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Title 43Subtitle APart 10 → Subpart D


Title 43: Public Lands: Interior
PART 10—NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS


Subpart D—General


Contents
§10.14   Lineal descent and cultural affiliation.
§10.15   Limitations and remedies.
§10.16   Review committee.
§10.17   Dispute resolution.

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§10.14   Lineal descent and cultural affiliation.

(a) General. This section identifies procedures for determining lineal descent and cultural affiliation between present-day individuals and Indian tribes or Native Hawaiian organizations and human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony in museum or Federal agency collections or excavated intentionally or discovered inadvertently from Federal lands. They may also be used by Indian tribes and Native Hawaiian organizations with respect to tribal lands.

(b) Criteria for determining lineal descent. A lineal descendant is an individual tracing his or her ancestry directly and without interruption by means of the traditional kinship system of the appropriate Indian tribe or Native Hawaiian organization or by the common law system of descendence to a known Native American individual whose remains, funerary objects, or sacred objects are being requested under these regulations. This standard requires that the earlier person be identified as an individual whose descendants can be traced.

(c) Criteria for determining cultural affiliation. Cultural affiliation means a relationship of shared group identity that may be reasonably traced historically or prehistorically between a present-day Indian tribe or Native Hawaiian organization and an identifiable earlier group. All of the following requirements must be met to determine cultural affiliation between a present-day Indian tribe or Native Hawaiian organization and the human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony of an earlier group:

(1) Existence of an identifiable present-day Indian tribe or Native Hawaiian organization with standing under these regulations and the Act; and

(2) Evidence of the existence of an identifiable earlier group. Support for this requirement may include, but is not necessarily limited to evidence sufficient to:

(i) Establish the identity and cultural characteristics of the earlier group,

(ii) Document distinct patterns of material culture manufacture and distribution methods for the earlier group, or

(iii) Establish the existence of the earlier group as a biologically distinct population; and

(3) Evidence of the existence of a shared group identity that can be reasonably traced between the present-day Indian tribe or Native Hawaiian organization and the earlier group. Evidence to support this requirement must establish that a present-day Indian tribe or Native Hawaiian organization has been identified from prehistoric or historic times to the present as descending from the earlier group.

(d) A finding of cultural affiliation should be based upon an overall evaluation of the totality of the circumstances and evidence pertaining to the connection between the claimant and the material being claimed and should not be precluded solely because of some gaps in the record.

(e) Evidence. Evidence of a kin or cultural affiliation between a present-day individual, Indian tribe, or Native Hawaiian organization and human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony must be established by using the following types of evidence: Geographical, kinship, biological, archeological, anthropological, linguistic, folklore, oral tradition, historical, or other relevant information or expert opinion.

(f) Standard of proof. Lineal descent of a present-day individual from an earlier individual and cultural affiliation of a present-day Indian tribe or Native Hawaiian organization to human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony must be established by a preponderance of the evidence. Claimants do not have to establish cultural affiliation with scientific certainty.

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§10.15   Limitations and remedies.

(a) Failure to claim prior to repatriation. (1) Any person who fails to make a timely claim prior to the repatriation or disposition of human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony is deemed to have irrevocably waived any right to claim such items pursuant to these regulations or the Act. For these purposes, a “timely claim” means the filing of a written claim with a responsible museum or Federal agency official prior to the time the particular human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony at issue are duly repatriated or disposed of to a claimant by a museum or Federal agency pursuant to these regulations.

(2) If there is more than one (1) claimant, the human remains, funerary object, sacred object, or objects of cultural patrimony may be held by the responsible museum or Federal agency or person in possession thereof pending resolution of the claim. Any person who is in custody of such human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony and does not claim entitlement to them must place the objects in the possession of the responsible museum or Federal agency for retention until the question of custody is resolved.

(b) Failure to claim where no repatriation or disposition has occurred. [Reserved]

(c) Exhaustion of remedies. (1) A person's administrative remedies are exhausted only when the person has filed a written claim with the responsible Federal agency and the claim has been duly denied under this part. This paragraph applies to both:

(i) Human remains, associated funerary objects, unassociated funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony subject to Subpart B of this part; and

(ii) Federal collections subject to Subpart C of this part.

(2) A Federal agency's final denial of a repatriation request constitutes a final agency action under the Administrative Procedure Act (5 U.S.C. 704). As used in this paragraph, “repatriation request” means the request of a lineal descendant, Indian tribe, or Native Hawaiian organization for repatriation or disposition of human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony brought under the Act and this part.

(d) Savings provisions. Nothing in these regulations can be construed to:

(1) Limit the authority of any museum or Federal agency to:

(i) Return or repatriate human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony to Indian tribes, Native Hawaiian organizations, or individuals; and

(ii) Enter into any other agreement with the consent of the culturally affiliated Indian tribe or Native Hawaiian organization as to the disposition of, or control over, human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony.

(2) Delay actions on repatriation requests that were pending on November 16, 1990;

(3) Deny or otherwise affect access to court;

(4) Limit any procedural or substantive right which may otherwise be secured to individuals or Indian tribes or Native Hawaiian organizations; or

(5) Limit the application of any State or Federal law pertaining to theft of stolen property.

[60 FR 62158, Dec. 4, 1995, as amended at 62 FR 41294, Aug. 1, 1997; 75 FR 12405, Mar. 15, 2010; 78 FR 27084, May 9, 2013]

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§10.16   Review committee.

(a) General. The Review Committee will advise Congress and the Secretary on matters relating to these regulations and the Act, including, but not limited to, monitoring the performance of museums and Federal agencies in carrying out their responsibilities, facilitating and making recommendations on the resolution of disputes as described further in §10.17, and compiling a record of culturally unidentifiable human remains that are in the possession or control of museums and Federal agencies and recommending actions for their disposition.

(b) Recommendations. Any recommendation, finding, report, or other action of the Review Committee is advisory only and not binding on any person. Any records and findings made by the Review Committee may be admissible as evidence in actions brought by persons alleging a violation of the Act.

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§10.17   Dispute resolution.

(a) Formal and informal resolutions. Any person who wishes to contest actions taken by museums, Federal agencies, Indian tribes, or Native Hawaiian organizations with respect to the repatriation and disposition of human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony is encouraged to do so through informal negotiations to achieve a fair resolution of the matter. The Review Committee may aid in this regard as described below. In addition, the United States District Courts have jurisdiction over any action brought that alleges a violation of the Act.

(b) Review Committee Role. The Review Committee may facilitate the informal resolution of disputes relating to these regulations among interested parties that are not resolved by good faith negotiations. Review Committee actions may include convening meetings between parties to disputes, making advisory findings as to contested facts, and making recommendations to the disputing parties or to the Secretary as to the proper resolution of disputes consistent with these regulations and the Act.

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