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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of December 10, 2019

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter UPart 1042 → Subpart C


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 1042—CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS


Subpart C—Certifying Engine Families


Contents
§1042.201   General requirements for obtaining a certificate of conformity.
§1042.205   Application requirements.
§1042.210   Preliminary approval.
§1042.220   Amending maintenance instructions.
§1042.225   Amending applications for certification.
§1042.230   Engine families.
§1042.235   Emission testing related to certification.
§1042.240   Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards.
§1042.245   Deterioration factors.
§1042.250   Recordkeeping and reporting.
§1042.255   EPA decisions.

§1042.201   General requirements for obtaining a certificate of conformity.

(a) You must send us a separate application for a certificate of conformity for each engine family. A certificate of conformity is valid for new production from the indicated effective date until the end of the model year for which it is issued, which may not extend beyond December 31 of that year. No certificate will be issued after December 31 of the model year. You may amend your application for certification after the end of the model year in certain circumstances as described in §§1042.220 and 1042.225. You must renew your certification annually for any engines you continue to produce.

(b) The application must contain all the information required by this part and must not include false or incomplete statements or information (see §1042.255).

(c) We may ask you to include less information than we specify in this subpart, as long as you maintain all the information required by §1042.250.

(d) You must use good engineering judgment for all decisions related to your application (see 40 CFR 1068.5).

(e) An authorized representative of your company must approve and sign the application.

(f) See §1042.255 for provisions describing how we will process your application.

(g) We may require you to deliver your test engines to a facility we designate for our testing (see §1042.235(c)). Alternatively, you may choose to deliver another engine that is identical in all material respects to the test engine, or another engine that we determine can appropriately serve as an emission-data engine for the engine family.

(h) For engines that become new after being placed into service, such as engines installed on imported vessels, we may specify alternate certification provisions consistent with the intent of this part. See the definition of “new marine engine” in §1042.901.

[73 FR 37243, June 30, 2008, as amended at 75 FR 23000, Apr. 30, 2010; 81 FR 74147, Oct. 25, 2016]

§1042.205   Application requirements.

This section specifies the information that must be in your application, unless we ask you to include less information under §1042.201(c). We may require you to provide additional information to evaluate your application.

(a) Describe the engine family's specifications and other basic parameters of the engine's design and emission controls. List the fuel type on which your engines are designed to operate (for example, ultra low-sulfur diesel fuel). List each distinguishable engine configuration in the engine family. For each engine configuration, list the maximum engine power and the range of values for maximum engine power resulting from production tolerances, as described in §1042.140.

(b) Explain how the emission control system operates. Describe in detail all system components for controlling exhaust emissions, including all auxiliary emission control devices (AECDs) and all fuel-system components you will install on any production or test engine. Identify the part number of each component you describe. For this paragraph (b), treat as separate AECDs any devices that modulate or activate differently from each other. Include all the following:

(1) Give a general overview of the engine, the emission control strategies, and all AECDs.

(2) Describe each AECD's general purpose and function.

(3) Identify the parameters that each AECD senses (including measuring, estimating, calculating, or empirically deriving the values). Include vessel-based parameters and state whether you simulate them during testing with the applicable procedures.

(4) Describe the purpose for sensing each parameter.

(5) Identify the location of each sensor the AECD uses.

(6) Identify the threshold values for the sensed parameters that activate the AECD.

(7) Describe the parameters that the AECD modulates (controls) in response to any sensed parameters, including the range of modulation for each parameter, the relationship between the sensed parameters and the controlled parameters and how the modulation achieves the AECD's stated purpose. Use graphs and tables, as necessary.

(8) Describe each AECD's specific calibration details. This may be in the form of data tables, graphical representations, or some other description.

(9) Describe the hierarchy among the AECDs when multiple AECDs sense or modulate the same parameter. Describe whether the strategies interact in a comparative or additive manner and identify which AECD takes precedence in responding, if applicable.

(10) Explain the extent to which the AECD is included in the applicable test procedures specified in subpart F of this part.

(11) Do the following additional things for AECDs designed to protect engines or vessels:

(i) Identify the engine and/or vessel design limits that make protection necessary and describe any damage that would occur without the AECD.

(ii) Describe how each sensed parameter relates to the protected components' design limits or those operating conditions that cause the need for protection.

