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e-CFR data is current as of September 24, 2020

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter UPart 1066 → Subpart A

Title 40: Protection of Environment

Subpart A—Applicability and General Provisions

§1066.1   Applicability.
§1066.2   Submitting information to EPA under this part.
§1066.5   Overview of this part 1066 and its relationship to the standard-setting part.
§1066.10   Other procedures.
§1066.15   Overview of test procedures.
§1066.20   Units of measure and overview of calculations.
§1066.25   Recordkeeping.

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§1066.1   Applicability.

(a) This part describes the emission measurement procedures that apply to testing we require for the following vehicles:

(1) Model year 2014 and later heavy-duty highway vehicles we regulate under 40 CFR part 1037 that are not subject to chassis testing for exhaust emissions under 40 CFR part 86.

(2) Model year 2022 and later motor vehicles (light-duty and heavy-duty) that are subject to chassis testing for exhaust emissions under 40 CFR part 86, other than highway motorcycles. See 40 CFR part 86 for provisions describing how to implement this part 1066.

(b) The procedures of this part may apply to other types of vehicles, as described in this part and in the standard-setting part.

(c) The testing in this part 1066 is designed for measuring exhaust, evaporative, and refueling emissions. Procedures for measuring evaporative and refueling emissions for motor vehicles are in some cases integral with exhaust measurement procedures as described in §1066.801. Subpart J of this part describes provisions that are unique to evaporative and refueling emission measurements. Other subparts in this part are written with a primary focus on measurement of exhaust emissions.

(d) The term “you” means anyone performing testing under this part other than EPA.

(1) This part is addressed primarily to manufacturers of vehicles, but it applies equally to anyone who does testing under this part for such manufacturers.

(2) This part applies to any manufacturer or supplier of test equipment, instruments, supplies, or any other goods or services related to the procedures, requirements, recommendations, or options in this part.

(e) Paragraph (a) of this section identifies the parts of the CFR that define emission standards and other requirements for particular types of vehicles. In this part, we refer to each of these other parts generically as the “standard-setting part.” For example, 40 CFR part 1037 is the standard-setting part for heavy-duty highway vehicles and parts 86 and 600 are the standard-setting parts for light-duty vehicles. For vehicles subject to 40 CFR part 86, subpart S, treat subpart I and subpart J of this part as belonging to 40 CFR part 86. This means that references to the standard-setting part include subpart I and subpart J of this part.

(f) Unless we specify otherwise, the terms “procedures” and “test procedures” in this part include all aspects of vehicle testing, including the equipment specifications, calibrations, calculations, and other protocols and procedural specifications needed to measure emissions.

(g) For additional information regarding these test procedures, visit our Web site at www.epa.gov, and in particular http://www.epa.gov/nvfel/testing/regulations.htm.

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§1066.2   Submitting information to EPA under this part.

(a) You are responsible for statements and information in your applications for certification, requests for approved procedures, selective enforcement audits, laboratory audits, production-line test reports, or any other statements you make to us related to this part 1066. If you provide statements or information to someone for submission to EPA, you are responsible for these statements and information as if you had submitted them to EPA yourself.

(b) In the standard-setting part and in 40 CFR 1068.101, we describe your obligation to report truthful and complete information and the consequences of failing to meet this obligation. See also 18 U.S.C. 1001 and 42 U.S.C. 7413(c)(2). This obligation applies whether you submit this information directly to EPA or through someone else.

(c) We may void any certificates or approvals associated with a submission of information if we find that you intentionally submitted false, incomplete, or misleading information. For example, if we find that you intentionally submitted incomplete information to mislead EPA when requesting approval to use alternate test procedures, we may void the certificates for all engine families certified based on emission data collected using the alternate procedures. This would also apply if you ignore data from incomplete tests or from repeat tests with higher emission results.

(d) We may require an authorized representative of your company to approve and sign the submission, and to certify that all the information submitted is accurate and complete. This includes everyone who submits information, including manufacturers and others.

