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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of December 5, 2019

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter UPart 1042 → Subpart F


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 1042—CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS


Subpart F—Test Procedures


Contents
§1042.501   How do I run a valid emission test?
§1042.505   Testing engines using discrete-mode or ramped-modal duty cycles.
§1042.515   Test procedures related to not-to-exceed standards.
§1042.520   What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors?
§1042.525   How do I adjust emission levels to account for infrequently regenerating aftertreatment devices?

§1042.501   How do I run a valid emission test?

(a) Use the equipment and procedures for compression-ignition engines in 40 CFR part 1065 to determine whether engines meet the duty-cycle emission standards in §§1042.101 or 1042.104. Measure the emissions of all regulated pollutants as specified in 40 CFR part 1065. Use the applicable duty cycles specified in §1042.505. The following exceptions from the 40 CFR part 1065 procedures apply:

(1) If you perform discrete-mode testing and use only one batch fuel measurement to determine your mean raw exhaust flow rate, you must target a constant sample flow rate over the mode. Verify proportional sampling as described in 40 CFR 1065.545 using the mean raw exhaust molar flow rate paired with each recorded sample flow rate.

(2) If you perform discrete-mode testing, you may verify proportional sampling over the whole duty cycle instead of verifying proportional sampling for each discrete mode.

(b) Section 1042.515 describes the supplemental test procedures for evaluating whether engines meet the not-to-exceed emission standards in §1042.101(c).

(c) Use the fuels and lubricants specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, for all the testing we require in this part, except as specified in this section and §1042.515.

(1) For service accumulation, use the test fuel or any commercially available fuel that is representative of the fuel that in-use engines will use.

(2) For diesel-fueled engines, use the appropriate diesel fuel specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, for emission testing. Unless we specify otherwise, the appropriate diesel test fuel for Category 1 and Category 2 engines is the ultra low-sulfur diesel fuel. If we allow you to use a test fuel with higher sulfur levels, identify the test fuel in your application for certification. Unless we specify otherwise, the appropriate diesel test fuel for Category 3 engines is the high-sulfur diesel fuel. For Category 2 and Category 3 engines, you may ask to use commercially available diesel fuel similar but not necessarily identical to the applicable fuel specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H; we will approve your request if you show us that it does not affect your ability to demonstrate compliance with the applicable emission standards.

(3) For Category 1 and Category 2 engines that are expected to use a type of fuel (or mixed fuel) other than diesel fuel (such as natural gas, methanol, or residual fuel), use a commercially available fuel of that type for emission testing. If a given engine is designed to operate on different fuels, we may (at our discretion) require testing on each fuel. Propose test fuel specifications that take into account the engine design and the properties of commercially available fuels. Describe these test fuel specifications in the application for certification.

(d) Adjust measured emissions to account for aftertreatment technology with infrequent regeneration as described in §1042.525.

(e) Duty-cycle testing is limited to atmospheric pressures between 91.000 and 103.325 kPa.

(f) You may use special or alternate procedures to the extent we allow them under 40 CFR 1065.10.

(g) For Category 3 engines, instead of test data collected as specified in 40 CFR part 1065, you may submit test data for NOX, HC, and CO emissions that were collected as specified in the NOX Technical Code (incorporated by reference in §1042.910). For example, this allowance includes the allowance to perform the testing using test fuels allowed under the NOX Technical Code that do not meet the sulfur specifications of this section. We may require you to include a brief engineering analysis showing how these data demonstrate that your engines would meet the applicable emission standards if you had used the test procedures specified in 40 CFR part 1065.

(h) This subpart is addressed to you as a manufacturer, but it applies equally to anyone who does testing for you, and to us when we perform testing to determine if your engines meet emission standards.

[73 FR 37243, June 30, 2008, as amended at 74 FR 56509, Oct. 30, 2009; 75 FR 23005, Apr. 30, 2010; 81 FR 74149, Oct. 25, 2016]

§1042.505   Testing engines using discrete-mode or ramped-modal duty cycles.

This section describes how to test engines under steady-state conditions. In some cases, we allow you to choose the appropriate steady-state duty cycle for an engine; you may also choose between discrete-mode and ramped-modal testing. In all cases, you must use the duty cycle you select in your application for certification for all testing you perform for that engine family. If we test your engines to confirm that they meet emission standards, we will use the duty cycles you select for your own testing. If you submit certification test data using more than one duty cycle, any of the selected duty cycles may be used for any subsequent testing. We may also perform other testing as allowed by the Clean Air Act.

(a) You may perform steady-state testing with either discrete-mode or ramped-modal cycles as described in 40 CFR Part 1065.

