualified in accordance with section 6, section 12, Appendix A or Appendix B of API Std 1104 (incorporated by reference, see §195.3), or section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME BPVC), (incorporated by reference, see §195.3) except that a welder or welding operator qualified under an earlier edition than listed in §195.3, may weld but may not requalify under that earlier edition.

(b) No welder or welding operator may weld with a welding process unless, within the preceding 6 calendar months, the welder or welding operator has—

(1) Engaged in welding with that process; and

(2) Had one weld tested and found acceptable under section 9 or Appendix A of API Std 1104 (incorporated by reference, see §195.3).

[Amdt. 195-81, 69 FR 54593, Sept. 9, 2004, as amended by Amdt. 195-86, 71 FR 33409, June 9, 2006; Amdt. 195-99, 80 FR 186, Jan. 5, 2015; Amdt. 195-100, 80 FR 12780, Mar. 11, 2015; Amdt. 195-101, 82 FR 7999, Jan. 23, 2017]

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§195.224   Welding: Weather.

Welding must be protected from weather conditions that would impair the quality of the completed weld.

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§195.226   Welding: Arc burns.

(a) Each arc burn must be repaired.

(b) An arc burn may be repaired by completely removing the notch by grinding, if the grinding does not reduce the remaining wall thickness to less than the minimum thickness required by the tolerances in the specification to which the pipe is manufactured. If a notch is not repairable by grinding, a cylinder of the pipe containing the entire notch must be removed.

(c) A ground may not be welded to the pipe or fitting that is being welded.

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§195.228   Welds and welding inspection: Standards of acceptability.

(a) Each weld and welding must be inspected to insure compliance with the requirements of this subpart. Visual inspection must be supplemented by nondestructive testing.

(b) The acceptability of a weld is determined according to the standards in section 9 or Appendix A of API Std 1104 (incorporated by reference, see §195.3). Appendix A of API Std 1104 may not be used to accept cracks.

[Amdt. 195-22, 46 FR 38360, July 27, 1981, as amended by Amdt. 195-52, 59 FR 33397, June 28, 1994; Amdt. 195-81, 69 FR 32898, June 14, 2004; Amdt. 195-99, 80 FR 186, Jan. 5, 2015; Amdt. 195-100, 80 FR 12780, Mar. 11, 2015]

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§195.230   Welds: Repair or removal of defects.

(a) Each weld that is unacceptable under §195.228 must be removed or repaired. Except for welds on an offshore pipeline being installed from a pipelay vessel, a weld must be removed if it has a crack that is more than 8 percent of the weld length.

(b) Each weld that is repaired must have the defect removed down to sound metal and the segment to be repaired must be preheated if conditions exist which would adversely affect the quality of the weld repair. After repair, the segment of the weld that was repaired must be inspected to ensure its acceptability.

(c) Repair of a crack, or of any defect in a previously repaired area must be in accordance with written weld repair procedures that have been qualified under §195.214. Repair procedures must provide that the minimum mechanical properties specified for the welding procedure used to make the original weld are met upon completion of the final weld repair.

[Amdt. 195-29, 48 FR 48674, Oct. 20, 1983]

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§195.234   Welds: Nondestructive testing.

(a) A weld may be nondestructively tested by any process that will clearly indicate any defects that may affect the integrity of the weld.

(b) Any nondestructive testing of welds must be performed—

(1) In accordance with a written set of procedures for nondestructive testing; and

(2) With personnel that have been trained in the established procedures and in the use of the equipment employed in the testing.

(c) Procedures for the proper interpretation of each weld inspection must be established to ensure the acceptability of the weld under §195.228.

(d) During construction, at least 10 percent of the girth welds made by each welder and welding operator during each welding day must be nondestructively tested over the entire circumference of the weld.

(e) All girth welds installed each day in the following locations must be nondestructively tested over their entire circumference, except that when nondestructive testing is impracticable for a girth weld, it need not be tested if the number of girth welds for which testing is impracticable does not exceed 10 percent of the girth welds installed that day:

(1) At any onshore location where a loss of hazardous liquid could reasonably be expected to pollute any stream, river, lake, reservoir, or other body of water, and any offshore area;

(2) Within railroad or public road rights-of-way;

(3) At overhead road crossings and within tunnels;

(4) Within the limits of any incorporated subdivision of a State government; and

(5) Within populated areas, including, but not limited to, residential subdivisions, shopping centers, schools, designated commercial areas, industrial facilities, public institutions, and places of public assembly.

(f) When installing used pipe, 100 percent of the old girth welds must be nondestructively tested.

(g) At pipeline tie-ins, including tie-ins of replacement sections, 100 percent of the girth welds must be nondestructively tested.

[Amdt. 195-22, 46 FR 38360, July 27, 1981, as amended by Amdt. 195-35, 50 FR 37192, Sept. 21, 1985; Amdt. 195-52, 59 FR 33397, June 28, 1994; Amdt. 195-100, 80 FR 12780, Mar. 11, 2015]

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§§195.236-195.244   [Reserved]

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§195.246   Installation of pipe in a ditch.

