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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of May 28, 2020

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter CPart 60 → Subpart SS


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 60—STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES


Subpart SS—Standards of Performance for Industrial Surface Coating: Large Appliances


Contents
§60.450   Applicability and designation of affected facility.
§60.451   Definitions.
§60.452   Standard for volatile organic compounds.
§60.453   Performance test and compliance provisions.
§60.454   Monitoring of emissions and operations.
§60.455   Reporting and recordkeeping requirements.
§60.456   Test methods and procedures.

Source: 47 FR 47785, Oct. 27, 1982, unless otherwise noted.

§60.450   Applicability and designation of affected facility.

(a) The provisions of this subpart apply to each surface coating operation in a large appliance surface coating line.

(b) The provisions of this subpart apply to each affected facility identified in paragraph (a) of this section that commences construction, modification, or reconstruction after December 24, 1980.

§60.451   Definitions.

(a) All terms used in this subpart not defined below are given the meaning in the Act or in subpart A of this part.

Applied coating solids means the coating solids that adhere to the surface of the large appliance part being coated.

Coating application station means that portion of the large appliance surface coating operation where a prime coat or a top coat is applied to large appliance parts or products (e.g., dip tank, spray booth, or flow coating unit).

Curing oven means a device that uses heat to dry or cure the coating(s) applied to large appliance parts or products.

Electrodeposition (EDP) means a method of coating application in which the large appliance part or product is submerged in a tank filled with coating material suspended in water and an electrical potential is used to enhance deposition of the material on the part or product.

Flashoff area means the portion of a surface coating line between the coating application station and the curing oven.

Large appliance part means any organic surface-coated metal lid, door, casing, panel, or other interior or exterior metal part or accessory that is assembled to form a large appliance product. Parts subject to in-use temperatures in excess of 250 °F are not included in this definition.

Large appliance product means any organic surface-coated metal range, oven, microwave oven, refrigerator, freezer, washer, dryer, dishwasher, water heater, or trash compactor manufactured for household, commercial, or recreational use.

Large appliance surface coating line means that portion of a large appliance assembly plant engaged in the application and curing of organic surface coatings on large appliance parts or products.

Organic coating means any coating used in a surface coating operation, including dilution solvents, from which VOC emissions occur during the application or the curing process. For the purpose of this regulation, powder coatings are not included in this definition.

Powder coating means any surface coating that is applied as a dry powder and is fused into a continuous coating film through the use of heat.

Spray booth means the structure housing automatic or manual spray application equipment where a coating is applied to large appliance parts or products.

Surface coating operation means the system on a large appliance surface coating line used to apply and dry or cure an organic coating on the surface of large appliance parts or products. The surface coating operation may be a prime coat or a topcoat operation and includes the coating application station(s), flashoff area, and curing oven.

Transfer efficiency means the ratio of the amount of coating solids deposited onto the surface of a large appliance part or product to the total amount of coating solids used.

VOC content means the proportion of a coating that is volatile organic compounds (VOC's), expressed as kilograms of VOC's per liter of coating solids.

VOC emissions means the mass of volatile organic compounds (VOC's), expressed as kilograms of VOC's per liter of applied coating solids, emitted from a surface coating operation.

(b) All symbols used in this subpart not defined below are given the meaning in the Act or subpart A of this part.

Ca = the concentration of VOC's in a gas stream leaving a control device and entering the atmosphere (parts per million by volume, as carbon).

Cbthe concentration of VOC's in a gas stream entering a control device (parts per million by volume, as carbon).

Cfthe concentration of VOC's in a gas stream emitted directly to the atmosphere (parts per million by volume, as carbon).

Dcdensity of coating (or input stream), as received (kilograms per liter).

Dddensity of a VOC-solvent added to coatings (kilograms per liter).

Drdensity of a VOC-solvent recovered by an emission control device (kilograms per liter).

Ethe VOC destruction efficiency of a control device (fraction).

Fthe proportion of total VOC's emitted by an affected facility that enters a control device (fraction).

Gthe volume-weighted average mass of VOC's in coatings consumed in a calendar month per unit volume of applied coating solids (kilograms per liter).

Lcthe volume of coating consumed, as received (liters).

Ldthe volume of VOC-solvent added to coatings (liters).

Lrthe volume of VOC-solvent recovered by an emission control device (liters).

Lsthe volume of coating solids consumed (liters).

Mdthe mass of VOC-solvent added to coatings (kilograms).

Mothe mass of VOC's in coatings consumed, as received (kilograms).

Mrthe mass of VOC's recovered by an emission control device (kilograms).

