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Title 49Subtitle BChapter ISubchapter DPart 192 → Subpart I


Title 49: Transportation
PART 192—TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS


Subpart I—Requirements for Corrosion Control


Contents
§192.451   Scope.
§192.452   How does this subpart apply to converted pipelines and regulated onshore gathering lines?
§192.453   General.
§192.455   External corrosion control: Buried or submerged pipelines installed after July 31, 1971.
§192.457   External corrosion control: Buried or submerged pipelines installed before August 1, 1971.
§192.459   External corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline when exposed.
§192.461   External corrosion control: Protective coating.
§192.463   External corrosion control: Cathodic protection.
§192.465   External corrosion control: Monitoring.
§192.467   External corrosion control: Electrical isolation.
§192.469   External corrosion control: Test stations.
§192.471   External corrosion control: Test leads.
§192.473   External corrosion control: Interference currents.
§192.475   Internal corrosion control: General.
§192.476   Internal corrosion control: Design and construction of transmission line.
§192.477   Internal corrosion control: Monitoring.
§192.479   Atmospheric corrosion control: General.
§192.481   Atmospheric corrosion control: Monitoring.
§192.483   Remedial measures: General.
§192.485   Remedial measures: Transmission lines.
§192.487   Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines.
§192.489   Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines.
§192.490   Direct assessment.
§192.491   Corrosion control records.
§192.493   In-line inspection of pipelines.

Source: Amdt. 192-4, 36 FR 12302, June 30, 1971, unless otherwise noted.

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§192.451   Scope.

(a) This subpart prescribes minimum requirements for the protection of metallic pipelines from external, internal, and atmospheric corrosion.

(b) [Reserved]

[Amdt. 192-4, 36 FR 12302, June 30, 1971, as amended by Amdt. 192-27, 41 FR 34606, Aug. 16, 1976; Amdt. 192-33, 43 FR 39389, Sept. 5, 1978]

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§192.452   How does this subpart apply to converted pipelines and regulated onshore gathering lines?

(a) Converted pipelines. Notwithstanding the date the pipeline was installed or any earlier deadlines for compliance, each pipeline which qualifies for use under this part in accordance with §192.14 must meet the requirements of this subpart specifically applicable to pipelines installed before August 1, 1971, and all other applicable requirements within 1 year after the pipeline is readied for service. However, the requirements of this subpart specifically applicable to pipelines installed after July 31, 1971, apply if the pipeline substantially meets those requirements before it is readied for service or it is a segment which is replaced, relocated, or substantially altered.

(b) Regulated onshore gathering lines. For any regulated onshore gathering line under §192.9 existing on April 14, 2006, that was not previously subject to this part, and for any onshore gathering line that becomes a regulated onshore gathering line under §192.9 after April 14, 2006, because of a change in class location or increase in dwelling density:

(1) The requirements of this subpart specifically applicable to pipelines installed before August 1, 1971, apply to the gathering line regardless of the date the pipeline was actually installed; and

(2) The requirements of this subpart specifically applicable to pipelines installed after July 31, 1971, apply only if the pipeline substantially meets those requirements.

[Amdt. 192-30, 42 FR 60148, Nov. 25, 1977, as amended by Amdt. 192-102, 71 FR 13303, Mar. 15, 2006]

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§192.453   General.

The corrosion control procedures required by §192.605(b)(2), including those for the design, installation, operation, and maintenance of cathodic protection systems, must be carried out by, or under the direction of, a person qualified in pipeline corrosion control methods.

[Amdt. 192-71, 59 FR 6584, Feb. 11, 1994]

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§192.455   External corrosion control: Buried or submerged pipelines installed after July 31, 1971.

(a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b), (c), (f), and (g) of this section, each buried or submerged pipeline installed after July 31, 1971, must be protected against external corrosion, including the following:

(1) It must have an external protective coating meeting the requirements of §192.461.

(2) It must have a cathodic protection system designed to protect the pipeline in accordance with this subpart, installed and placed in operation within 1 year after completion of construction.

