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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of December 9, 2019

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter UPart 1042 → Subpart I


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 1042—CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS


Subpart I—Special Provisions for Remanufactured Marine Engines


Contents
§1042.801   General provisions.
§1042.810   Requirements for owner/operators and installers during remanufacture.
§1042.815   Demonstrating availability.
§1042.820   Emission standards and required emission reductions for remanufactured engines.
§1042.825   Baseline determination.
§1042.830   Labeling.
§1042.835   Certification of remanufactured engines.
§1042.836   Marine certification of locomotive remanufacturing systems.
§1042.840   Application requirements for remanufactured engines.
§1042.845   Remanufactured engine families.
§1042.850   Exemptions and hardship relief.

§1042.801   General provisions.

This subpart describes how the provisions of this part 1042 apply for certain remanufactured marine engines.

(a) The requirements of this subpart apply for remanufactured Tier 2 and earlier commercial Category 1 and Category 2 marine engines at or above 600 kW, excluding those engines originally manufactured before 1973. Note that the requirements of this subpart do not apply for engines below 600 kW, Category 3 engines, engines installed on recreational vessels, or Tier 3 and later engines.

(b) Any person meeting the definition of “remanufacturer” in §1042.901 may apply for a certificate of conformity for a remanufactured engine family.

(c) The rebuilding requirements of 40 CFR 1068.120 do not apply to remanufacturing of engines using a certified remanufacturing system under this subpart. However, the requirements of 40 CFR 1068.120 do apply to all other remanufacturing of engines.

(d) Unless specified otherwise, engines certified under this subpart are also subject to the other requirements of this part.

(e) For remanufactured engines required to have a valid certificate of conformity, placing a new marine engine back into service following remanufacturing is a violation of 40 CFR 1068.101(a)(1), unless it has a valid certificate of conformity for its model year and the required label.

(f) Remanufacturing systems that require a fuel change or use of a fuel additive may be certified under this part. However, they are not considered to be “available” with respect to triggering the requirement for an engine to be covered by a certificate of conformity under §1042.815. The following provisions apply:

(1) Only fuels and additives registered under 40 CFR part 79 may be used under this paragraph (f).

(2) You must demonstrate in your application that the fuel or additive will actually be used by operators, including a description of how the vessels and dispensing tanks will be labeled. We may require you to provide the labels to the operators.

(3) You must also describe analytical methods that can be used by EPA or others to verify that fuel meets your specifications.

(4) You must provide clear instructions to the operators specifying that they may only use the specified fuel/additive, label their vessels and fuel dispensing tanks, and keep records of their use of the fuel/additive in order for their engine to be covered by your certificate. Use of the incorrect fuel (or fuel without the specified additive) or any other failure to comply with the requirements of this paragraph is a violation of 40 CFR 1068.101(b)(1).

(g) Vessels equipped with emission controls as part of a state or local retrofit program prior to January 1, 2017 are exempt from the requirements of this subpart, as specified in this paragraph (g).

(1) This exemption only applies for retrofit programs sponsored by a state government (or one of its political subdivisions) for the purpose of reducing emissions. The exemption does not apply where the sponsoring government specifies that inclusion in the retrofit program is not intended to provide an exemption from the requirements of this subpart.

(2) The prohibitions against tampering and defeat devices in 40 CFR 1068.101(b) and the rebuilding requirements in 40 CFR 1068.120 apply for the exempt engines in the same manner as if they were covered by a certificate.

(3) Vessel owners must request an exemption prior to remanufacturing the engine. Your request must include documentation that your vessel has been retrofitted consistent with the specifications of paragraph (g)(1) of this section, and a signed statement declaring that to be true. Except for the initial request for a specific vessel and a specific retrofit, you may consider your request to be approved unless we notify you otherwise within 30 days of the date that we receive your request.

[73 FR 37243, June 30, 2008, as amended at 73 FR 59194, Oct. 8, 2008; 75 FR 23009, Apr. 30, 2010]

§1042.810   Requirements for owner/operators and installers during remanufacture.

This section describes how the remanufacturing regulations affect owner/operators and installers for engines subject to this subpart.

(a) See the definition of “remanufacture” in §1042.901 to determine if you are remanufacturing your engine. (Note: Replacing cylinders one at a time may qualify as remanufacturing, depending on the interval between replacement.)

