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e-CFR data is current as of June 30, 2020

Title 49Subtitle BChapter ISubchapter DPart 192 → Subpart G


Title 49: Transportation
PART 192—TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS


Subpart G—General Construction Requirements for Transmission Lines and Mains


Contents
§192.301   Scope.
§192.303   Compliance with specifications or standards.
§192.305   Inspection: General.
§192.307   Inspection of materials.
§192.309   Repair of steel pipe.
§192.311   Repair of plastic pipe.
§192.313   Bends and elbows.
§192.315   Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.
§192.317   Protection from hazards.
§192.319   Installation of pipe in a ditch.
§192.321   Installation of plastic pipe.
§192.323   Casing.
§192.325   Underground clearance.
§192.327   Cover.
§192.328   Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating pressure.
§192.329   Installation of plastic pipelines by trenchless excavation.

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§192.301   Scope.

This subpart prescribes minimum requirements for constructing transmission lines and mains.

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§192.303   Compliance with specifications or standards.

Each transmission line or main must be constructed in accordance with comprehensive written specifications or standards that are consistent with this part.

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§192.305   Inspection: General.

Link to an amendment published at 80 FR 12779, Mar. 11, 2015.

This amendment was delayed indefinitely at 80 FR 58633, Sept. 30, 2015.

Each transmission line or main must be inspected to ensure that it is constructed in accordance with this part.

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§192.307   Inspection of materials.

Each length of pipe and each other component must be visually inspected at the site of installation to ensure that it has not sustained any visually determinable damage that could impair its serviceability.

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§192.309   Repair of steel pipe.

(a) Each imperfection or damage that impairs the serviceability of a length of steel pipe must be repaired or removed. If a repair is made by grinding, the remaining wall thickness must at least be equal to either:

(1) The minimum thickness required by the tolerances in the specification to which the pipe was manufactured; or

(2) The nominal wall thickness required for the design pressure of the pipeline.

(b) Each of the following dents must be removed from steel pipe to be operated at a pressure that produces a hoop stress of 20 percent, or more, of SMYS, unless the dent is repaired by a method that reliable engineering tests and analyses show can permanently restore the serviceability of the pipe:

(1) A dent that contains a stress concentrator such as a scratch, gouge, groove, or arc burn.

(2) A dent that affects the longitudinal weld or a circumferential weld.

(3) In pipe to be operated at a pressure that produces a hoop stress of 40 percent or more of SMYS, a dent that has a depth of:

(i) More than 14 inch (6.4 millimeters) in pipe 1234 inches (324 millimeters) or less in outer diameter; or

(ii) More than 2 percent of the nominal pipe diameter in pipe over 1234 inches (324 millimeters) in outer diameter.

For the purpose of this section a “dent” is a depression that produces a gross disturbance in the curvature of the pipe wall without reducing the pipe-wall thickness. The depth of a dent is measured as the gap between the lowest point of the dent and a prolongation of the original contour of the pipe.

(c) Each arc burn on steel pipe to be operated at a pressure that produces a hoop stress of 40 percent, or more, of SMYS must be repaired or removed. If a repair is made by grinding, the arc burn must be completely removed and the remaining wall thickness must be at least equal to either:

(1) The minimum wall thickness required by the tolerances in the specification to which the pipe was manufactured; or

(2) The nominal wall thickness required for the design pressure of the pipeline.

(d) A gouge, groove, arc burn, or dent may not be repaired by insert patching or by pounding out.

(e) Each gouge, groove, arc burn, or dent that is removed from a length of pipe must be removed by cutting out the damaged portion as a cylinder.

[35 FR 13257, Aug. 19, 1970, as amended by Amdt. 192-1, 35 FR 17660, Nov. 17, 1970; Amdt. 192-85, 63 FR 37503, July 13, 1998; Amdt. 192-88, 64 FR 69664, Dec. 14, 1999]

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§192.311   Repair of plastic pipe.

Each imperfection or damage that would impair the serviceability of plastic pipe must be repaired or removed.

[Amdt. 192-93, 68 FR 53900, Sept. 15, 2003]

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§192.313   Bends and elbows.

(a) Each field bend in steel pipe, other than a wrinkle bend made in accordance with §192.315, must comply with the following:

(1) A bend must not impair the serviceability of the pipe.

(2) Each bend must have a smooth contour and be free from buckling, cracks, or any other mechanical damage.