(b) An operator need not comply with paragraph (a) of this section, if the operator can demonstrate by tests, investigation, or experience in the area of application, including, as a minimum, soil resistivity measurements and tests for corrosion accelerating bacteria, that a corrosive environment does not exist. However, within 6 months after an installation made pursuant to the preceding sentence, the operator shall conduct tests, including pipe-to-soil potential measurements with respect to either a continuous reference electrode or an electrode using close spacing, not to exceed 20 feet (6 meters), and soil resistivity measurements at potential profile peak locations, to adequately evaluate the potential profile along the entire pipeline. If the tests made indicate that a corrosive condition exists, the pipeline must be cathodically protected in accordance with paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(c) An operator need not comply with paragraph (a) of this section, if the operator can demonstrate by tests, investigation, or experience that—

(1) For a copper pipeline, a corrosive environment does not exist; or

(2) For a temporary pipeline with an operating period of service not to exceed 5 years beyond installation, corrosion during the 5-year period of service of the pipeline will not be detrimental to public safety.

(d) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (b) or (c) of this section, if a pipeline is externally coated, it must be cathodically protected in accordance with paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(e) Aluminum may not be installed in a buried or submerged pipeline if that aluminum is exposed to an environment with a natural pH in excess of 8, unless tests or experience indicate its suitability in the particular environment involved.

(f) This section does not apply to electrically isolated, metal alloy fittings in plastic pipelines, if:

(1) For the size fitting to be used, an operator can show by test, investigation, or experience in the area of application that adequate corrosion control is provided by the alloy composition; and

(2) The fitting is designed to prevent leakage caused by localized corrosion pitting.

(g) Electrically isolated metal alloy fittings installed after January 22, 2019, that do not meet the requirements of paragraph (f) must be cathodically protected, and must be maintained in accordance with the operator's integrity management plan.

[Amdt. 192-4, 36 FR 12302, June 30, 1971, as amended at Amdt. 192-28, 42 FR 35654, July 11, 1977; Amdt. 192-39, 47 FR 9844, Mar. 8, 1982; Amdt. 192-78, 61 FR 28785, June 6, 1996; Amdt. 192-85, 63 FR 37504, July 13, 1998; Amdt. 192-124, 83 FR 58719, Nov. 20, 2018]

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§192.457   External corrosion control: Buried or submerged pipelines installed before August 1, 1971.

(a) Except for buried piping at compressor, regulator, and measuring stations, each buried or submerged transmission line installed before August 1, 1971, that has an effective external coating must be cathodically protected along the entire area that is effectively coated, in accordance with this subpart. For the purposes of this subpart, a pipeline does not have an effective external coating if its cathodic protection current requirements are substantially the same as if it were bare. The operator shall make tests to determine the cathodic protection current requirements.

(b) Except for cast iron or ductile iron, each of the following buried or submerged pipelines installed before August 1, 1971, must be cathodically protected in accordance with this subpart in areas in which active corrosion is found:

(1) Bare or ineffectively coated transmission lines.

(2) Bare or coated pipes at compressor, regulator, and measuring stations.

(3) Bare or coated distribution lines.

[Amdt. 192-4, 36 FR 12302, June 30, 1971, as amended by Amdt. 192-33, 43 FR 39390, Sept. 5, 1978; Amdt. 192-93, 68 FR 53900, Sept. 15, 2003]

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§192.459   External corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline when exposed.

Whenever an operator has knowledge that any portion of a buried pipeline is exposed, the exposed portion must be examined for evidence of external corrosion if the pipe is bare, or if the coating is deteriorated. If external corrosion requiring remedial action under §§192.483 through 192.489 is found, the operator shall investigate circumferentially and longitudinally beyond the exposed portion (by visual examination, indirect method, or both) to determine whether additional corrosion requiring remedial action exists in the vicinity of the exposed portion.

[Amdt. 192-87, 64 FR 56981, Oct. 22, 1999]

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§192.461   External corrosion control: Protective coating.

