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e-CFR data is current as of March 4, 2021

Title 46Chapter IISubchapter JPart 356 → Subpart B


Title 46: Shipping
PART 356—REQUIREMENTS FOR VESSELS OF 100 FEET OR GREATER IN REGISTERED LENGTH TO OBTAIN A FISHERY ENDORSEMENT TO THE VESSEL'S DOCUMENTATION


Subpart B—Ownership and Control


Contents
§356.5   Affidavit of U.S. Citizenship.
§356.7   Methods of establishing ownership by United States Citizens.
§356.9   Tiered ownership structures.
§356.11   Impermissible control by a Non-Citizen.

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§356.5   Affidavit of U.S. Citizenship.

(a) In order to establish that a corporation or other entity is a Citizen of the United States within the meaning of section 2(c) of the 1916 Act, or where applicable, section 2(b) of the 1916 Act, the form of Affidavit is hereby prescribed for execution in behalf of the owner, charterer, Mortgagee, or Mortgage Trustee of a Fishing Industry Vessel. Such Affidavit must include information required of parent corporations and other stockholders whose stock ownership is being relied upon to establish that the requisite ownership in the entity is owned by and vested in Citizens of the United States. A certified copy of the Articles of Incorporation and Bylaws, or comparable corporate documents, must be submitted along with the executed Affidavit.

(b) This Affidavit form set forth in paragraph (d) of this section may be modified to conform to the requirements of vessel owners, Mortgagees, or Mortgage Trustees in various forms such as partnerships, limited liability companies, etc. A copy of an Affidavit of U.S. Citizenship modified appropriately, for limited liability companies, partnerships (limited and general), and other entities is available on MARAD's internet home page at http://www.marad.dot.gov.

(c) As indicated in §356.17, in order to renew annually the fishery endorsement on a Fishing Industry Vessel, the owner must submit annually to the Citizenship Approval Officer evidence of U.S. Citizenship within the meaning of section 2(c) of the 1916 Act and 46 App. U.S.C. 12102(c).

(d) The prescribed form of the Affidavit of U.S. Citizenship is as follows:

State of ____ County of ____ Social Security Number: ______

I, ______, (Name) of ______, (Residence address) being duly sworn, depose and say:

1. That I am the ____ (Title of office(s) held) of ____, (Name of corporation) a corporation organized and existing under the laws of the State of____ (hereinafter called the “Corporation”), with offices at ______, (Business address) in evidence of which incorporation a certified copy of the Articles or Certificate of Incorporation (or Association) is filed herewith (or has been filed) together with a certified copy of the corporate Bylaws. [Evidence of continuing U.S. citizenship status, including amendments to said Articles or Certificate and Bylaws, should be filed within 45 days of the annual documentation renewal date for vessel owners. Other parties required to provide evidence of U.S. citizenship status must file within 30 days after the annual meeting of the stockholders or annually, within 30 days after the original affidavit if there has been no meeting of the stockholders prior to that time.];

2. That I am authorized by and in behalf of the Corporation to execute and deliver this Affidavit of U.S. Citizenship;

3. That the names of the Chief Executive Officer, by whatever title, the Chairman of the Board of Directors, all Vice Presidents or other individuals who are authorized to act in the absence or disability of the Chief Executive Officer or Chairman of the Board of Directors, and the Directors of the Corporation are as follows:1

1Offices that are currently vacant should be noted when listing Ofifcers and Directors in the Affidavit.

 

Name            Title

 

Date and Place of Birth

 
 

(The foregoing list should include the officers, whether or not they are also directors, and all directors, whether or not they are also officers.) Each of said individuals is a Citizen of the United States by virtue of birth in the United States, birth abroad of U.S. citizen parents, by naturalization, by naturalization during minority through the naturalization of a parent, by marriage (if a woman) to a U.S. citizen prior to September 22, 1922, or as otherwise authorized by law, except (give name and nationality of all Non-Citizen officers and directors, if any). The By-laws of the Corporation provide that __ (Number) of the directors are necessary to constitute a quorum; therefore, the Non-Citizen directors named represent no more than a minority of the number necessary to constitute a quorum.