(3) On pipe containing a longitudinal weld, the longitudinal weld must be as near as practicable to the neutral axis of the bend unless:

(i) The bend is made with an internal bending mandrel; or

(ii) The pipe is 12 inches (305 millimeters) or less in outside diameter or has a diameter to wall thickness ratio less than 70.

(b) Each circumferential weld of steel pipe which is located where the stress during bending causes a permanent deformation in the pipe must be nondestructively tested either before or after the bending process.

(c) Wrought-steel welding elbows and transverse segments of these elbows may not be used for changes in direction on steel pipe that is 2 inches (51 millimeters) or more in diameter unless the arc length, as measured along the crotch, is at least 1 inch (25 millimeters).

(d) An operator may not install plastic pipe with a bend radius that is less than the minimum bend radius specified by the manufacturer for the diameter of the pipe being installed.

[Amdt. 192-26, 41 FR 26018, June 24, 1976, as amended by Amdt. 192-29, 42 FR 42866, Aug. 25, 1977; Amdt. 192-29, 42 FR 60148, Nov. 25, 1977; Amdt. 192-49, 50 FR 13225, Apr. 3, 1985; Amdt. 192-85, 63 FR 37503, July 13, 1998; Amdt. 192-124, 83 FR 58718, Nov. 20, 2018]

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§192.315   Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

(a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel pipe to be operated at a pressure that produces a hoop stress of 30 percent, or more, of SMYS.

(b) Each wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following:

(1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks.

(2) When measured along the crotch of the bend, the wrinkles must be a distance of at least one pipe diameter.

(3) On pipe 16 inches (406 millimeters) or larger in diameter, the bend may not have a deflection of more than 112 ° for each wrinkle.

(4) On pipe containing a longitudinal weld the longitudinal seam must be as near as practicable to the neutral axis of the bend.

[35 FR 13257, Aug. 19, 1970, as amended by Amdt. 192-85, 63 FR 37503, July 13, 1998]

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§192.317   Protection from hazards.

(a) The operator must take all practicable steps to protect each transmission line or main from washouts, floods, unstable soil, landslides, or other hazards that may cause the pipeline to move or to sustain abnormal loads. In addition, the operator must take all practicable steps to protect offshore pipelines from damage by mud slides, water currents, hurricanes, ship anchors, and fishing operations.

(b) Each aboveground transmission line or main, not located offshore or in inland navigable water areas, must be protected from accidental damage by vehicular traffic or other similar causes, either by being placed at a safe distance from the traffic or by installing barricades.

(c) Pipelines, including pipe risers, on each platform located offshore or in inland navigable waters must be protected from accidental damage by vessels.

[Amdt. 192-27, 41 FR 34606, Aug. 16, 1976, as amended by Amdt. 192-78, 61 FR 28784, June 6, 1996]

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§192.319   Installation of pipe in a ditch.

(a) When installed in a ditch, each transmission line that is to be operated at a pressure producing a hoop stress of 20 percent or more of SMYS must be installed so that the pipe fits the ditch so as to minimize stresses and protect the pipe coating from damage.

(b) When a ditch for a transmission line or main is backfilled, it must be backfilled in a manner that:

(1) Provides firm support under the pipe; and

(2) Prevents damage to the pipe and pipe coating from equipment or from the backfill material.

(c) All offshore pipe in water at least 12 feet (3.7 meters) deep but not more than 200 feet (61 meters) deep, as measured from the mean low tide, except pipe in the Gulf of Mexico and its inlets under 15 feet (4.6 meters) of water, must be installed so that the top of the pipe is below the natural bottom unless the pipe is supported by stanchions, held in place by anchors or heavy concrete coating, or protected by an equivalent means. Pipe in the Gulf of Mexico and its inlets under 15 feet (4.6 meters) of water must be installed so that the top of the pipe is 36 inches (914 millimeters) below the seabed for normal excavation or 18 inches (457 millimeters) for rock excavation.

[35 FR 13257, Aug. 19, 1970, as amended by Amdt. 192-27, 41 FR 34606, Aug. 16, 1976; Amdt. 192-78, 61 FR 28784, June 6, 1996; Amdt. 192-85, 63 FR 37503, July 13, 1998]

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§192.321   Installation of plastic pipe.

(a) Plastic pipe must be installed below ground level except as provided in paragraphs (g), (h), and (i) of this section.