(a) Each external protective coating, whether conductive or insulating, applied for the purpose of external corrosion control must—

(1) Be applied on a properly prepared surface;

(2) Have sufficient adhesion to the metal surface to effectively resist underfilm migration of moisture;

(3) Be sufficiently ductile to resist cracking;

(4) Have sufficient strength to resist damage due to handling and soil stress; and

(5) Have properties compatible with any supplemental cathodic protection.

(b) Each external protective coating which is an electrically insulating type must also have low moisture absorption and high electrical resistance.

(c) Each external protective coating must be inspected just prior to lowering the pipe into the ditch and backfilling, and any damage detrimental to effective corrosion control must be repaired.

(d) Each external protective coating must be protected from damage resulting from adverse ditch conditions or damage from supporting blocks.

(e) If coated pipe is installed by boring, driving, or other similar method, precautions must be taken to minimize damage to the coating during installation.

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§192.463   External corrosion control: Cathodic protection.

(a) Each cathodic protection system required by this subpart must provide a level of cathodic protection that complies with one or more of the applicable criteria contained in appendix D of this part. If none of these criteria is applicable, the cathodic protection system must provide a level of cathodic protection at least equal to that provided by compliance with one or more of these criteria.

(b) If amphoteric metals are included in a buried or submerged pipeline containing a metal of different anodic potential—

(1) The amphoteric metals must be electrically isolated from the remainder of the pipeline and cathodically protected; or

(2) The entire buried or submerged pipeline must be cathodically protected at a cathodic potential that meets the requirements of appendix D of this part for amphoteric metals.

(c) The amount of cathodic protection must be controlled so as not to damage the protective coating or the pipe.

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§192.465   External corrosion control: Monitoring.

(a) Each pipeline that is under cathodic protection must be tested at least once each calendar year, but with intervals not exceeding 15 months, to determine whether the cathodic protection meets the requirements of §192.463. However, if tests at those intervals are impractical for separately protected short sections of mains or transmission lines, not in excess of 100 feet (30 meters), or separately protected service lines, these pipelines may be surveyed on a sampling basis. At least 10 percent of these protected structures, distributed over the entire system must be surveyed each calendar year, with a different 10 percent checked each subsequent year, so that the entire system is tested in each 10-year period.

(b) Each cathodic protection rectifier or other impressed current power source must be inspected six times each calendar year, but with intervals not exceeding 212 months, to insure that it is operating.

(c) Each reverse current switch, each diode, and each interference bond whose failure would jeopardize structure protection must be electrically checked for proper performance six times each calendar year, but with intervals not exceeding 212 months. Each other interference bond must be checked at least once each calendar year, but with intervals not exceeding 15 months.

(d) Each operator shall take prompt remedial action to correct any deficiencies indicated by the monitoring.

(e) After the initial evaluation required by §§192.455(b) and (c) and 192.457(b), each operator must, not less than every 3 years at intervals not exceeding 39 months, reevaluate its unprotected pipelines and cathodically protect them in accordance with this subpart in areas in which active corrosion is found. The operator must determine the areas of active corrosion by electrical survey. However, on distribution lines and where an electrical survey is impractical on transmission lines, areas of active corrosion may be determined by other means that include review and analysis of leak repair and inspection records, corrosion monitoring records, exposed pipe inspection records, and the pipeline environment.

[Amdt. 192-4, 36 FR 12302, June 30, 1971, as amended by Amdt. 192-33, 43 FR 39390, Sept. 5, 1978; Amdt. 192-35A, 45 FR 23441, Apr. 7, 1980; Amdt. 192-85, 63 FR 37504, July 13, 1998; Amdt. 192-93, 68 FR 53900, Sept. 15, 2003; Amdt. 192-114, 75 FR 48603, Aug. 11, 2010]

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§192.467   External corrosion control: Electrical isolation.

(a) Each buried or submerged pipeline must be electrically isolated from other underground metallic structures, unless the pipeline and the other structures are electrically interconnected and cathodically protected as a single unit.

(b) One or more insulating devices must be installed where electrical isolation of a portion of a pipeline is necessary to facilitate the application of corrosion control.