4. Information as to stock, where Corporation has 30 or more stockholders:

 

That I have access to the stock books and records of the Corporation; that said stock books and records have been examined and disclose (a) that, as of __, (Date) the Corporation had issued and outstanding ____ (Number) shares of ____, (Class) the only class of stock of the Corporation issued and outstanding [if such is the case], owned of record by ____ (Number) stockholders, said number of stockholders representing the ownership of the entire issued and outstanding stock of the Corporation, and (b) that no stockholder owned of record as of said date five per centum (5%) or more of the issued and outstanding stock of the Corporation of any class. [If different classes of stock exist, give the same information for each class issued and outstanding, showing the monetary value and voting rights per share in each class. If there is an exception to the statement in clause (b), the name, address, and citizenship of the stockholder and the amount and class of stock owned should be stated and the required citizenship information on such stockholder must be submitted.] That the registered addresses of ____ owners of record of ____ shares of the issued and outstanding ____ (Class) stock of the Corporation are shown on the stock books and records of the Corporation as being within the United States, said ____ shares being ____ per centum __(%) of the total number of shares of said stock (each class). [The exact figure as disclosed by the stock books of the corporation must be given and the per centum figure must not be less than 65 per centum for a corporation that must satisfy the controlling interest requirements of section 2(b) of the Shipping Act, 1916, 46 App. U.S.C. §802(b), or not less than 95 per centum for an entity that is demonstrating ownership in a vessel for which a fishery endorsement is sought. These per centum figures apply to corporate stockholders as well as to the primary corporation.] (The same statement should be made with reference to each class of stock, if there is more than one class.)

or

[Note: An entity that has less than 30 stockholders should use the following alternate paragraph (4) and strike the inapplicable paragraph (4).]

4. Information as to stock, where Corporation has less than 30 stockholders: That the information as to stock ownership, upon which the Corporation relies to establish that 75% of the stock ownership is vested in Citizens of the United States, is as follows:

Name of stockholder Date and place of birth Number of shares owned
(each class)
Percentage of shares owned
(each class)
   

and that each of said individual stockholders is a Citizen of the United States by virtue of birth in the United States, birth abroad of U.S. citizen parents, by naturalization during minority through the naturalization of a parent, by marriage (if a woman) to a U.S. citizen prior to September 22, 1922, or as otherwise authorized by law.

Note: If a corporate stockholder, give information with respect to State of incorporation, the names of the officers, directors, and stockholders and the appropriate percentage of shares held, with statement that they are all U.S. citizens. Nominee holders of record of 5% or more of any class of stock and the beneficial owners thereof should be named and their U.S. citizenship information submitted to MARAD.

5. That 75% of the interest in (each) said Corporation, as established by the information hereinbefore set forth, is owned by Citizens of the United States; that the title to 75% of the stock of (each) class of the stock of (each) said Corporation is vested in Citizens of the United States free from any trust or fiduciary obligation in favor of any person not a Citizen of the United States; that such proportion of the voting power of (each) said Corporation is vested in Citizens of the United States; that through no contract or understanding is it so arranged that more than 25% the voting power of (each) said Corporation may be exercised, directly or indirectly, in behalf of any person who is not a Citizen of the United States; and that by no means whatsoever, is any interest in said Corporation in excess of 25% conferred upon or permitted to be exercised by any person who is not a Citizen of the United States; and

      or

[Note: An entity that is required to comply with the controlling interest requirements of section 2(b) of the Shipping Act, 1916, 46 App. U.S.C. §802(b), should use the following alternate paragraph (5) and strike the inapplicable paragraph (5).]

5. That the Controlling Interest in (each) said Corporation, as established by the information hereinbefore set forth, is owned by Citizens of the United States; that the title to a majority of the stock of (each) said Corporation is vested in Citizens of the United States free from any trust or fiduciary obligation in favor of any person not a Citizen of the United States; that such proportion of the voting power of (each) said Corporation is vested in Citizens of the United States; that through no contract or understanding is it so arranged that the majority of the voting power of (each) said Corporation may be exercised, directly or indirectly, in behalf of any person who is not a Citizen of the United States; and that by no means whatsoever, is control of (each) said Corporation conferred upon or permitted to be exercised by any person who is not a Citizen of the United States; and

6. That the affiant has submitted all of the necessary documentation required under 46 CFR §356.13 in connection with this Affidavit of U.S. Citizenship for the vessels herein identified.

Vessel Name Official Number
1.
2.

[Note: Paragraph 6 should be included in the Affidavit of U.S. Citizenship submitted by an entity that owns a Fishing Industry Vessel.]

7. That affiant has carefully examined this affidavit and asserts that all of the statements and representations contained therein are true to the best of his knowledge, information, and belief.

 
 

(Name and title of affiant)

 

(Signature of affiant)

 

Date

Penalty for False Statement: A fine or imprisonment, or both, are provided for violation of the proscriptions contained in 18 U.S.C. §1001 (see also, 18 U.S.C. §§286, 287).

(e) The format for an Affidavit of United States Citizenship, modified appropriately for limited liability companies, partnerships, etc., will be available from the Citizenship Approval Officer and on MARAD's internet web site at http://www.marad.dot.gov.