(e) See 40 CFR 1068.10 for provisions related to confidential information. Note however that under 40 CFR 2.301, emission data are generally not eligible for confidential treatment.

(f) Nothing in this part should be interpreted to limit our ability under Clean Air Act section 208 (42 U.S.C. 7542) to verify that vehicles conform to the regulations.

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§1066.5   Overview of this part 1066 and its relationship to the standard-setting part.

(a) This part specifies procedures that can apply generally to testing various categories of vehicles. See the standard-setting part for directions in applying specific provisions in this part for a particular type of vehicle. Before using this part's procedures, read the standard-setting part to answer at least the following questions:

(1) What drive schedules must I use for testing?

(2) Should I warm up the test vehicle before measuring emissions, or do I need to measure cold-start emissions during a warm-up segment of the duty cycle?

(3) Which exhaust constituents do I need to measure? Measure all exhaust constituents that are subject to emission standards, any other exhaust constituents needed for calculating emission rates, and any additional exhaust constituents as specified in the standard-setting part. See 40 CFR 1065.5 regarding requests to omit measurement of N2O and CH4 for vehicles not subject to an N2O or CH4 emission standard.

(4) Do any unique specifications apply for test fuels?

(5) What maintenance steps may I take before or between tests on an emission-data vehicle?

(6) Do any unique requirements apply to stabilizing emission levels on a new vehicle?

(7) Do any unique requirements apply to test limits, such as ambient temperatures or pressures?

(8) What requirements apply for evaporative and refueling emissions?

(9) Are there any emission standards specified at particular operating conditions or ambient conditions?

(10) Do any unique requirements apply for durability testing?

(b) The testing specifications in the standard-setting part may differ from the specifications in this part. In cases where it is not possible to comply with both the standard-setting part and this part, you must comply with the specifications in the standard-setting part. The standard-setting part may also allow you to deviate from the procedures of this part for other reasons.

(c) The following table shows how this part divides testing specifications into subparts:

Table 1 of §1066.5—Description of Part 1066 Subparts

This subpartDescribes these specifications or procedures
Subpart AApplicability and general provisions.
Subpart BEquipment for testing.
Subpart CDynamometer specifications.
Subpart DCoastdowns for testing.
Subpart EHow to prepare your vehicle and run an emission test.
Subpart FHow to test electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles.
Subpart GTest procedure calculations.
Subpart HCold temperature testing.
Subpart IExhaust emission test procedures for motor vehicles.
Subpart JEvaporative and refueling emission test procedures.
Subpart KDefinitions and reference material.

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§1066.10   Other procedures.

(a) Your testing. The procedures in this part apply for all testing you do to show compliance with emission standards, with certain exceptions noted in this section. In some other sections in this part, we allow you to use other procedures (such as less precise or less accurate procedures) if they do not affect your ability to show that your vehicles comply with the applicable emission standards. This generally requires emission levels to be far enough below the applicable emission standards so that any errors caused by greater imprecision or inaccuracy do not affect your ability to state unconditionally that the engines meet all applicable emission standards.

(b) Our testing. These procedures generally apply for testing that we do to determine if your vehicles comply with applicable emission standards. We may perform other testing as allowed by the Act.

(c) Exceptions. You may use procedures other than those specified in this part as described in 40 CFR 1065.10(c). All the test procedures noted as exceptions to the specified procedures are considered generically as “other procedures.” Note that the terms “special procedures” and “alternate procedures” have specific meanings; “special procedures” are those allowed by 40 CFR 1065.10(c)(2) and “alternate procedures” are those allowed by 40 CFR 1065.10(c)(7). If we require you to request approval to use other procedures under this paragraph (c), you may not use them until we approve your request.

[79 FR 23823, Apr. 28, 2014, 80 FR 9120, Feb. 19, 2015]

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§1066.15   Overview of test procedures.