(c) Except for unprotected copper inserted in ferrous pipe, each pipeline must be electrically isolated from metallic casings that are a part of the underground system. However, if isolation is not achieved because it is impractical, other measures must be taken to minimize corrosion of the pipeline inside the casing.

(d) Inspection and electrical tests must be made to assure that electrical isolation is adequate.

(e) An insulating device may not be installed in an area where a combustible atmosphere is anticipated unless precautions are taken to prevent arcing.

(f) Where a pipeline is located in close proximity to electrical transmission tower footings, ground cables or counterpoise, or in other areas where fault currents or unusual risk of lightning may be anticipated, it must be provided with protection against damage due to fault currents or lightning, and protective measures must also be taken at insulating devices.

[Amdt. 192-4, 36 FR 12302, June 30, 1971, as amended by Amdt. 192-33, 43 FR 39390, Sept. 5, 1978]

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§192.469   External corrosion control: Test stations.

Each pipeline under cathodic protection required by this subpart must have sufficient test stations or other contact points for electrical measurement to determine the adequacy of cathodic protection.

[Amdt. 192-27, 41 FR 34606, Aug. 16, 1976]

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§192.471   External corrosion control: Test leads.

(a) Each test lead wire must be connected to the pipeline so as to remain mechanically secure and electrically conductive.

(b) Each test lead wire must be attached to the pipeline so as to minimize stress concentration on the pipe.

(c) Each bared test lead wire and bared metallic area at point of connection to the pipeline must be coated with an electrical insulating material compatible with the pipe coating and the insulation on the wire.

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§192.473   External corrosion control: Interference currents.

(a) Each operator whose pipeline system is subjected to stray currents shall have in effect a continuing program to minimize the detrimental effects of such currents.

(b) Each impressed current type cathodic protection system or galvanic anode system must be designed and installed so as to minimize any adverse effects on existing adjacent underground metallic structures.

[Amdt. 192-4, 36 FR 12302, June 30, 1971, as amended by Amdt. 192-33, 43 FR 39390, Sept. 5, 1978]

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§192.475   Internal corrosion control: General.

(a) Corrosive gas may not be transported by pipeline, unless the corrosive effect of the gas on the pipeline has been investigated and steps have been taken to minimize internal corrosion.

(b) Whenever any pipe is removed from a pipeline for any reason, the internal surface must be inspected for evidence of corrosion. If internal corrosion is found—

(1) The adjacent pipe must be investigated to determine the extent of internal corrosion;

(2) Replacement must be made to the extent required by the applicable paragraphs of §§192.485, 192.487, or 192.489; and

(3) Steps must be taken to minimize the internal corrosion.

(c) Gas containing more than 0.25 grain of hydrogen sulfide per 100 cubic feet (5.8 milligrams/m.3) at standard conditions (4 parts per million) may not be stored in pipe-type or bottle-type holders.

[Amdt. 192-4, 36 FR 12302, June 30, 1971, as amended by Amdt. 192-33, 43 FR 39390, Sept. 5, 1978; Amdt. 192-78, 61 FR 28785, June 6, 1996; Amdt. 192-85, 63 FR 37504, July 13, 1998]

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§192.476   Internal corrosion control: Design and construction of transmission line.

(a) Design and construction. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each new transmission line and each replacement of line pipe, valve, fitting, or other line component in a transmission line must have features incorporated into its design and construction to reduce the risk of internal corrosion. At a minimum, unless it is impracticable or unnecessary to do so, each new transmission line or replacement of line pipe, valve, fitting, or other line component in a transmission line must:

(1) Be configured to reduce the risk that liquids will collect in the line;

(2) Have effective liquid removal features whenever the configuration would allow liquids to collect; and

(3) Allow use of devices for monitoring internal corrosion at locations with significant potential for internal corrosion.

(b) Exceptions to applicability. The design and construction requirements of paragraph (a) of this section do not apply to the following:

(1) Offshore pipeline; and

(2) Pipeline installed or line pipe, valve, fitting or other line component replaced before May 23, 2007.