Nthe volume-weighted average mass of VOC's emitted to the atmosphere per unit volume of applied coating solids (kilograms per liter).

Qathe volumetric flow rate of a gas stream leaving a control device and entering the atmosphere (dry standard cubic meters per hour).

Qbthe volumetric flow rate of a gas stream entering a control device (dry standard cubic meters per hour).

Qfthe volumetric flow rate of a gas stream emitted directly to the atmosphere (dry standard cubic meters per hour).

Rthe overall VOC emission reduction achieved for an affected facility (fraction).

Tthe transfer efficiency (fraction).

Vsthe proportion of solids in a coating (or input stream), as received (fraction by volume).

Wothe proportion of VOC's in a coating (or input stream), as received (fraction by weight).

§60.452   Standard for volatile organic compounds.

On or after the date on which the performance test required by §60.8 is completed, no owner or operator of an affected facility subject to the provisions of this subpart shall discharge or cause the discharge of VOC emissions that exceed 0.90 kilogram of VOC's per liter of applied coating solids from any surface coating operation on a large appliance surface coating line.

§60.453   Performance test and compliance provisions.

(a) Sections 60.8 (d) and (f) do not apply to the performance test procedures required by this subpart.

(b) The owner or operator of an affected facility shall conduct an initial performance test as required under §60.8(a) and thereafter a performance test each calendar month for each affected facility according to the procedures in this paragraph.

(1) An owner or operator shall use the following procedures for any affected facility that does not use a capture system and control device to comply with the emissions limit specified under §60.452. The owner or operator shall determine the composition of the coatings by formulation data supplied by the coating manufacturer or by analysis of each coating, as received, using Method 24. The Administrator may require the owner or operator who uses formulation data supplied by the coating manufacturer to determine the VOC content of coatings using Method 24. The owner or operator shall determine the volume of coating and the mass of VOC-solvent used for thinning purposes from company records on a monthly basis. If a common coating distribution system serves more than one affected facility or serves both affected and existing facilities, the owner or operator shall estimate the volume of coatings used at each facility, by using the average dry weight of coating and the surface area coated by each affected and existing facility or by other procedures acceptable to the Administrator.

(i) Except as provided in paragraph (b)(1)(iv) of this section, the weighted average of the total mass of VOC's consumed per unit volume of coating solids applied each calendar month will be determined as follows.

(A) Calculate the mass of VOC's consumed (Mo + Md) during the calendar month for each affected facility by the following equation:

eCFR graphic ec16no91.035.gif

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(ΣLdjDdj will be 0 if no VOC-solvent is added to the coatings, as received)

where:

n is the number of different coatings used during the calendar month, and

m is the number of different VOC-solvents added to coatings during the calendar month.

(B) Calculate the total volume of coating solids used (Ls) in the calendar month for each affected facility by the following equation:

eCFR graphic ec16no91.036.gif

View or download PDF

where n is the number of different coatings used during the calendar month.

(C) Select the appropriate transfer efficiency from table 1. If the owner or operator can demonstrate to the satisfaction of the Administrator that transfer efficiencies other than those shown are appropriate, the Administrator will approve their use on a case-by-case basis. Transfer efficiencies for application methods not listed shall be determined by the Administrator on a case-by-case basis. An owner or operator must submit sufficient data for the Administrator to judge the accuracy of the transfer efficiency claims.

Table 1—Transfer Efficiencies

Application methodTransfer efficiency (Tk)
Air-atomized spray0.40
Airless spray0.45
Manual electrostatic spray0.60
Flow coat0.85
Dip coat0.85
Nonrotational automatic electrostatic spray0.85
Rotating head automatic electrostatic spray0.90
Electrodeposition0.95

Where more than one application method is used within a single surface coating operation, the owner or operator shall determine the composition and volume of each coating applied by each method through a means acceptable to the Administrator and compute the weighted average transfer efficiency by the following equation:

eCFR graphic er17oc00.012.gif

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where:

n is the number of coatings (or input streams) used, and

m is the number of application methods used.

(D) Calculate the volume-weighted average mass of VOC's consumed per unit volume of coating solids applied (G) during the calendar month for each affected facility by the following equation:

eCFR graphic ec16no91.038.gif

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(ii) Calculate the volume-weighted average of VOC emissions to the atmosphere (N) during the calendar month for each affected facility by the following equation:

eCFR graphic ec16no91.039.gif

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(iii) Where the volume-weighted average mass of VOC's discharged to the atmosphere per unit volume of coating solids applied (N) is equal to or less than 0.90 kilogram per liter, the affected facility is in compliance.