This section outlines the procedures to test vehicles that are subject to emission standards.

(a) The standard-setting part describes the emission standards that apply. Evaporative and refueling emissions are generally in the form of grams total hydrocarbon equivalent per test. We set exhaust emission standards in g/mile (or g/km), for the following constituents:

(1) Total oxides of nitrogen, NOX.

(2) Hydrocarbons, HC, which may be expressed in the following ways:

(i) Total hydrocarbons, THC.

(ii) Nonmethane hydrocarbons, NMHC, which results from subtracting methane, CH4, from THC.

(iii) Total hydrocarbon-equivalent, THCE, which results from adjusting THC mathematically to be equivalent on a carbon-mass basis.

(iv) Nonmethane hydrocarbon-equivalent, NMHCE, which results from adjusting NMHC mathematically to be equivalent on a carbon-mass basis.

(v) Nonmethane organic gases, NMOG, which are calculated either from fully or partially speciated measurement of hydrocarbons including oxygenates, or by adjusting measured NMHC values based on fuel oxygenate properties.

(3) Particulate matter, PM.

(4) Carbon monoxide, CO.

(5) Carbon dioxide, CO2.

(6) Methane, CH4.

(7) Nitrous oxide, N2O.

(8) Formaldehyde, CH2O.

(b) Note that some vehicles may not be subject to standards for all the exhaust emission constituents identified in paragraph (a) of this section. Note also that the standard-setting part may include standards for pollutants not listed in paragraph (a) of this section.

(c) The provisions of this part apply for chassis dynamometer testing where vehicle speed is controlled to follow a prescribed duty cycle while simulating vehicle driving through the dynamometer's road-load settings. We generally set exhaust emission standards over test intervals and/or drive schedules, as follows:

(1) Vehicle operation. Testing involves measuring emissions and miles travelled while operating the vehicle on a chassis dynamometer. Refer to the definitions of “duty cycle” and “test interval” in §1066.1001. Note that a single drive schedule may have multiple test intervals and require weighting of results from multiple test intervals to calculate a composite distance-based emission value to compare to the standard.

(2) Constituent determination. Determine the total mass of each exhaust constituent over a test interval by selecting from the following methods:

(i) Continuous sampling. In continuous sampling, measure the exhaust constituent's concentration continuously from raw or dilute exhaust. Multiply this concentration by the continuous (raw or dilute) flow rate at the emission sampling location to determine the constituent's flow rate. Sum the constituent's flow rate continuously over the test interval. This sum is the total mass of the emitted constituent.

(ii) Batch sampling. In batch sampling, continuously extract and store a sample of raw or dilute exhaust for later measurement. Extract a sample proportional to the raw or dilute exhaust flow rate, as applicable. You may extract and store a proportional sample of exhaust in an appropriate container, such as a bag, and then measure NOX, HC, CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, and CH2O concentrations in the container after the test interval. You may deposit PM from proportionally extracted exhaust onto an appropriate substrate, such as a filter. In this case, divide the PM by the amount of filtered exhaust to calculate the PM concentration. Multiply batch sampled concentrations by the total (raw or dilute) flow from which it was extracted during the test interval. This product is the total mass of the emitted constituent.

(iii) Combined sampling. You may use continuous and batch sampling simultaneously during a test interval, as follows:

(A) You may use continuous sampling for some constituents and batch sampling for others.

(B) You may use continuous and batch sampling for a single constituent, with one being a redundant measurement, subject to the provisions of 40 CFR 1065.201.

(d) Refer to subpart G of this part and the standard-setting part for calculations to determine g/mile emission rates.

(e) You must use good engineering judgment for all aspects of testing under this part. While this part highlights several specific cases where good engineering judgment is especially relevant, the requirement to use good engineering judgment is not limited to those provisions where we specifically re-state this requirement.

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§1066.20   Units of measure and overview of calculations.