(c) Change to existing transmission line. When an operator changes the configuration of a transmission line, the operator must evaluate the impact of the change on internal corrosion risk to the downstream portion of an existing onshore transmission line and provide for removal of liquids and monitoring of internal corrosion as appropriate.

(d) Records. An operator must maintain records demonstrating compliance with this section. Provided the records show why incorporating design features addressing paragraph (a)(1), (a)(2), or (a)(3) of this section is impracticable or unnecessary, an operator may fulfill this requirement through written procedures supported by as-built drawings or other construction records.

[72 FR 20059, Apr. 23, 2007]

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§192.477   Internal corrosion control: Monitoring.

If corrosive gas is being transported, coupons or other suitable means must be used to determine the effectiveness of the steps taken to minimize internal corrosion. Each coupon or other means of monitoring internal corrosion must be checked two times each calendar year, but with intervals not exceeding 712 months.

[Amdt. 192-33, 43 FR 39390, Sept. 5, 1978]

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§192.479   Atmospheric corrosion control: General.

(a) Each operator must clean and coat each pipeline or portion of pipeline that is exposed to the atmosphere, except pipelines under paragraph (c) of this section.

(b) Coating material must be suitable for the prevention of atmospheric corrosion.

(c) Except portions of pipelines in offshore splash zones or soil-to-air interfaces, the operator need not protect from atmospheric corrosion any pipeline for which the operator demonstrates by test, investigation, or experience appropriate to the environment of the pipeline that corrosion will—

(1) Only be a light surface oxide; or

(2) Not affect the safe operation of the pipeline before the next scheduled inspection.

[Amdt. 192-93, 68 FR 53901, Sept. 15, 2003]

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§192.481   Atmospheric corrosion control: Monitoring.

(a) Each operator must inspect each pipeline or portion of pipeline that is exposed to the atmosphere for evidence of atmospheric corrosion, as follows:

If the pipeline is located:Then the frequency of inspection is:
OnshoreAt least once every 3 calendar years, but with intervals not exceeding 39 months
OffshoreAt least once each calendar year, but with intervals not exceeding 15 months

(b) During inspections the operator must give particular attention to pipe at soil-to-air interfaces, under thermal insulation, under disbonded coatings, at pipe supports, in splash zones, at deck penetrations, and in spans over water.

(c) If atmospheric corrosion is found during an inspection, the operator must provide protection against the corrosion as required by §192.479.

[Amdt. 192-93, 68 FR 53901, Sept. 15, 2003]

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§192.483   Remedial measures: General.

(a) Each segment of metallic pipe that replaces pipe removed from a buried or submerged pipeline because of external corrosion must have a properly prepared surface and must be provided with an external protective coating that meets the requirements of §192.461.

(b) Each segment of metallic pipe that replaces pipe removed from a buried or submerged pipeline because of external corrosion must be cathodically protected in accordance with this subpart.

(c) Except for cast iron or ductile iron pipe, each segment of buried or submerged pipe that is required to be repaired because of external corrosion must be cathodically protected in accordance with this subpart.

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§192.485   Remedial measures: Transmission lines.

(a) General corrosion. Each segment of transmission line with general corrosion and with a remaining wall thickness less than that required for the MAOP of the pipeline must be replaced or the operating pressure reduced commensurate with the strength of the pipe based on actual remaining wall thickness. However, corroded pipe may be repaired by a method that reliable engineering tests and analyses show can permanently restore the serviceability of the pipe. Corrosion pitting so closely grouped as to affect the overall strength of the pipe is considered general corrosion for the purpose of this paragraph.

(b) Localized corrosion pitting. Each segment of transmission line pipe with localized corrosion pitting to a degree where leakage might result must be replaced or repaired, or the operating pressure must be reduced commensurate with the strength of the pipe, based on the actual remaining wall thickness in the pits.

(c) Under paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, the strength of pipe based on actual remaining wall thickness may be determined by the procedure in ASME/ANSI B31G (incorporated by reference, see §192.7) or the procedure in PRCI PR 3-805 (R-STRENG) (incorporated by reference, see §192.7). Both procedures apply to corroded regions that do not penetrate the pipe wall, subject to the limitations prescribed in the procedures.