(b) See the definition of “new marine engine” in §1042.901 to determine if remanufacturing your engine makes it subject to the requirements of this part. If the engine is considered to be new, it is subject to the certification requirements of this subpart, unless it is exempt under subpart G of this part.

(c) Your engine is not subject to the standards of this subpart if we determine that no certified remanufacturing system is available for your engine as described in §1042.815. For engines that are remanufactured during multiple events within a five-year period, you are not required to use a certified system until all of your engine's cylinders have been replaced after the system became available. For example, if you remanufacture your 16-cylinder engine by replacing four cylinders each January and a system becomes available for your engine June 1, 2010, your engine must be in a certified configuration when you replace four cylinders in January of 2014. At that point, all 16 cylinders would have been replaced after June 1, 2010.

(d) You may comply with the certification requirements of this part for your remanufactured engine by either obtaining your own certificate of conformity as specified in subpart C of this part or by having a certifying remanufacturer include your engine under its certificate of conformity. In either case, your remanufactured engine must be covered by a certificate before it is reintroduced into service.

(e) Contact a certifying remanufacturer to have your engine included under its certificate of conformity. You must comply with the certificate holder's emission-related installation instructions.

[73 FR 37243, June 30, 2008, as amended at 81 FR 74153, Oct. 25, 2016]

§1042.815   Demonstrating availability.

(a) A certified remanufacturing system is considered to be available for a specific engine only if EPA has certified the remanufacturing system as being in compliance with the provisions of this part and the certificate holder has demonstrated during certification that the system meets the criteria of this paragraph (a). We may issue a certificate for a remanufacturing system that does not meet these criteria, but such systems would not be considered available.

(1) The engine configuration must be included in the engine family for the remanufacturing system.

(2) The total marginal cost of the remanufacturing system, as calculated under paragraph (c) of this section, must be less than $45,000 per ton of PM reduction.

(3) It must be possible to obtain and install the remanufacturing system in a timely manner consistent with normal remanufacturing procedures. For example, a remanufacturing system would generally not be considered to be available if it required that the engine be removed from the vessel and shipped to a factory to be remanufactured.

(4) The remanufacturing system may result in increased maintenance costs, provided the incremental maintenance costs are included in the total costs. The remanufacturing system may not adversely affect engine reliability or power. Note that owner/operators may ask us to determine that a remanufacturing system is not considered available for their vessels because of excessive costs under §1042.850.

(b) We will maintain a list of available remanufacturing systems. A new remanufacturing system is considered to be available 120 days after we first issue a certificate of conformity for it. Where we issue a certificate of conformity based on carryover data for a system that is already considered to be available for the configuration, the 120-day delay does not apply and the new system is considered to be available when we issue the certificate.

(c) For the purpose of paragraph (a)(2) of this section, marginal cost means the difference in costs between remanufacturing the engine using the remanufacturing system and remanufacturing the engine conventionally, divided by the projected amount that PM emissions will be reduced over the engine's useful life.

(1) Total costs include:

(i) Incremental hardware costs.

(ii) Incremental labor costs.

(iii) Incremental operating costs over one useful life period.

(iv) Other costs (such as shipping).

(2) Calculate the projected amount that PM emissions will be reduced over the engine's useful life using the following equation:

PM tons = (EFbase − EFcont) × (PR) × (UL) × (LF) × (10−6)

Where:

EFbase = deteriorated baseline PM emission rate (g/kW-hr).

EFcont = deteriorated controlled PM emission rate (g/kW-hr).

PR = maximum engine power for the engine (kW).

UL = useful life (hr).

LF = the load factor that would apply for your engine under §1042.705.

§1042.820   Emission standards and required emission reductions for remanufactured engines.

(a) The requirements of this section apply with respect to emissions as measured according to subpart F of this part. See paragraph (g) of this section for special provisions related to remanufacturing systems certified for both locomotive and marine engines. Remanufactured Tier 2 and earlier engines may be certified under this subpart only if they have NOX emissions equivalent to or less than baseline NOX levels and PM emissions at least 25.0 percent less than baseline PM emission levels. See §1042.825 for provisions for determining baseline NOX and PM emissions. See §1042.835 for provisions related to demonstrating compliance with these requirements.