(f) The same criteria should be observed in obtaining information to be furnished for stockholders named (direct ownership of required percentage of shares of stock of each class) in the Affidavit as those observed for the owner of the Fishing Industry Vessel. If, on the other hand, the “fair inference rule” is applied with respect to stock ownership as outlined in §356.7(c), the extent of U.S. Citizen ownership of stock should be ascertained in the requisite percentage (65 % for state or federally chartered financial institutions and 95 % for Fishing Industry Vessel owners, bareboat charterers, trustees, as well as entities owning 5% or more of the stock of such entities). Any entity that must establish its U.S. citizenship has to submit proof of U.S. citizenship of any five percent stockholder of each class of stock in order that the veracity of the statutory statements made in the Affidavit (paragraph 5) may be relied upon by MARAD.

(g) It shall be incumbent upon the parties filing affidavits under this part to notify the Citizenship Approval Officer in writing within 30 calendar days of any changes in information last furnished with respect to the officers, directors, and stockholders, including 5 percent or more stockholders of the issued and outstanding stock of each class, together with information concerning their citizenship status. If other than a corporation, comparable information must be filed by other entities owning Fishing Industry Vessel, including any entity whose ownership interest is being relied upon to establish 75% ownership by Citizens of the United States.

(h) If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by the owner of the Fishing Industry Vessel upon request by the Citizenship Approval Officer.

[65 FR 44877, July 19, 2000, as amended at 68 FR 5577, Feb. 4, 2003]

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§356.7   Methods of establishing ownership by United States Citizens.

(a) An entity may demonstrate that the interest in the entity (75% for Citizens of the United States or 51% for entities meeting the Controlling Interest requirements) is owned by Citizens of the United States either by direct proof or through the fair inference method depending on the size of the entity.

(b) The “direct proof” method is used for closely held companies that have 30 or fewer stockholders. Under the direct proof method, the following information must be set forth in paragraph four of the Affidavit of U.S. Citizenship:

(1) The identity of the holders of stock or other equitable interests;

(2) The amount of stock or interest that each stockholder owns;

(3) A representation as to the citizenship of the stockholder; and

(4) If the stockholder is a corporation or other entity, the names and citizenship of officers, directors, stockholders, etc. must be set out in the Affidavit of U.S. Citizenship.

(c) The “fair inference method” is used by corporations whose stock is publicly traded (more than 30 stockholders). Use of the fair inference method requires that:

(1)(i) At least 95% of the stock (each class) of the corporation be held by Persons having a registered U.S. address in order to infer at least 75% ownership by U.S. Citizens, or

(ii) At least 65% of the stock (each class) of the corporation be held by Persons having a registered U.S. address in order to infer at least 51% ownership by U.S. Citizens; and

(2) Disclosure be made in the Affidavit of U.S. Citizenship of the names and citizenship of any stockholders who holds five percent or more of the corporation's stock (including all classes of stock, voting and non-voting), officers, and directors.

(d) If the owner of a Fishing Industry Vessel is consecutively owned by several “parent” corporations, the facts revealing the stock ownership of each entity must be set forth in the Affidavit of U.S. Citizenship.

[65 FR 44877, July 19, 2000, as amended at 68 FR 5579, Feb. 4, 2003]

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§356.9   Tiered ownership structures.

Non-Citizens may not own or control, either directly through the first tier of ownership or in the aggregate through an interest in other entities at various tiers, more than 25% of the interest in an entity which owns a Fishing Industry Vessel. The prohibition against Non-Citizens owning or controlling more than 25%, in the aggregate, of the interest in an entity that owns a Fishing Industry Vessel means, for example, that:

(a) Non-Citizens that own or control a 25% stake in the ownership entity of a Fishing Industry Vessel at the first tier may not have any interest whatsoever in any entity that is being relied upon to establish the required 75% U.S. Citizen ownership; and

(b) Non-Citizens that own or control less than a 25% stake at the first tier may participate in the ownership and control of other entities that are being relied upon to establish the required 75% U.S. Citizen ownership and control at the first tier. However, the total ownership and control by Non-Citizens of the entity owning a Fishing Industry Vessel may not exceed 25% in the aggregate as computed by MARAD.

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§356.11   Impermissible control by a Non-Citizen.