(iii) Describe the relationship between the design limits/parameters being protected and the parameters sensed or calculated as surrogates for those design limits/parameters, if applicable.

(iv) Describe how the modulation by the AECD prevents engines and/or vessels from exceeding design limits.

(v) Explain why it is necessary to estimate any parameters instead of measuring them directly and describe how the AECD calculates the estimated value, if applicable.

(vi) Describe how you calibrate the AECD modulation to activate only during conditions related to the stated need to protect components and only as needed to sufficiently protect those components in a way that minimizes the emission impact.

(12) Include any other information required by this part with respect to AECDs. For example, see §1042.115 for requirements related to on-off technologies.

(c) If your engines are equipped with an engine diagnostic system, explain how it works, describing especially the engine conditions (with the corresponding diagnostic trouble codes) that cause the malfunction-indicator light to go on.

(d) Describe the engines you selected for testing and the reasons for selecting them.

(e) Describe the test equipment and procedures that you used, including the duty cycle(s) and the corresponding engine applications. Also describe any special or alternate test procedures you used.

(f) Describe how you operated the emission-data engine before testing, including the duty cycle and the number of engine operating hours used to stabilize emission levels. Explain why you selected the method of service accumulation. Describe any scheduled maintenance you did.

(g) List the specifications of the test fuel (or mixture of test fuels) to show that they fall within the required ranges we specify in 40 CFR part 1065.

(h) Identify the engine family's useful life.

(i) Include the maintenance and warranty instructions you will give to the ultimate purchaser of each new engine (see §§1042.120 and 1042.125). Describe your plan for meeting warranty obligations under §1042.120.

(j) Include the emission-related installation instructions you will provide if someone else installs your engines in a vessel (see §1042.130).

(k) Describe your emission control information label (see §1042.135).

(l) Identify the emission standards and/or FELs to which you are certifying engines in the engine family.

(m) Identify the engine family's deterioration factors and describe how you developed them (see §1042.245). Present any emission test data you used for this.

(n) State that you operated your emission-data engines as described in the application (including the test procedures, test parameters, and test fuels) to show you meet the requirements of this part.

(o) Present emission data for HC, NOX, PM, and CO on an emission-data engine to show your engines meet emission standards as specified in §§1042.101 or 1042.104. Note that you must submit PM data for all engines, whether or not a PM standard applies. Show emission figures before and after applying adjustment factors for regeneration and deterioration factors for each pollutant and for each engine. If we specify more than one grade of any fuel type (for example, high-sulfur and low-sulfur diesel fuel), you need to submit test data only for one grade, unless the regulations of this part specify otherwise for your engine. Include emission results for each mode for Category 3 engines or for other engines if you do discrete-mode testing under §1042.505. For engines using on-off controls as described in §1042.115(g), include emission data demonstrating compliance with the Tier 2 standards when the engines Tier 3 NOX emission controls are disabled. Note that §§1042.235 and 1042.245 allows you to submit an application in certain cases without new emission data.

(p) For Category 1 and Category 2 engines, state that all the engines in the engine family comply with the applicable not-to-exceed emission standards in §1042.101 for all normal operation and use when tested as specified in §1042.515. Describe any relevant testing, engineering analysis, or other information in sufficient detail to support your statement.

(q) [Reserved]

(r) Report test results as follows:

(1) Report all valid test results involving measurement of pollutants for which emission standards apply. Also indicate whether there are test results from invalid tests or from any other tests of the emission-data engine, whether or not they were conducted according to the test procedures of subpart F of this part. We may require you to report these additional test results. We may ask you to send other information to confirm that your tests were valid under the requirements of this part and 40 CFR part 1065.

(2) Report measured CO2, N2O, and CH4 as described in §1042.235. Small-volume engine manufacturers may omit reporting N2O and CH4.

(s) Describe all adjustable operating parameters (see §1042.115(d)), including production tolerances. Include the following in your description of each parameter:

(1) The nominal or recommended setting.

(2) The intended physically adjustable range.

(3) The limits or stops used to establish adjustable ranges.

(4) For Category 1 engines, information showing why the limits, stops, or other means of inhibiting adjustment are effective in preventing adjustment of parameters on in-use engines to settings outside your intended physically adjustable ranges.