(b) The NTE and ABT provisions of this part do not apply for remanufactured engines.

(c) The exhaust emission standards in this section apply for engines using the fuel type on which the engines in the engine family are designed to operate. Engines designed to operate using residual fuel must comply with the standards and requirements of this part when operated using residual fuel.

(d) Your engines must meet the exhaust emission standards of this section over their full useful life, as defined in §1042.101(e).

(e) The duty-cycle emission standards in this subpart apply to all testing performed according to the procedures in §1042.505, including certification, production-line, and in-use testing.

(f) Sections 1042.120, 1042.125, 1042.130, 1042.140 apply for remanufactured engines as written. Section 1042.115 applies for remanufactured engines as written, except for the requirement that electronically controlled engines broadcast their speed and output shaft torque.

(g) A remanufacturing system certified for locomotive engines under 40 CFR part 1033 may be deemed to also meet the requirements of this section, as specified in §1042.836.

§1042.825   Baseline determination.

(a) For the purpose of this subpart, the term “baseline emissions” means the average measured emission rate specified by this section. Baseline emissions are specific to a given certificate holder and a given engine configuration.

(b) Select a used engine to be the emission-data engine for the engine family for testing. Using good engineering judgment, select the engine configuration expected to represent the most common configuration in the family.

(c) Remanufacture the engine according to OEM specifications (or equivalent). The engine is considered “the baseline engine” at this point. If the OEM specifications include a range of adjustment for any parameter, set the parameter to the midpoint of the range. You may ask us to allow you to adjust it differently, consistent with good engineering judgment.

(d) Test the baseline engine four times according to the test procedures in subpart F of this part. The baseline emissions are the average of those four tests.

(e) We may require you to test a second engine of the same or different configuration in addition to the engine tested under this section. If we require you to test the same configuration, average the results of the testing with previous results, unless we determine that your previous results are not valid.

(f) Use good engineering judgment for all aspects of the baseline determination. We may reject your baseline if we determine that you did not use good engineering judgment, consistent with the provisions of 40 CFR 1068.5.

§1042.830   Labeling.

(a) The labeling requirements of this paragraph (a) apply for remanufacturing that is subject to the standards of this subpart. At the time of remanufacture, affix a permanent and legible label identifying each engine. The label must be—

(1) Attached in one piece so it is not removable without being destroyed or defaced.

(2) Secured to a part of the engine needed for normal operation and not normally requiring replacement.

(3) Durable and readable for the engine's entire useful life.

(4) Written in English.

(b) The label required under paragraph (a) of this section must—

(1) Include the heading “EMISSION CONTROL INFORMATION”.

(2) Include your full corporate name and trademark.

(3) Include EPA's standardized designation for the engine family.

(4) State the engine's category, displacement (in liters or L/cyl), maximum engine power (in kW), and power density (in kW/L) as needed to determine the emission standards for the engine family. You may specify displacement, maximum engine power, and power density as ranges consistent with the ranges listed in §1042.101. See §1042.140 for descriptions of how to specify per-cylinder displacement, maximum engine power, and power density.

(5) State: “THIS MARINE ENGINE MEETS THE STANDARDS OF 40 CFR PART 1042, SUBPART I, FOR [CALENDAR YEAR OF REMANUFACTURE].”

(c) For remanufactured engines that are subject to this subpart as described in §1042.801(a), but are not subject to remanufacturing standards as allowed by §1042.810 or §1042.815, you may voluntarily add a label as specified in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, except that the label must omit the standardized designation for the engine family and include the following alternative compliance statement: “THIS MARINE ENGINE IS NOT SUBJECT TO REMANUFACTURING STANDARDS UNDER 40 CFR PART 1042, SUBPART I, FOR [CALENDAR YEAR OF REMANUFACTURE].”

(d) You may add information to the emission control information label to identify other emission standards that the engine meets or does not meet (such as international standards). You may also add other information to ensure that the engine will be properly maintained and used.

(e) You may ask us to approve modified labeling requirements in this section if you show that it is necessary or appropriate. We will approve your request if your alternate label is consistent with the intent of the labeling requirements of this section.

[81 FR 74153, Oct. 25, 2016]

§1042.835   Certification of remanufactured engines.