(iv) If each individual coating used by an affected facility has a VOC content, as received, which when divided by the lowest transfer efficiency at which the coating is applied, results in a value equal to or less than 0.90 kilogram per liter, the affected facility is in compliance, provided no VOC's are added to the coating during distribution or application.

(2) An owner or operator shall use the following procedures for any affected facility that uses a capture system and a control device that destroys VOC's (e.g., incinerator) to comply with the emission limit specified under §60.452.

(i) Determine the overall reduction efficiency (R) for the capture system and control device. For the initial performance test the overall reduction efficiency (R) shall be determined as prescribed in A, B, and C below. In subsequent months, the owner or operator may use the most recently determined overall reduction efficiency (R) for the performance test, providing control device and capture system operating conditions have not changed. The procedure in A, B, and C, below, shall be repeated when directed by the Administrator or when the owner or operator elects to operate the control device or capture system at conditions different from the initial performance test.

(A) Determine the fraction (F) of total VOC's emitted by an affected facility that enters the control device using the following equation:

eCFR graphic er17oc00.013.gif

View or download PDF

where:

n is the number of gas streams entering the control device

p is the number of gas streams emitted directly to the atmosphere.

eCFR graphic er17oc00.014.gif

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where:

n is the number of gas streams entering the control device, and

m is the number of gas streams leaving the control device and entering the atmosphere.

(B) Determine the destruction efficiency of the control device (E) using values of the volumetric flow rate of each of the gas streams and the VOC content (as carbon) of each of the gas streams in and out of the device by the following equation:

(C) Determine overall reduction efficiency (R) using the following equation:

R = EF            (8)

(ii) Calculate the volume-weighted average of the total mass of VOC's per unit volume of applied coating solids (G) during each calendar month for each affected facility using equations (1), (2), (3) if applicable, and (4).

(iii) Calculate the volume-weighted average of VOC emissions to the atmosphere (N) during each calendar month by the following equation:

N = G(1−R)            (9)

(iv) If the volume-weighted average mass of VOC's emitted to the atmosphere for each calendar month (N) is equal to or less than 0.90 kilogram per liter of applied coating solids, the affected facility is in compliance.

(3) An owner or operator shall use the following procedure for any affected facility that uses a control device for VOC recovery (e.g., carbon adsorber) to comply with the applicable emission limit specified under §60.452.

(i) Calculate the total mass of VOC's consumed (Mo + Md) and the volume-weighted average of the total mass of VOC's per unit volume of applied coating solids (G) during each calendar month for each affected facility using equations (1), (2), (3) if applicable, and (4).

(ii) Calculate the total mass of VOC's recovered (Mr) during each calendar month using the following equation:

Mr = Lr Dr            (10)

(iii) Calculate overall reduction efficiency of the control device (R) for each calendar month for each affected facility using the following equation:

eCFR graphic ec16no91.040.gif

View or download PDF

(iv) Calculate the volume-weighted average mass of VOC's emitted to the atmosphere (N) for each calendar month for each affected facility using equation (9).

(v) If the volume-weighted average mass of VOC's emitted to the atmosphere for each calendar month (N) is equal to or less than 0.90 kilogram per liter of applied coating solids, the affected facility is in compliance. Each monthly calculation is considered a performance test.

[47 FR 47785, Oct. 27, 1982, as amended at 65 FR 61761, Oct. 17, 2000]

§60.454   Monitoring of emissions and operations.

(a) The owner or operator of an affected facility that uses a capture system and an incinerator to comply with the emission limits specified under §60.452 shall install, calibrate, maintain, and operate temperature measurement devices as prescribed below:

(1) Where thermal incineration is used, a temperature measurement device shall be installed in the firebox. Where catalytic incineration is used, a temperature measurement device shall be installed in the gas stream immediately before and after the catalyst bed.

(2) Each temperature measurement device shall be installed, calibrated, and maintained according to the manufacturer's specifications. The device shall have an accuracy of 0.75 percent of the temperature being measured, expressed in degrees Celsius, or ±2.5 °C, whichever is greater.

(3) Each temperature measurement device shall be equipped with a recording device so that a permanent continuous record is produced.

[47 FR 47785, Oct. 27, 1982, as amended at 65 FR 61761, Oct. 17, 2000]

§60.455   Reporting and recordkeeping requirements.

(a) The reporting requirements of §60.8(a) apply only to the initial performance test. Each owner or operator subject to the provisions of this subpart shall include the following data in the report of the initial performance test required under §60.8(a):

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, the volume-weighted average mass of VOC's emitted to the atmosphere per volume of applied coating solids (N) for a period of 1 calendar month from each affected facility.