(b) Measure emissions by testing the engine on a dynamometer with one of the following duty cycles (as specified) to determine whether it meets the emission standards in §§1042.101 or 1042.104:

(1) General cycle. Use the 4-mode duty cycle or the corresponding ramped-modal cycle described in paragraph (a) of Appendix II of this part for commercial propulsion marine engines that are used with (or intended to be used with) fixed-pitch propellers, propeller-law auxiliary engines, and any other engines for which the other duty cycles of this section do not apply. Use this duty cycle also for commercial variable-speed propulsion marine engines that are used with (or intended to be used with) controllable-pitch propellers or with electrically coupled propellers, unless these engines are not intended for sustained operation (e.g., for at least 30 minutes) at all four modes when installed in the vessel.

(2) Recreational marine engines. Except as specified in paragraph (b)(3) of this section, use the 5-mode duty cycle or the corresponding ramped-modal cycle described in paragraph (b) of Appendix II of this part for recreational marine engines with maximum engine power at or above 37 kW.

(3) Controllable-pitch and electrically coupled propellers. Use the 4-mode duty cycle or the corresponding ramped-modal cycle described in paragraph (c) of Appendix II of this part for constant-speed propulsion marine engines that are used with (or intended to be used with) controllable-pitch propellers or with electrically coupled propellers. Use this duty cycle also for variable-speed propulsion marine engines that are used with (or intended to be used with) controllable-pitch propellers or with electrically coupled propellers if the duty cycles in paragraph (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section do not apply.

(4) Constant-speed auxiliary engines. Use the 5-mode duty cycle or the corresponding ramped-modal cycle described in 40 CFR Part 1039, Appendix II, paragraph (a) for constant-speed auxiliary engines.

(5) Variable-speed auxiliary engines. (i) Use the duty cycle specified in paragraph (b)(1) of this section for propeller-law auxiliary engines.

(ii) Use the 6-mode duty cycle or the corresponding ramped-modal cycle described in 40 CFR Part 1039, Appendix II, paragraph (b) for variable-speed auxiliary engines with maximum engine power below 19 kW that are not propeller-law engines.

(iii) Use the 8-mode duty cycle or the corresponding ramped-modal cycle described in 40 CFR part 1039, Appendix II, paragraph (c) for variable-speed auxiliary engines with maximum engine power at or above 19 kW that are not propeller-law engines.

(c) For constant-speed engines whose design prevents full-load operation for extended periods, you may ask for approval under 40 CFR 1065.10(c) to replace full-load operation with the maximum load for which the engine is designed to operate for extended periods.

[79 FR 23751, Apr. 28, 2014, as amended at 81 FR 74149, Oct. 25, 2016]

§1042.515   Test procedures related to not-to-exceed standards.

(a) This section describes the procedures to determine whether your engines meet the not-to-exceed emission standards in §1042.101(c). These procedures may include any normal engine operation and ambient conditions that the engines may experience in use. Paragraphs (c) through (e) of this section define the limits of what we will consider normal engine operation and ambient conditions.

(b) Measure emissions with one of the following procedures:

(1) Remove the selected engines for testing in a laboratory. You may use an engine dynamometer to simulate normal operation, as described in this section. Use the equipment and procedures specified in 40 CFR part 1065 to conduct laboratory testing.

(2) Test the selected engines while they remain installed in a vessel. Use the equipment and procedures specified in 40 CFR part 1065 subpart J, to conduct field testing. Use fuel meeting the specifications of 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, or a fuel typical of what you would expect the engine to use in service.

(c) Engine testing may occur under the following ranges of ambient conditions without correcting measured emission levels:

(1) Atmospheric pressure must be between 96.000 and 103.325 kPa, except that manufacturers may test at lower atmospheric pressures if their test facility is located at an altitude that makes it impractical to stay within this range. This pressure range is intended to allow testing under most weather conditions at all altitudes up to 1,100 feet above sea level.

(2) Ambient air temperature must be between 13 and 35 °C (or between 13 °C and 30 °C for engines not drawing intake air directly from a space that could be heated by the engine).

(3) Ambient water temperature must be between 5 and 27 °C.

(4) Ambient humidity must be between 7.1 and 10.7 grams of moisture per kilogram of dry air.

(d) Engine testing may occur at any conditions expected during normal operation but that are outside the conditions described in paragraph (b) of this section, as long as measured values are corrected to be equivalent to the nearest end of the specified range, using good engineering judgment. Correct NOX emissions for humidity as specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart G.

(e) The sampling period may not begin until the engine has reached stable operating temperatures. For example, this would include only engine operation after starting and after the engine thermostat starts modulating the engine's coolant temperature. The sampling period may not include engine starting.