(a) General requirements. See §§1042.201, 1042.210, 1042.220, 1042.225, 1042.250, and 1042.255 for the general requirements related to obtaining a certificate of conformity. See §1042.836 for special certification provisions for remanufacturing systems certified for locomotive engines under 40 CFR 1033.936.

(b) Applications. See §1042.840 for a description of what you must include in your application.

(c) Engine families. See §1042.845 for instruction about dividing your engines into engine families.

(d) Test data. (1) Measure baseline emissions for the test configuration as specified in §1042.825.

(2) Measure emissions from the test engine for your remanufacturing system according to the procedures of subpart F of this part.

(3) We may measure emissions from any of your test engines or other engines from the engine family, as follows:

(i) We may decide to do the testing at your plant or any other facility. If we do this, you must deliver the test engine to a test facility we designate. The test engine you provide must include appropriate manifolds, aftertreatment devices, electronic control units, and other emission-related components not normally attached directly to the engine block. If we do the testing at your plant, you must schedule it as soon as possible and make available the instruments, personnel, and equipment we need.

(ii) If we measure emissions from one of your test engines, the results of that testing become the official emission results for the engine. Unless we later invalidate these data, we may decide not to consider your data in determining if your engine family meets applicable requirements.

(iii) Before we test one of your engines, we may set its adjustable parameters to any point within the specified adjustable ranges (see §1042.115(d)).

(iv) Before we test one of your engines, we may calibrate it within normal production tolerances for anything we do not consider an adjustable parameter.

(4) You may ask to use emission data from a previous model year instead of doing new tests, but only if all the following are true:

(i) The engine family from the previous model year differs from the current engine family only with respect to model year or other characteristics unrelated to emissions. You may also ask to add a configuration subject to §1042.225.

(ii) The emission-data engine from the previous model year remains the appropriate emission-data engine.

(iii) The data show that the emission-data engine would meet all the requirements that apply to the engine family covered by the application for certification.

(5) We may require you to test a second engine of the same or different configuration in addition to the engine tested under this section.

(6) If you use an alternate test procedure under 40 CFR 1065.10 and later testing shows that such testing does not produce results that are equivalent to the procedures specified in subpart F of this part, we may reject data you generated using the alternate procedure.

(e) Demonstrating compliance. (1) For purposes of certification, your engine family is considered in compliance with the emission standards in §1042.820 if all emission-data engines representing that family have test results showing compliance with the standards and percent reductions required by that section. To compare emission levels from the emission-data engine with the applicable emission standards, apply an additive deterioration factor of 0.015 g/kW-hr to the measured emission levels for PM. Alternatively, you may test your engine as specified in §1042.245 to develop deterioration factors that represent the deterioration expected in emissions over your engines' full useful life.

(2) Collect emission data using measurements to one more decimal place than the applicable standard. Apply the deterioration factor to the official emission result, then round the adjusted figure to the same number of decimal places as the emission standard. Compare the rounded emission levels to the emission standard for each emission-data engine.

(3) Your applicable NOX standard for each configuration is the baseline NOX emission rate for that configuration plus 5.0 percent (to account for test-to-test and engine-to-engine variability). Your applicable PM standard for each configuration is the baseline PM emission rate for that configuration multiplied by 0.750 plus the deterioration factor. If you choose to include configurations in your engine family for which you do not measure baseline emissions, you must demonstrate through engineering analysis that your remanufacturing system will reduce PM emissions by at least 25.0 percent for those configurations and not increase NOX emissions.

(4) Your engine family is deemed not to comply if any emission-data engine representing that family for certification has test results showing a deteriorated emission level above an applicable emission standard for any pollutant.

(f) Safety Evaluation. You must exercise due diligence in ensuring that your system will not adversely affect safety or otherwise violate the prohibition of §1042.115(e).

(g) Compatibility Evaluation. If you are not the original manufacturer of the engine, you must contact the original manufacturer of the engine to verify that your system is compatible with the engine. Keep records of your contact with the original manufacturer.

§1042.836   Marine certification of locomotive remanufacturing systems.

If you certify a Tier 0, Tier 1, or Tier 2 remanufacturing system for locomotives under 40 CFR part 1033, you may also certify the system under this part 1042, according to the provisions of this section. Note that in certain cases before 2013, locomotives may be certified under 40 CFR part 1033 to the standards of 40 CFR part 92.