(a) An impermissible transfer of control will be deemed to exist where a Non-Citizen, whether by agreement, contract, influence, or any other means whatsoever:

(1) Has the right to direct the business of the entity which owns the Fishing Industry Vessel. The right to “direct the business of the entity” does not include the right to simply participate in the direction of the business activities of an entity which owns a Fishing Industry Vessel;

(2) Has the right in the ordinary course of business to limit the actions of or replace the chief executive officer, a majority of the board of directors, any general partner or any person serving in a management capacity of the entity which owns the Fishing Industry Vessel. Standard rights of minority shareholders to restrict the actions of the entity are permitted provided they are unrelated to day-to-day business activities. These rights include provisions to require the consent of the minority shareholder to sell all or substantially all of the assets, to enter into a different business, to contract with the majority investors or their affiliates or to guarantee the obligations of majority investors or their affiliates;

(3) Has the right to direct the transfer, operation, or manning of a Fishing Industry Vessel. The right to “direct the transfer, operation, or manning” of such vessels does not include the right to simply participate in the direction of the transfer, operation, and manning of such vessels;

(4) Has the right to restrict unduly the day-to-day business activities and management policies of the entity owning a Fishing Industry Vessel through loan covenants other than those approved for use by the Citizenship Approval Officer or other means;

(5) Has the right to derive, through a minority shareholder and in favor of a Non-Citizen, a significantly disproportionate amount of the economic benefit from the ownership and operation of the Fishing Industry Vessel;

(6) Has the right to control the management of or to be a controlling factor in the entity owning a Fishing Industry Vessel ;

(7) Has the right to cause the sale of a Fishing Industry Vessel other than:

(i) By an entity that is eligible to hold a Preferred Mortgage on the vessel pursuant to §356.19(a)(2) through (a)(5);

(ii) By an approved Mortgage Trustee that is exercising loan and mortgage covenants on behalf of a beneficiary that qualifies as a Commercial Lender, a Lender Syndicate or an entity eligible to hold a Preferred Mortgage under §356.19(a)(2) through (a)(5);

(iii) By an approved Mortgage Trustee that is exercising loan or mortgage covenants for a beneficiary that is not qualified to hold a Preferred Mortgage, provided that the loan or mortgage covenants have been approved by the Citizenship Approval Officer; or

(iv) Where it is necessary in order to allow a Non-Citizen to dissolve its interest in the entity;

(8) Absorbs all of the costs and normal business risks associated with ownership and operation of the Fishing Industry Vessel;

(9) Has the responsibility for the procurement of insurance on the Fishing Industry Vessel, or assumes any liability in excess of insurance coverage; or,

(10) Has the ability through any other means whatsoever to control the entity that owns a Fishing Industry Vessel.

(b) In addition to the actions in paragraph (a) of this section that are considered absolute indicia of control, we will consider other factors which, in combination with other elements of Non-Citizen involvement, may be deemed impermissible control. The following factors may be considered indicia of control:

(1) If a Non-Citizen minority stockholder takes the leading role in establishing an entity that will own a Fishing Industry Vessel;

(2) If a Non-Citizen has the right to preclude the owner of a Fishing Industry Vessel from engaging in other business activities;

(3) If a Non-Citizen and owner use the same law firm, accounting firm, etc.;

(4) If a Non-Citizen and owner share the same office space, phones, administrative support, etc.;

(5) If a Non-Citizen absorbs considerable costs and normal business risks associated with ownership and operation of the Fishing Industry Vessel;

(6) If a Non-Citizen provides the start up capital for the owner or bareboat charterer on less than an arm's-length basis;

(7) If a Non-Citizen time charterer has the general right to inspect the books and records of the owner, bareboat charterer, or time charterer of a Fish Processing Vessel or Fish Tender Vessel;

(8) If the owner or bareboat charterer uses the same insurance agent, law firm, accounting firm, or broker of any Non-Citizen with whom the owner or a bareboat charterer has entered into a mortgage, long-term or exclusive sales or marketing agreement, unsecured loan agreement, or management agreement; or

(9) If a Non-Citizen has the right to control, whether through sale, lease or other method, the fishing quota, fishing rights or processing rights allocated to a vessel or vessel-owning entity.

(c) In most cases, any single factor listed in paragraph (b) of this section will not be sufficient to deem an entity a Non-Citizen. However, a combination of several factors listed in paragraph (b) of this section may increase our concern as to whether the entity complies with the U.S. Citizen ownership and control provisions of the AFA and any single factor listed in paragraph (b) of this section may be the basis for a request from us for further information.

(d) If we have a concern regarding a Non-Citizen, we will notify the entity of the concern and work with the entity toward a satisfactory resolution, provided there is no verifiable evidence of fraud. Resolution of any control issues may result in a request by us for additional information to clarify the intent of the provision or to amend or delete the provision in question.

(e) Information that is specifically required to be submitted for our consideration is set out in §356.13. However, in determining whether an entity has control over a Fishing Industry Vessel, we may review any contract or agreement that may, by any means whatsoever, result in a transfer of control to a Non-Citizen.

[65 FR 44877, July 19, 2000, as amended at 68 FR 5579, Feb. 4, 2003]

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