(b) Plastic pipe that is installed in a vault or any other below grade enclosure must be completely encased in gas-tight metal pipe and fittings that are adequately protected from corrosion.

(c) Plastic pipe must be installed so as to minimize shear or tensile stresses.

(d) Plastic pipe must have a minimum wall thickness in accordance with §192.121.

(e) Plastic pipe that is not encased must have an electrically conducting wire or other means of locating the pipe while it is underground. Tracer wire may not be wrapped around the pipe and contact with the pipe must be minimized but is not prohibited. Tracer wire or other metallic elements installed for pipe locating purposes must be resistant to corrosion damage, either by use of coated copper wire or by other means.

(f) Plastic pipe that is being encased must be inserted into the casing pipe in a manner that will protect the plastic. Plastic pipe that is being encased must be protected from damage at all entrance and all exit points of the casing. The leading end of the plastic must be closed before insertion.

(g) Uncased plastic pipe may be temporarily installed above ground level under the following conditions:

(1) The operator must be able to demonstrate that the cumulative aboveground exposure of the pipe does not exceed the manufacturer's recommended maximum period of exposure or 2 years, whichever is less.

(2) The pipe either is located where damage by external forces is unlikely or is otherwise protected against such damage.

(3) The pipe adequately resists exposure to ultraviolet light and high and low temperatures.

(h) Plastic pipe may be installed on bridges provided that it is:

(1) Installed with protection from mechanical damage, such as installation in a metallic casing;

(2) Protected from ultraviolet radiation; and

(3) Not allowed to exceed the pipe temperature limits specified in §192.121.

(i) Plastic mains may terminate above ground level provided they comply with the following:

(1) The above-ground level part of the plastic main is protected against deterioration and external damage.

(2) The plastic main is not used to support external loads.

(3) Installations of risers at regulator stations must meet the design requirements of §192.204.

[35 FR 13257, Aug. 19, 1970, as amended by Amdt. 192-78, 61 FR 28784, June 6, 1996; Amdt. 192-85, 63 FR 37503, July 13, 1998; Amdt. 192-93, 68 FR 53900, Sept. 15, 2003; Amdt. 192-94, 69 FR 32895, June 14, 2004; Amdt. 192-124, 83 FR 58718, Nov. 20, 2018]

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§192.323   Casing.

Each casing used on a transmission line or main under a railroad or highway must comply with the following:

(a) The casing must be designed to withstand the superimposed loads.

(b) If there is a possibility of water entering the casing, the ends must be sealed.

(c) If the ends of an unvented casing are sealed and the sealing is strong enough to retain the maximum allowable operating pressure of the pipe, the casing must be designed to hold this pressure at a stress level of not more than 72 percent of SMYS.

(d) If vents are installed on a casing, the vents must be protected from the weather to prevent water from entering the casing.

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§192.325   Underground clearance.

(a) Each transmission line must be installed with at least 12 inches (305 millimeters) of clearance from any other underground structure not associated with the transmission line. If this clearance cannot be attained, the transmission line must be protected from damage that might result from the proximity of the other structure.

(b) Each main must be installed with enough clearance from any other underground structure to allow proper maintenance and to protect against damage that might result from proximity to other structures.

(c) In addition to meeting the requirements of paragraph (a) or (b) of this section, each plastic transmission line or main must be installed with sufficient clearance, or must be insulated, from any source of heat so as to prevent the heat from impairing the serviceability of the pipe.

(d) Each pipe-type or bottle-type holder must be installed with a minimum clearance from any other holder as prescribed in §192.175(b).

[35 FR 13257, Aug. 19, 1970, as amended by Amdt. 192-85, 63 FR 37503, July 13, 1998]

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§192.327   Cover.

(a) Except as provided in paragraphs (c), (e), (f), and (g) of this section, each buried transmission line must be installed with a minimum cover as follows:

LocationNormal soilConsolidated rock
Inches (Millimeters)
Class 1 locations30 (762)18 (457)
Class 2, 3, and 4 locations36 (914)24 (610)
Drainage ditches of public roads and railroad crossings36 (914)24 (610)

(b) Except as provided in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section, each buried main must be installed with at least 24 inches (610 millimeters) of cover.

(c) Where an underground structure prevents the installation of a transmission line or main with the minimum cover, the transmission line or main may be installed with less cover if it is provided with additional protection to withstand anticipated external loads.