(a) All pipe installed in a ditch must be installed in a manner that minimizes the introduction of secondary stresses and the possibility of damage to the pipe.

(b) Except for pipe in the Gulf of Mexico and its inlets in waters less than 15 feet deep, all offshore pipe in water at least 12 feet deep (3.7 meters) but not more than 200 feet deep (61 meters) deep as measured from the mean low water must be installed so that the top of the pipe is below the underwater natural bottom (as determined by recognized and generally accepted practices) unless the pipe is supported by stanchions held in place by anchors or heavy concrete coating or protected by an equivalent means.

[Amdt. 195-22, 46 FR 38360, July 27, 1981, as amended by Amdt. 195-52, 59 FR 33397, June 28, 1994; 59 FR 36256, July 15, 1994; Amdt. 195-85, 69 FR 48407, Aug. 10, 2004]

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§195.248   Cover over buried pipeline.

(a) Unless specifically exempted in this subpart, all pipe must be buried so that it is below the level of cultivation. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the pipe must be installed so that the cover between the top of the pipe and the ground level, road bed, river bottom, or underwater natural bottom (as determined by recognized and generally accepted practices), as applicable, complies with the following table:

LocationCover inches (millimeters)
For normal
excavation
For rock
excavation1
Industrial, commercial, and residential areas36 (914)30 (762)
Crossing of inland bodies of water with a width of at least 100 feet (30.5 meters) from high water mark to high water mark48 (1219)18 (457)
Drainage ditches at public roads and railroads36 (914)36 (914)
Deepwater port safety zones48 (1219)24 (610)
Gulf of Mexico and its inlets in waters less than 15 feet (4.6 meters) deep as measured from mean low water36 (914)18 (457)
Other offshore areas under water less than 12 ft (3.7 meters) deep as measured from mean low water36 (914)18 (457)
Any other area30 (762)18 (457)

1Rock excavation is any excavation that requires blasting or removal by equivalent means.

(b) Except for the Gulf of Mexico and its inlets in waters less than 15 feet (4.6 meters) deep, less cover than the minimum required by paragraph (a) of this section and §195.210 may be used if—

(1) It is impracticable to comply with the minimum cover requirements; and

(2) Additional protection is provided that is equivalent to the minimum required cover.

[Amdt. 195-22, 46 FR 38360, July 27, 1981; 47 FR 32721, July 29, 1982, as amended by Amdt. 195-52, 59 FR 33397, June 28, 1994; 59 FR 36256, July 15, 1994; Amdt. 195-63, 63 FR 37506, July 13, 1998; Amdt. 195-95, 69 FR 48407, Aug. 10, 2004; Amdt. 195-101, 82 FR 7999, Jan. 23, 2017]

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§195.250   Clearance between pipe and underground structures.

Any pipe installed underground must have at least 12 inches (305 millimeters) of clearance between the outside of the pipe and the extremity of any other underground structure, except that for drainage tile the minimum clearance may be less than 12 inches (305 millimeters) but not less than 2 inches (51 millimeters). However, where 12 inches (305 millimeters) of clearance is impracticable, the clearance may be reduced if adequate provisions are made for corrosion control.

[Amdt. 195-22, 46 FR 38360, July 27, 1981, as amended by Amdt. 195-63, 63 FR 37506, July 13, 1998]

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§195.252   Backfilling.

When a ditch for a pipeline is backfilled, it must be backfilled in a manner that:

(a) Provides firm support under the pipe; and

(b) Prevents damage to the pipe and pipe coating from equipment or from the backfill material.

[Amdt. 195-78, 68 FR 53528, Sept. 11, 2003]

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§195.254   Above ground components.

(a) Any component may be installed above ground in the following situations, if the other applicable requirements of this part are complied with:

(1) Overhead crossings of highways, railroads, or a body of water.

(2) Spans over ditches and gullies.

(3) Scraper traps or block valves.

(4) Areas under the direct control of the operator.

(5) In any area inaccessible to the public.

(b) Each component covered by this section must be protected from the forces exerted by the anticipated loads.

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§195.256   Crossing of railroads and highways.

The pipe at each railroad or highway crossing must be installed so as to adequately withstand the dynamic forces exerted by anticipated traffic loads.

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§195.258   Valves: General.

(a) Each valve must be installed in a location that is accessible to authorized employees and that is protected from damage or tampering.

(b) Each submerged valve located offshore or in inland navigable waters must be marked, or located by conventional survey techniques, to facilitate quick location when operation of the valve is required.

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§195.260   Valves: Location.

A valve must be installed at each of the following locations:

(a) On the suction end and the discharge end of a pump station in a manner that permits isolation of the pump station equipment in the event of an emergency.

(b) On each line entering or leaving a breakout storage tank area in a manner that permits isolation of the tank area from other facilities.

(c) On each mainline at locations along the pipeline system that will minimize damage or pollution from accidental hazardous liquid discharge, as appropriate for the terrain in open country, for offshore areas, or for populated areas.