(f) Apply the NTE standards specified in §1042.101(c) to an engine family based on the zones and subzones corresponding to specific duty cycles and engine types as defined in Appendix III of this part. For an engine family certified to multiple duty cycles, the broadest applicable NTE zone applies for that family at the time of certification. Whenever an engine family is certified to multiple duty cycles and a specific engine from that family is tested for NTE compliance in use, determine the applicable NTE zone for that engine according to its in-use application. An engine family's NTE zone may be modified as follows:

(1) You may ask us to approve a narrower NTE zone for an engine family at the time of certification, based on information such as how that engine family is expected to normally operate in use. For example, if an engine family is always coupled to a pump or jet drive, the engine might be able to operate only within a narrow range of engine speed and power.

(2) You may ask us to approve a Limited Testing Region (LTR). An LTR is a region of engine operation, within the applicable NTE zone, where you have demonstrated that your engine family operates for no more than 5.0 percent of its normal in-use operation, on a time-weighted basis. You must specify an LTR using boundaries based on engine speed and power (or torque), where the LTR boundaries must coincide with some portion of the boundary defining the overall NTE zone. Any emission data collected within an LTR for a time duration that exceeds 5.0 percent of the duration of its respective NTE sampling period will be excluded when determining compliance with the applicable NTE standards. Any emission data collected within an LTR for a time duration of 5.0 percent or less of the duration of the respective NTE sampling period will be included when determining compliance with the NTE standards.

(3) You must notify us if you design your engines for normal in-use operation outside the applicable NTE zone. If we learn that normal in-use operation for your engines includes other speeds and loads, we may specify a broader NTE zone, as long as the modified zone is limited to normal in-use operation for speeds greater than 70 percent of maximum test speed and loads greater than 30 percent of maximum power at maximum test speed (or 30 percent of maximum test torque for constant-speed engines).

(4) You may exclude emission data based on catalytic aftertreatment temperatures as follows:

(i) For an engine equipped with a catalytic NOX aftertreatment system, exclude NOX emission data that is collected when the exhaust temperature at any time during the NTE event is less than 250 °C.

(ii) For an engine equipped with an oxidizing catalytic aftertreatment system, exclude HC and CO emission data that is collected when the exhaust temperature at any time during the NTE event is less than 250 °C. Similarly, exclude PM emission data during operation involving exhaust temperature below 250 °C for an engine equipped with an oxidizing flow-through catalyst.

(iii) Measure exhaust temperature within 30 cm downstream of the last applicable catalytic aftertreatment device. Where there are parallel paths, use good engineering judgment to measure the temperature within 30 cm downstream of the last applicable catalytic aftertreatment device in the path with the greatest exhaust flow.

(g) Emission sampling is not valid for NTE testing if it includes any active regeneration, unless the emission averaging period includes the complete regeneration event(s) and the full period of engine operation until the start of the next regeneration event. This provision applies only for engines that send an electronic signal indicating the start of the regeneration event.

[73 FR 37243, June 30, 2008, as amended at 81 FR 74149, Oct. 25, 2016]

§1042.520   What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors?

Sections 1042.240 and 1042.245 describe the required methods for testing to establish deterioration factors for an engine family.

§1042.525   How do I adjust emission levels to account for infrequently regenerating aftertreatment devices?

For engines using aftertreatment technology with infrequent regeneration events that may occur during testing, take one of the following approaches to account for the emission impact of regeneration, or use an alternate methodology that we approve for Category 3 engines:

(a) You may use the calculation methodology described in 40 CFR 1065.680 to adjust measured emission results. Do this by developing an upward adjustment factor and a downward adjustment factor for each pollutant based on measured emission data and observed regeneration frequency as follows:

(1) Adjustment factors should generally apply to an entire engine family, but you may develop separate adjustment factors for different configurations within an engine family. Use the adjustment factors from this section in all testing for the engine family.

(2) You may use carryover or carry-across data to establish adjustment factors for an engine family as described in §1042.235, consistent with good engineering judgment.

(3) Determine the frequency of regeneration, F, as described in 40 CFR 1065.680 from in-use operating data or from running repetitive tests in a laboratory. If the engine is designed for regeneration at fixed time intervals, you may apply good engineering judgment to determine F based on those design parameters.

(4) Identify the value of F in each application for certification for which it applies.

(b) You may ask us to approve an alternate methodology to account for regeneration events. We will generally limit approval to cases where your engines use aftertreatment technology with extremely infrequent regeneration and you are unable to apply the provisions of this section.

(c) You may choose to make no adjustments to measured emission results if you determine that regeneration does not significantly affect emission levels for an engine family (or configuration) or if it is not practical to identify when regeneration occurs. If you choose not to make adjustments under paragraph (a) or (b) of this section, your engines must meet emission standards for all testing, without regard to regeneration.

[81 FR 74150, Oct. 25, 2016]

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