(5) For Category 2 and Category 3 engines, propose a range of adjustment for each adjustable parameter, as described in §1042.115(d). Include information showing why the limits, stops, or other means of inhibiting adjustment are effective in preventing adjustment of parameters on in-use engines to settings outside your proposed adjustable ranges.

(t) Provide the information to read, record, and interpret all the information broadcast by an engine's onboard computers and electronic control units. State that, upon request, you will give us any hardware, software, or tools we would need to do this. If you broadcast a surrogate parameter for torque values, you must provide us what we need to convert these into torque units. You may reference any appropriate publicly released standards that define conventions for these messages and parameters. Format your information consistent with publicly released standards.

(u) Confirm that your emission-related installation instructions specify how to ensure that sampling of exhaust emissions will be possible after engines are installed in vessels and placed in service. Show how to sample exhaust emissions in a way that prevents diluting the exhaust sample with ambient air.

(v) State whether your certification is limited for certain engines. If this is the case, describe how you will prevent use of these engines in applications for which they are not certified. This applies for engines such as the following:

(1) Constant-speed engines.

(2) Engines used with controllable-pitch propellers.

(3) Recreational engines.

(w) Unconditionally certify that all the engines in the engine family comply with the requirements of this part, other referenced parts of the CFR, and the Clean Air Act.

(x) Include good-faith estimates of U.S.-directed production volumes. Include a justification for the estimated production volumes if they are substantially different than actual production volumes in earlier years for similar models.

(y) Include the information required by other subparts of this part. For example, include the information required by §1042.725 if you participate in the ABT program.

(z) Include other applicable information, such as information specified in this part or 40 CFR part 1068 related to requests for exemptions.

(aa) Name an agent for service located in the United States. Service on this agent constitutes service on you or any of your officers or employees for any action by EPA or otherwise by the United States related to the requirements of this part.

(bb) The following provisions apply for imported engines:

(1) Describe your normal practice for importing engines. For example, this may include identifying the names and addresses of any agents you have authorized to import your engines.

(2) For engines below 560 kW, identify a test facility in the United States where you can test your engines if we select them for testing under a selective enforcement audit, as specified in 40 CFR part 1068.

[73 FR 37243, June 30, 2008, as amended at 74 FR 56509, Oct. 30, 2009; 75 FR 23000, Apr. 30, 2010; 81 FR 74147, Oct. 25, 2016]

§1042.210   Preliminary approval.

If you send us information before you finish the application, we will review it and make any appropriate determinations, especially for questions related to engine family definitions, auxiliary emission control devices, deterioration factors, useful life, testing for service accumulation, maintenance, and compliance with not-to-exceed standards. See §1042.245 for specific provisions that apply for deterioration factors. Decisions made under this section are considered to be preliminary approval, subject to final review and approval. We will generally not reverse a decision where we have given you preliminary approval, unless we find new information supporting a different decision. If you request preliminary approval related to the upcoming model year or the model year after that, we will make best-efforts to make the appropriate determinations as soon as practicable. We will generally not provide preliminary approval related to a future model year more than two years ahead of time.

§1042.220   Amending maintenance instructions.

You may amend your emission-related maintenance instructions after you submit your application for certification as long as the amended instructions remain consistent with the provisions of §1042.125. You must send the Designated Compliance Officer a written request to amend your application for certification for an engine family if you want to change the emission-related maintenance instructions in a way that could affect emissions. In your request, describe the proposed changes to the maintenance instructions. If operators follow the original maintenance instructions rather than the newly specified maintenance, this does not allow you to disqualify those engines from in-use testing or deny a warranty claim.

(a) If you are decreasing or eliminating any specified maintenance, you may distribute the new maintenance instructions to your customers 30 days after we receive your request, unless we disapprove your request. This would generally include replacing one maintenance step with another. We may approve a shorter time or waive this requirement.

(b) If your requested change would not decrease the specified maintenance, you may distribute the new maintenance instructions anytime after you send your request. For example, this paragraph (b) would cover adding instructions to increase the frequency of filter changes for engines in severe-duty applications.

(c) You need not request approval if you are making only minor corrections (such as correcting typographical mistakes), clarifying your maintenance instructions, or changing instructions for maintenance unrelated to emission control. We may ask you to send us copies of maintenance instructions revised under this paragraph (c).