(d) On each lateral takeoff from a trunk line in a manner that permits shutting off the lateral without interrupting the flow in the trunk line.

(e) On each side of a water crossing that is more than 100 feet (30 meters) wide from high-water mark to high-water mark unless the Administrator finds in a particular case that valves are not justified.

(f) On each side of a reservoir holding water for human consumption.

[Amdt. 195-22, 46 FR 38360, July 27, 1981; 47 FR 32721, July 29, 1982; Amdt. 195-50, 59 FR 17281, Apr. 12, 1994; Amdt. 195-63, 63 FR 37506, July 13, 1998]

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§195.262   Pumping equipment.

(a) Adequate ventilation must be provided in pump station buildings to prevent the accumulation of hazardous vapors. Warning devices must be installed to warn of the presence of hazardous vapors in the pumping station building.

(b) The following must be provided in each pump station:

(1) Safety devices that prevent overpressuring of pumping equipment, including the auxiliary pumping equipment within the pumping station.

(2) A device for the emergency shutdown of each pumping station.

(3) If power is necessary to actuate the safety devices, an auxiliary power supply.

(c) Each safety device must be tested under conditions approximating actual operations and found to function properly before the pumping station may be used.

(d) Except for offshore pipelines, pumping equipment must be installed on property that is under the control of the operator and at least 15.2 m (50 ft) from the boundary of the pump station.

(e) Adequate fire protection must be installed at each pump station. If the fire protection system installed requires the use of pumps, motive power must be provided for those pumps that is separate from the power that operates the station.

[Amdt. 195-22, 46 FR 38360, July 27, 1981, as amended by Amdt. 195-52, 59 FR 33397, June 28, 1994]

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§195.264   Impoundment, protection against entry, normal/emergency venting or pressure/vacuum relief for aboveground breakout tanks.

(a) A means must be provided for containing hazardous liquids in the event of spillage or failure of an aboveground breakout tank.

(b) After October 2, 2000, compliance with paragraph (a) of this section requires the following for the aboveground breakout tanks specified:

(1) For tanks built to API Spec 12F, API Std 620, and others (such as API Std 650 (or its predecessor Standard 12C)), the installation of impoundment must be in accordance with the following sections of NFPA-30 (incorporated by reference, see §195.3);

(i) Impoundment around a breakout tank must be installed in accordance with section 22.11.2; and

(ii) Impoundment by drainage to a remote impounding area must be installed in accordance with section 22.11.1.

(2) For tanks built to API Std 2510 (incorporated by reference, see §195.3) , the installation of impoundment must be in accordance with section 5 or 11 of API Std 2510.

(c) Aboveground breakout tank areas must be adequately protected against unauthorized entry.

(d) Normal/emergency relief venting must be provided for each atmospheric pressure breakout tank. Pressure/vacuum-relieving devices must be provided for each low-pressure and high-pressure breakout tank.

(e) For normal/emergency relief venting and pressure/vacuum-relieving devices installed on aboveground breakout tanks after October 2, 2000, compliance with paragraph (d) of this section requires the following for the tanks specified:

(1) Normal/emergency relief venting installed on atmospheric pressure tanks built to API Spec 12F must be in accordance with section 4 and Appendices B and C of API Spec 12F (incorporated by reference, see §195.3) .

(2) Normal/emergency relief venting installed on atmospheric pressure tanks (such as those built to API Std 650 or its predecessor Standard 12C) must be in accordance with API Std 2000 (incorporated by reference, see §195.3).

(3) Pressure-relieving and emergency vacuum-relieving devices installed on low-pressure tanks built to API Std 620 must be in accordance with Section 9 of API Std 620 (incorporated by reference, see §195.3) and its references to the normal and emergency venting requirements in API Std 2000 (incorporated by reference, see §195.3).

(4) Pressure and vacuum-relieving devices installed on high-pressure tanks built to API Std 2510 must be in accordance with sections 7 or 11 of API Std 2510 (incorporated by reference, see §195.3).

[Amdt. 195-66, 64 FR 15935, Apr. 2, 1999, as amended by Amdt. 195-86, 71 FR 33410, June 9, 2006; Amd .t195-94, 75 FR 48606, Aug. 11, 2010; Amdt. 195-99, 80 FR 186, Jan. 5, 2015; 80 FR 46848, Aug. 6, 2015]

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§195.266   Construction records.

A complete record that shows the following must be maintained by the operator involved for the life of each pipeline facility:

(a) The total number of girth welds and the number nondestructively tested, including the number rejected and the disposition of each rejected weld.

(b) The amount, location; and cover of each size of pipe installed.

(c) The location of each crossing of another pipeline.

(d) The location of each buried utility crossing.

(e) The location of each overhead crossing.

(f) The location of each valve and corrosion test station.

[Amdt. 195-22, 46 FR 38360, July 27, 1981, as amended by Amdt. 195-34, 50 FR 34474, Aug. 26, 1985]

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