(a) System of units. The procedures in this part follow both conventional English units and the International System of Units (SI), as detailed in NIST Special Publication 811, which we incorporate by reference in §1066.1010. Except where specified, equations work with either system of units. Where the equations depend on the use of specific units, the regulation identifies the appropriate units.

(b) Units conversion. Use good engineering judgment to convert units between measurement systems as needed. For example, if you measure vehicle speed as kilometers per hour and we specify a precision requirement in terms of miles per hour, convert your measured kilometer per hour value to miles per hour before comparing it to our specification. The following conventions are used throughout this document and should be used to convert units as applicable:

(1) 1 hp = 33,000 ft · lbf/min = 550 ft · lbf/s = 0.7457 kW.

(2) 1 lbf = 32.174 ft · lbm/s2 = 4.4482 N.

(3) 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

(4) 1 mile = 1609.344 m.

(5) For ideal gases, 1 µmol/mol = 1 ppm.

(6) For ideal gases, 10 mmol/mol = 1%.

(c) Temperature. We generally designate temperatures in units of degrees Celsius ( °C) unless a calculation requires an absolute temperature. In that case, we designate temperatures in units of Kelvin (K). For conversion purposes throughout this part, 0 °C equals 273.15 K. Unless specified otherwise, always use absolute temperature values for multiplying or dividing by temperature.

(d) Absolute pressure. Measure absolute pressure directly or calculate it as the sum of atmospheric pressure plus a differential pressure that is referenced to atmospheric pressure. Always use absolute pressure values for multiplying or dividing by pressure.

(e) Rounding. The rounding provisions of 40 CFR 1065.20 apply for calculations in this part. This generally specifies that you round final values but not intermediate values. Use good engineering judgment to record the appropriate number of significant digits for all measurements.

(f) Interpretation of ranges. Interpret a range as a tolerance unless we explicitly identify it as an accuracy, repeatability, linearity, or noise specification. See 40 CFR 1065.1001 for the definition of tolerance. In this part, we specify two types of ranges:

(1) Whenever we specify a range by a single value and corresponding limit values above and below that value (such as X ±Y), target the associated control point to that single value (X). Examples of this type of range include “±10% of maximum pressure”, or “(30 ±10) kPa”. In these examples, you would target the maximum pressure or 30 kPa, respectively.

(2) Whenever we specify a range by the interval between two values, you may target any associated control point to any value within that range. An example of this type of range is “(40 to 50) kPa”.

(g) Scaling of specifications with respect to an applicable standard. Because this part 1066 applies to a wide range of vehicles and emission standards, some of the specifications in this part are scaled with respect to a vehicle's applicable standard or weight. This ensures that the specification will be adequate to determine compliance, but not overly burdensome by requiring unnecessarily high-precision equipment. Many of these specifications are given with respect to a “flow-weighted mean” that is expected at the standard or during testing. Flow-weighted mean is the mean of a quantity after it is weighted proportional to a corresponding flow rate. For example, if a gas concentration is measured continuously from the raw exhaust of an engine, its flow-weighted mean concentration is the sum of the products of each recorded concentration times its respective exhaust flow rate, divided by the sum of the recorded flow rates. As another example, the bag concentration from a CVS system is the same as the flow-weighted mean concentration, because the CVS system itself flow-weights the bag concentration.

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§1066.25   Recordkeeping.

(a) The procedures in this part include various requirements to record data or other information. Refer to the standard-setting part and §1066.695 regarding specific recordkeeping requirements.

(b) You must promptly send us organized, written records in English if we ask for them. We may review them at any time.

(c) We may waive specific reporting or recordkeeping requirements we determine to be unnecessary for the purposes of this part and the standard-setting part. Note that while we will generally keep the records required by this part, we are not obligated to keep records we determine to be unnecessary for us to keep. For example, while we require you to keep records for invalid tests so we may verify that your invalidation was appropriate, it is not necessary for us to keep records for our own invalid tests.

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