[75 FR 23001, Apr. 30, 2010]

§1042.225   Amending applications for certification.

Before we issue you a certificate of conformity, you may amend your application to include new or modified engine configurations, subject to the provisions of this section. After we have issued your certificate of conformity, you may send us an amended application requesting that we include new or modified engine configurations within the scope of the certificate, subject to the provisions of this section. You must amend your application if any changes occur with respect to any information that is included or should be included in your application.

(a) You must amend your application before you take any of the following actions:

(1) Add an engine configuration to an engine family. In this case, the engine configuration added must be consistent with other engine configurations in the engine family with respect to the criteria listed in §1042.230.

(2) Change an engine configuration already included in an engine family in a way that may affect emissions, or change any of the components you described in your application for certification. This includes production and design changes that may affect emissions any time during the engine's lifetime.

(3) Modify an FEL for an engine family as described in paragraph (f) of this section.

(b) To amend your application for certification as specified in paragraph (a) of this section, send the relevant information to the Designated Compliance Officer.

(1) Describe in detail the addition or change in the engine model or configuration you intend to make.

(2) Include engineering evaluations or data showing that the amended engine family complies with all applicable requirements. You may do this by showing that the original emission-data engine is still appropriate for showing that the amended family complies with all applicable requirements.

(3) If the original emission-data engine for the engine family is not appropriate to show compliance for the new or modified engine configuration, include new test data showing that the new or modified engine configuration meets the requirements of this part.

(4) Include any other information needed to make your application correct and complete.

(c) We may ask for more test data or engineering evaluations. You must give us these within 30 days after we request them.

(d) For engine families already covered by a certificate of conformity, we will determine whether the existing certificate of conformity covers your newly added or modified engine. You may ask for a hearing if we deny your request (see §1042.920).

(e) For engine families already covered by a certificate of conformity, you may start producing the new or modified engine configuration anytime after you send us your amended application and before we make a decision under paragraph (d) of this section. However, if we determine that the affected engines do not meet applicable requirements, we will notify you to cease production of the engines and may require you to recall the engines at no expense to the owner. Choosing to produce engines under this paragraph (e) is deemed to be consent to recall all engines that we determine do not meet applicable emission standards or other requirements and to remedy the nonconformity at no expense to the owner. If you do not provide information required under paragraph (c) of this section within 30 days after we request it, you must stop producing the new or modified engines.

(f) You may ask us to approve a change to your FEL in certain cases after the start of production. The changed FEL may not apply to engines you have already introduced into U.S. commerce, except as described in this paragraph (f). If we approve a changed FEL after the start of production, you must include the new FEL on the emission control information label for all engines produced after the change. You may ask us to approve a change to your FEL in the following cases:

(1) You may ask to raise your FEL for your engine family at any time. In your request, you must show that you will still be able to meet the emission standards as specified in subparts B and H of this part. If you amend your application by submitting new test data to include a newly added or modified engine, as described in paragraph (b)(3) of this section, use the appropriate FELs with corresponding production volumes to calculate emission credits for the model year, as described in subpart H of this part. In all other circumstances, you must use the higher FEL for the entire family to calculate emission credits under subpart H of this part.

(2) You may ask to lower the FEL for your engine family only if you have test data from production engines showing that emissions are below the proposed lower FEL. The lower FEL applies only to engines you produce after we approve the new FEL. Use the appropriate FELs with corresponding production volumes to calculate emission credits for the model year, as described in subpart H of this part.

(g) You may produce engines as described in your amended application for certification and consider those engines to be in a certified configuration if we approve a new or modified engine configuration during the model year under paragraph (d) of this section. Similarly, you may modify in-use engines as described in your amended application for certification and consider those engines to be in a certified configuration if we approve a new or modified engine configuration at any time under paragraph (d) of this section. Modifying a new or in-use engine to be in a certified configuration does not violate the tampering prohibition of 40 CFR 1068.101(b)(1), as long as this does not involve changing to a certified configuration with a higher family emission limit.

[73 FR 37243, June 30, 2008, as amended at 75 FR 23001, Apr. 30, 2010; 81 FR 74148, Oct. 25, 2016]

§1042.230   Engine families.