(d) A main may be installed with less than 24 inches (610 millimeters) of cover if the law of the State or municipality:

(1) Establishes a minimum cover of less than 24 inches (610 millimeters);

(2) Requires that mains be installed in a common trench with other utility lines; and

(3) Provides adequately for prevention of damage to the pipe by external forces.

(e) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, all pipe installed in a navigable river, stream, or harbor must be installed with a minimum cover of 48 inches (1,219 millimeters) in soil or 24 inches (610 millimeters) in consolidated rock between the top of the pipe and the underwater natural bottom (as determined by recognized and generally accepted practices).

(f) All pipe installed offshore, except in the Gulf of Mexico and its inlets, under water not more than 200 feet (60 meters) deep, as measured from the mean low tide, must be installed as follows:

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, pipe under water less than 12 feet (3.66 meters) deep, must be installed with a minimum cover of 36 inches (914 millimeters) in soil or 18 inches (457 millimeters) in consolidated rock between the top of the pipe and the natural bottom.

(2) Pipe under water at least 12 feet (3.66 meters) deep must be installed so that the top of the pipe is below the natural bottom, unless the pipe is supported by stanchions, held in place by anchors or heavy concrete coating, or protected by an equivalent means.

(g) All pipelines installed under water in the Gulf of Mexico and its inlets, as defined in §192.3, must be installed in accordance with §192.612(b)(3).

[35 FR 13257, Aug. 19, 1970, as amended by Amdt. 192-27, 41 FR 34606, Aug. 16, 1976; Amdt. 192-78, 61 FR 28785, June 6, 1996; Amdt. 192-85, 63 FR 37503, July 13, 1998; Amdt. 192-98, 69 FR 48406, Aug. 10, 2004]

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§192.328   Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating pressure.

For a new or existing pipeline segment to be eligible for operation at the alternative maximum allowable operating pressure calculated under §192.620, a segment must meet the following additional construction requirements. Records must be maintained, for the useful life of the pipeline, demonstrating compliance with these requirements:

To address this construction issue:The pipeline segment must meet this additional construction requirement:
(a) Quality assurance(1) The construction of the pipeline segment must be done under a quality assurance plan addressing pipe inspection, hauling and stringing, field bending, welding, non-destructive examination of girth welds, applying and testing field applied coating, lowering of the pipeline into the ditch, padding and backfilling, and hydrostatic testing.
   (2) The quality assurance plan for applying and testing field applied coating to girth welds must be:
   (i) Equivalent to that required under §192.112(f)(3) for pipe; and
   (ii) Performed by an individual with the knowledge, skills, and ability to assure effective coating application.
(b) Girth welds(1) All girth welds on a new pipeline segment must be non-destructively examined in accordance with §192.243(b) and (c).
(c) Depth of cover(1) Notwithstanding any lesser depth of cover otherwise allowed in §192.327, there must be at least 36 inches (914 millimeters) of cover or equivalent means to protect the pipeline from outside force damage.
   (2) In areas where deep tilling or other activities could threaten the pipeline, the top of the pipeline must be installed at least one foot below the deepest expected penetration of the soil.
(d) Initial strength testing(1) The pipeline segment must not have experienced failures indicative of systemic material defects during strength testing, including initial hydrostatic testing. A root cause analysis, including metallurgical examination of the failed pipe, must be performed for any failure experienced to verify that it is not indicative of a systemic concern. The results of this root cause analysis must be reported to each PHMSA pipeline safety regional office where the pipe is in service at least 60 days prior to operating at the alternative MAOP. An operator must also notify a State pipeline safety authority when the pipeline is located in a State where PHMSA has an interstate agent agreement, or an intrastate pipeline is regulated by that State.
(e) Interference currents(1) For a new pipeline segment, the construction must address the impacts of induced alternating current from parallel electric transmission lines and other known sources of potential interference with corrosion control.

[72 FR 62176, Oct. 17, 2008]

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§192.329   Installation of plastic pipelines by trenchless excavation.

Plastic pipelines installed by trenchless excavation must comply with the following:

(a) Each operator must take practicable steps to provide sufficient clearance for installation and maintenance activities from other underground utilities and/or structures at the time of installation.

(b) For each pipeline section, plastic pipe and components that are pulled through the ground must use a weak link, as defined by §192.3, to ensure the pipeline will not be damaged by any excessive forces during the pulling process.

[Amdt. 192-124, 83 FR 58719, Nov. 20, 2018]

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