(2) For each affected facility where compliance is determined under the provisions of §60.453(b)(1)(iv), a list of the coatings used during a period of 1 calendar month, the VOC content of each coating calculated from data determined using Reference Method 24 or supplied by the coating manufacturer, and the minimum transfer efficiency of any coating application equipment used during the month.

(3) For each affected facility where compliance is achieved through use of an incineration system, the following additional information will be reported:

(i) The proportion of total VOC's emitted that enters the control device (F),

(ii) The VOC reduction efficiency of the control device (E),

(iii) The average combustion temperature (or the average temperature upstream and downstream of the catalyst bed), and

(iv) A description of the method used to establish the amount of VOC's captured and sent to the incinerator.

(4) For each affected facility where compliance is achieved through use of a solvent recovery system, the following additional information will be reported:

(i) The volume of VOC-solvent recovered (Lr), and

(ii) The overall VOC emission reduction achieved (R).

(b) Following the initial performance test, the owner or operator of an affected facility shall identify, record, and submit a written report to the Administrator every calendar quarter of each instance in which the volume-weighted average of the total mass of VOC's emitted to the atmosphere per volume of applied coating solids (N) is greater than the limit specified under §60.452. If no such instances have occurred during a particular quarter, a report stating this shall be submitted to the Administrator semiannually.

(c) Following the initial performance test, the owner or operator of an affected facility shall identify, record, and submit at the frequency specified in §60.7(c) the following:

(1) Where compliance with §60.452 is achieved through use of thermal incineration, each 3-hour period of coating operation during which the average temperature of the device was more than 28 °C (50 °F) below the average temperature of the device during the most recent performance test at which destruction efficiency was determined as specified under §60.453.

(2) Where compliance with §60.452 is achieved through the use of catalytic incineration, each 3-hour period of coating operation during which the average temperature recorded immediately before the catalyst bed is more than 28 °C (50 °F) below the average temperature at the same location during the most recent performance test at which destruction efficiency was determined as specified under §60.453. Additionally, all 3-hour periods of coating operation during which the average temperature difference across the catalyst bed is less than 80 percent of the average temperature difference across the catalyst bed during the most recent performance test at which destruction efficiency was determined as specified under §60.453 will be recorded.

(3) For thermal and catalytic incinerators, if no such periods as described in paragraphs (c)(1) and (c)(2) of this section occur, the owner or operator shall state this in the report.

(d) Each owner or operator subject to the provisions of this subpart shall maintain at the source, for a period of at least 2 years, records of all data and calculations used to determine VOC emissions from each affected facility. Where compliance is achieved through the use of thermal incineration, each owner or operator shall maintain at the source daily records of the incinerator combustion chamber temperature. If catalytic incineration is used, the owner or operator shall maintain at the source daily records of the gas temperature, both upstream and downstream of the incinerator catalyst bed. Where compliance is achieved through the use of a solvent recovery system, the owner or operator shall maintain at the source daily records of the amount of solvent recovered by the system for each affected facility.

[47 FR 47785, Oct. 27, 1982, as amended at 55 FR 51383, Dec. 13, 1990; 65 FR 61761, Oct. 17, 2000]

§60.456   Test methods and procedures.

(a) The reference methods in appendix A to this part, except as provided under §60.8(b), shall be used to determine compliance with §60.452 as follows:

(1) Method 24 or formulation data supplied by the coating manufacturer to determine the VOC content of a coating. In the event of dispute, Method 24 shall be the reference method. For determining compliance only, results of Method 24 analyses of waterborne coatings shall be adjusted as described in Section 12.6 of Method 24. Procedures to determine VOC emissions are provided in §60.453.

(2) Method 25 for the measurement of the VOC concentration in the gas stream vent.

(3) Method 1 for sample and velocity traverses.

(4) Method 2 for velocity and volumetric flow rate.

(5) Method 3 for gas analysis.

(6) Method 4 for stack gas moisture.

(b) For Method 24, the coating sample must be a 1-liter sample taken into a 1-liter container at a point where the sample will be representative of the coating material.

(c) For Method 25, the sample time for each of three runs is to be at least 60 minutes and the minimum sample volume is to be at least 0.003 dscm (0.1 dscf) except that shorter sampling times or smaller volumes, when necessitated by process variables or other factors, may be approved by the Administrator.

(d) The Administrator will approve sampling of representative stacks on a case-by-case basis if the owner or operator can demonstrate to the satisfaction of the Administrator that the testing of representative stacks would yield results comparable to those that would be obtained by testing all stacks.

[47 FR 47785, Oct. 27, 1982, as amended at 65 FR 61761, Oct. 17, 2000]

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