(a) For purposes of certification, divide your product line into families of engines that are expected to have similar emission characteristics throughout the useful life as described in this section. You may not group engines in different engine categories in the same family. Your engine family is limited to a single model year.

(b) For Category 1 engines, group engines in the same engine family if they are the same in all the following aspects:

(1) The combustion cycle and the fuel with which the engine is intended or designed to be operated.

(2) The cooling system (for example, raw-water vs. separate-circuit cooling).

(3) Method of air aspiration.

(4) Method of exhaust aftertreatment (for example, catalytic converter or particulate trap).

(5) Combustion chamber design.

(6) Nominal bore and stroke.

(7) Cylinder arrangement (such as in-line vs. vee configurations). This applies for engines with aftertreatment devices only.

(8) Method of control for engine operation other than governing (i.e., mechanical or electronic).

(9) Application (commercial or recreational).

(10) Numerical level of the emission standards that apply to the engine, except as allowed under paragraphs (f) and (g) of this section.

(c) For Category 2 engines, group engines in the same engine family if they are the same in all the following aspects:

(1) The combustion cycle (e.g., diesel cycle).

(2) The fuel with which the engine is intended or designed to be operated and the fuel system configuration.

(3) The cooling system (for example, air-cooled or water-cooled), and procedure(s) employed to maintain engine temperature within desired limits (thermostat, on-off radiator fans, radiator shutters, etc.).

(4) The method of air aspiration (turbocharged, supercharged, naturally aspirated, Roots blown).

(5) The turbocharger or supercharger general performance characteristics (e.g., approximate boost pressure, approximate response time, approximate size relative to engine displacement).

(6) The type of air inlet cooler (air-to-air, air-to-liquid, approximate degree to which inlet air is cooled).

(7) The type of exhaust aftertreatment system (oxidation catalyst, particulate trap), and characteristics of the aftertreatment system (catalyst loading, converter size vs. engine size).

(8) The combustion chamber configuration and the surface-to-volume ratio of the combustion chamber when the piston is at top dead center position, using nominal combustion chamber dimensions.

(9) Nominal bore and stroke dimensions.

(10) The location of the piston rings on the piston.

(11) The intake manifold induction port size and configuration.

(12) The exhaust manifold port size and configuration.

(13) The location of the intake and exhaust valves (or ports).

(14) The size of the intake and exhaust valves (or ports).

(15) The approximate intake and exhaust event timing and duration (valve or port).

(16) The configuration of the fuel injectors and approximate injection pressure.

(17) The type of fuel injection system controls (i.e., mechanical or electronic).

(18) The overall injection timing characteristics, or as appropriate ignition timing characteristics (i.e., the deviation of the timing curves from the optimal fuel economy timing curve must be similar in degree).

(19) The type of smoke control system.

(d) For Category 3 engines, group engines into engine families based on the criteria specified in Section 4.3 of the NOX Technical Code (incorporated by reference in §1042.910), except as allowed in paragraphs (e) and (f) of this section.

(e) You may subdivide a group of engines that is identical under paragraph (b) or (c) of this section into different engine families if you show the expected emission characteristics are different during the useful life. However, for the purpose of applying small-volume family provisions of this part, we will consider the otherwise applicable engine family criteria of this section.

(f) You may group engines that are not identical with respect to the things listed in paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section in the same engine family, as follows:

(1) In unusual circumstances, you may group such engines in the same engine family if you show that their emission characteristics during the useful life will be similar.

(2) If you are a small-volume engine manufacturer, you may group any Category 1 engines into a single engine family or you may group any Category 2 engines into a single engine family. This also applies if you are a post-manufacture marinizer modifying a base engine that has a valid certificate of conformity for any kind of nonroad or heavy-duty highway engine under this chapter.

(3) The provisions of this paragraph (f) do not exempt any engines from meeting the standards and requirements in subpart B of this part.

(g) If you combine engines that are subject to different emission standards into a single engine family under paragraph (f) of this section, you must certify the engine family to the more stringent set of standards for that model year. For Category 3 engine families that include a range of maximum in-use engine speeds, use the highest value of maximum in-use engine speed to establish the applicable NOX emission standard.

[73 FR 37243, June 30, 2008, as amended at 75 FR 23001, Apr. 30, 2010]

§1042.235   Emission testing related to certification.