(a) Include the following with your application for certification under 40 CFR part 1033 (or as an amendment to your application):

(1) A statement of your intent to use your remanufacturing system for marine engines. Include a list of marine engine models for which your system may be used.

(2) If there are significant differences in how your remanufacture system will be applied to marine engines relative to locomotives, in an engineering analysis demonstrating that your system will achieve emission reductions from marine engines similar to those from locomotives.

(3) A description of modifications needed for marine applications.

(4) A demonstration of availability as described in §1042.815, except that the total marginal cost threshold does not apply.

(5) An unconditional statement that all the engines in the engine family comply with the requirements of this part, other referenced parts of the CFR, and the Clean Air Act.

(b) Sections 1042.835 and 1042.840 do not apply for engines certified under this section.

(c) Systems certified to the standards of 40 CFR part 92 are subject to the following restrictions:

(1) Tier 0 locomotive systems may not be used for any Category 1 engines or Tier 1 or later Category 2 engines.

(2) Where systems certified to the standards of 40 CFR part 1033 are also available for an engine, you may not use a system certified to the standards of 40 CFR part 92.

[73 FR 37243, June 30, 2008, as amended at 73 FR 59194, Oct. 8, 2008; 75 FR 23009, Apr. 30, 2010; 81 FR 74153, Oct. 25, 2016]

§1042.840   Application requirements for remanufactured engines.

This section specifies the information that must be in your application, unless we ask you to include less information under §1042.201(c). We may require you to provide additional information to evaluate your application.

(a) Describe the engine family's specifications and other basic parameters of the engine's design and emission controls. List the fuel type on which your engines are designed to operate (for example, ultra low-sulfur diesel fuel). List each distinguishable engine configuration in the engine family. For each engine configuration, list the maximum engine power and the range of values for maximum engine power resulting from production tolerances, as described in §1042.140.

(b) Explain how the emission control system operates. Describe in detail all system components for controlling exhaust emissions, including any auxiliary emission control devices (AECDs) you add to the engine. Identify the part number of each component you describe.

(c) Summarize the cost effectiveness analysis used to demonstrate your system will meet the availability criteria of §1042.815. Identify the maximum allowable costs for vessel modifications to meet these criteria.

(d) Describe the engines you selected for testing and the reasons for selecting them.

(e) Describe the test equipment and procedures that you used, including the duty cycle(s) and the corresponding engine applications. Also describe any special or alternate test procedures you used.

(f) Describe how you operated the emission-data engine before testing, including the duty cycle and the number of engine operating hours used to stabilize emission levels. Explain why you selected the method of service accumulation. Describe any scheduled maintenance you did.

(g) List the specifications of the test fuel to show that it falls within the required ranges we specify in 40 CFR part 1065. See §1042.801 if your certification is based on the use of special fuels or additives.

(h) Identify the engine family's useful life.

(i) Include the maintenance and warranty instructions you will give to the owner/operator (see §§1042.120 and 1042.125).

(j) Include the emission-related installation instructions you will provide if someone else installs your engines in a vessel (see §1042.130).

(k) Describe your emission control information label (see §1042.830).

(l) Identify the engine family's deterioration factors and describe how you developed them (see §1042.245). Present any emission test data you used for this.

(m) State that you operated your emission-data engines as described in the application (including the test procedures, test parameters, and test fuels) to show you meet the requirements of this part.

(n) Present emission data for HC, NOX, PM, and CO as required by §1042.820. Show emission figures before and after applying adjustment factors for regeneration and deterioration factors for each pollutant and for each engine.

(o) Report all valid test results. Also indicate whether there are test results from invalid tests or from any other tests of the emission-data engine, whether or not they were conducted according to the test procedures of subpart F of this part. If you measure CO2, report those emission levels. We may require you to report these additional test results. We may ask you to send other information to confirm that your tests were valid under the requirements of this part and 40 CFR part 1065.

(p) Describe all adjustable operating parameters (see §1042.115(d)), including production tolerances. Include the following in your description of each parameter:

(1) The nominal or recommended setting.

(2) The intended physically adjustable range.

(3) The limits or stops used to establish adjustable ranges.