[Amdt. 192-4, 36 FR 12302, June 30, 1971, as amended by Amdt. 192-33, 43 FR 39390, Sept. 5, 1978; Amdt. 192-78, 61 FR 28785, June 6, 1996; Amdt. 192-88, 64 FR 69664, Dec. 14, 1999; Amdt. 192-119, 80 FR 181, Jan. 5, 2015]

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§192.487   Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines.

(a) General corrosion. Except for cast iron or ductile iron pipe, each segment of generally corroded distribution line pipe with a remaining wall thickness less than that required for the MAOP of the pipeline, or a remaining wall thickness less than 30 percent of the nominal wall thickness, must be replaced. However, corroded pipe may be repaired by a method that reliable engineering tests and analyses show can permanently restore the serviceability of the pipe. Corrosion pitting so closely grouped as to affect the overall strength of the pipe is considered general corrosion for the purpose of this paragraph.

(b) Localized corrosion pitting. Except for cast iron or ductile iron pipe, each segment of distribution line pipe with localized corrosion pitting to a degree where leakage might result must be replaced or repaired.

[Amdt. 192-4, 36 FR 12302, June 30, 1971, as amended by Amdt. 192-88, 64 FR 69665, Dec. 14, 1999]

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§192.489   Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines.

(a) General graphitization. Each segment of cast iron or ductile iron pipe on which general graphitization is found to a degree where a fracture or any leakage might result, must be replaced.

(b) Localized graphitization. Each segment of cast iron or ductile iron pipe on which localized graphitization is found to a degree where any leakage might result, must be replaced or repaired, or sealed by internal sealing methods adequate to prevent or arrest any leakage.

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§192.490   Direct assessment.

Each operator that uses direct assessment as defined in §192.903 on an onshore transmission line made primarily of steel or iron to evaluate the effects of a threat in the first column must carry out the direct assessment according to the standard listed in the second column. These standards do not apply to methods associated with direct assessment, such as close interval surveys, voltage gradient surveys, or examination of exposed pipelines, when used separately from the direct assessment process.

Threat Standard1
External corrosion§192.9252
Internal corrosion in pipelines that transport dry gas§192.927
Stress corrosion cracking§192.929

1For lines not subject to subpart O of this part, the terms “covered segment” and “covered pipeline segment” in §§192.925, 192.927, and 192.929 refer to the pipeline segment on which direct assessment is performed.

2In §192.925(b), the provision regarding detection of coating damage applies only to pipelines subject to subpart O of this part.

[Amdt. 192-101, 70 FR 61575, Oct. 25, 2005]

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§192.491   Corrosion control records.

(a) Each operator shall maintain records or maps to show the location of cathodically protected piping, cathodic protection facilities, galvanic anodes, and neighboring structures bonded to the cathodic protection system. Records or maps showing a stated number of anodes, installed in a stated manner or spacing, need not show specific distances to each buried anode.

(b) Each record or map required by paragraph (a) of this section must be retained for as long as the pipeline remains in service.

(c) Each operator shall maintain a record of each test, survey, or inspection required by this subpart in sufficient detail to demonstrate the adequacy of corrosion control measures or that a corrosive condition does not exist. These records must be retained for at least 5 years, except that records related to §§192.465 (a) and (e) and 192.475(b) must be retained for as long as the pipeline remains in service.

[Amdt. 192-78, 61 FR 28785, June 6, 1996]

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§192.493   In-line inspection of pipelines.

When conducting in-line inspections of pipelines required by this part, an operator must comply with API STD 1163, ANSI/ASNT ILI-PQ, and NACE SP0102, (incorporated by reference, see §192.7). Assessments may be conducted using tethered or remotely controlled tools, not explicitly discussed in NACE SP0102, provided they comply with those sections of NACE SP0102 that are applicable.

[Amdt. No. 192-125, 84 FR 52245, Oct. 1, 2019]

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