(4) For Category 1 engines, information showing why the limits, stops, or other means of inhibiting adjustment are effective in preventing adjustment of parameters on in-use engines to settings outside your intended physically adjustable ranges.

(5) For Category 2 engines, propose a range of adjustment for each adjustable parameter, as described in §1042.115(d). Include information showing why the limits, stops, or other means of inhibiting adjustment are effective in preventing adjustment of parameters on in-use engines to settings outside your proposed adjustable ranges.

(q) Unconditionally certify that all the engines in the engine family comply with the requirements of this part, other referenced parts of the CFR, and the Clean Air Act.

(r) Include the information required by other subparts of this part.

(s) Include other applicable information, such as information specified in this part or 40 CFR part 1068 related to requests for exemptions.

(t) Name an agent for service located in the United States. Service on this agent constitutes service on you or any of your officers or employees for any action by EPA or otherwise by the United States related to the requirements of this part.

(u) If you are not the original manufacturer of the engine, include a summary of your contact with the original manufacturer of the engine and provide to us any documentation provided to you by the original manufacturer.

[73 FR 37243, June 30, 2008, as amended at 81 FR 74153, Oct. 25, 2016]

§1042.845   Remanufactured engine families.

(a) For purposes of certification, divide your product line into families of engines that are expected to have similar emission characteristics throughout the useful life as described in this section. You may not group Category 1 and Category 2 engines in the same family.

(b) In general, group engines in the same engine family if they are the same in all the following aspects:

(1) The combustion cycle and fuel (the fuels with which the engine is intended or designed to be operated).

(2) The cooling system (for example, raw-water vs. separate-circuit cooling).

(3) Method of air aspiration.

(4) Method of exhaust aftertreatment (for example, catalytic converter or particulate trap).

(5) Combustion chamber design.

(6) Nominal bore and stroke.

(7) Method of control for engine operation other than governing (i.e., mechanical or electronic).

(8) Original engine manufacturer.

(c) Alternatively, you may ask us to allow you to include other engine configurations in your engine family, consistent with good engineering judgment.

(d) Do not include in your family any configurations for which good engineering judgment indicates that your emission controls are unlikely to provide PM emission reductions similar to the configuration(s) tested.

§1042.850   Exemptions and hardship relief.

This section describes exemption and hardship provisions that are available for owner/operators of engines subject to the provisions of this subpart.

(a) Vessels owned and operated by entities that meet the size criterion of this paragraph (a) are exempt from the requirements of this subpart I. To be exempt, your gross annual revenue for the calendar year before the remanufacture must be less than $5,000,000 in 2008 dollars or the equivalent value for future years based on the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Producer Price Index (see www.bls.gov). Include all revenues from any parent company and its subsidiaries. The exemption applies only for years in which you meet this criterion.

(b) In unusual circumstances, we may exempt you from an otherwise applicable requirement that you apply a certified remanufacturing system when remanufacturing your marine engine.

(1) To be eligible, you must demonstrate that all of the following are true:

(i) Unusual circumstances prevent you from meeting requirements from this chapter.

(ii) You have taken all reasonable steps to minimize the extent of the nonconformity.

(iii) Not having the exemption will jeopardize the solvency of your company.

(iv) No other allowances are available under the regulations in this chapter to avoid the impending violation.

(2) Send the Designated Compliance Officer a written request for an exemption before you are in violation.

(3) We may impose other conditions, including provisions to use an engine meeting less stringent emission standards or to recover the lost environmental benefit.

(4) In determining whether to grant the exemptions, we will consider all relevant factors, including the following:

(i) The number of engines to be exempted.

(ii) The size of your company and your ability to endure the hardship.

(iii) The length of time a vessel is expected to remain in service.

(c) If you believe that a remanufacturing system that we identified as being available cannot be installed without significant modification of your vessel, you may ask us to determine that a remanufacturing system is not considered available for your vessel because the cost would exceed the total marginal cost threshold in §1042.815(a)(2).

(d) Other exemptions specified in subpart G of this part and 40 CFR part 1068, subparts C and D also apply to remanufactured engines. For example, the national security exemption applies to remanufactured engines as described in §1042.635.

[73 FR 37243, June 30, 2008, as amended at 74 FR 8426, Feb. 24, 2009; 75 FR 23009, Apr. 30, 2010; 81 FR 74153, Oct. 25, 2016]

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