This section describes the emission testing you must perform to show compliance with the emission standards in §1042.101(a) or §1042.104. See §1042.205(p) regarding emission testing related to the NTE standards. See §§1042.240 and 1042.245 and 40 CFR part 1065, subpart E, regarding service accumulation before emission testing. See §1042.655 for special testing provisions available for Category 3 engines subject to Tier 3 standards.

(a) Select an emission-data engine from each engine family for testing. For engines at or above 560 kW, you may use a development engine that is equivalent in design to the engine being certified. For Category 3 engines, you may use a single-cylinder version of the engine. Using good engineering judgment, select the engine configuration most likely to exceed an applicable emission standard over the useful life, considering all exhaust emission constituents and the range of installation options available to vessel manufacturers.

(b) Test your emission-data engines using the procedures and equipment specified in subpart F of this part. In the case of dual-fuel engines, measure emissions when operating with each type of fuel for which you intend to certify the engine. In the case of flexible-fuel engines, measure emissions when operating with the fuel mixture that best represents in-use operation or is most likely to have the highest NOX emissions (or NOX+HC emissions for engines subject to NOX+HC standards), though you may ask us to instead to perform tests with both fuels separately if you can show that intermediate mixtures are not likely to occur in use.

(c) We may perform confirmatory testing by measuring emissions from any of your emission-data engines or other engines from the engine family, as follows:

(1) We may decide to do the testing at your plant or any other facility. If we do this, you must deliver the engine to a test facility we designate. The engine you provide must include appropriate manifolds, aftertreatment devices, electronic control units, and other emission-related components not normally attached directly to the engine block. If we do the testing at your plant, you must schedule it as soon as possible and make available the instruments, personnel, and equipment we need.

(2) If we measure emissions from one of your engines, the results of that testing become the official emission results for the engine. Unless we later invalidate these data, we may decide not to consider your data in determining if your engine family meets applicable requirements.

(3) Before we test one of your engines, we may set its adjustable parameters to any point within the specified adjustable ranges (see §1042.115(d)).

(4) Before we test one of your engines, we may calibrate it within normal production tolerances for anything we do not consider an adjustable parameter. For example, this would apply for an engine parameter that is subject to production variability because it is adjustable during production, but is not considered an adjustable parameter (as defined in §1042.901) because it is permanently sealed. For parameters that relate to a level of performance that is itself subject to a specified range (such as maximum power output), we will generally perform any calibration under this paragraph (c)(4) in a way that keeps performance within the specified range.

(d) You may ask to use carryover emission data from a previous model year instead of doing new tests, but only if all the following are true:

(1) The engine family from the previous model year differs from the current engine family only with respect to model year, items identified in §1042.225(a), or other characteristics unrelated to emissions. We may waive this criterion for differences we determine not to be relevant.

(2) The emission-data engine from the previous model year remains the appropriate emission-data engine under paragraph (b) of this section.

(3) The data show that the emission-data engine would meet all the requirements that apply to the engine family covered by the application for certification. For engines originally tested under the provisions of 40 CFR part 94, you may consider those test procedures to be equivalent to the procedures we specify in subpart F of this part.

(e) We may require you to test a second engine of the same or different configuration in addition to the engine tested under paragraph (b) of this section.

(f) If you use an alternate test procedure under 40 CFR 1065.10 and later testing shows that such testing does not produce results that are equivalent to the procedures specified in subpart F of this part, we may reject data you generated using the alternate procedure.

(g) Measure CO2 with each low-hour certification test using the procedures specified in 40 CFR part 1065 starting in the 2011 model year. Also measure CH4 from Category 1 and Category 2 engines with each low-hour certification test using the procedures specified in 40 CFR part 1065 starting in the 2012 model year. Measure N2O from Category 1 and Category 2 engines with each low-hour certification test using the procedures specified in 40 CFR part 1065 for any engine family that depends on NOx aftertreatment to meet emission standards. Small-volume engine manufacturers may omit measurement of N2O and CH4. These measurements are not required for NTE testing. Use the same units and modal calculations as for your other results to report a single weighted value for each constituent. Round the final values as follows:

(1) Round CO2 to the nearest 1 g/kW-hr.

(2) Round N2O to the nearest 0.001 g/kW-hr.

(3) Round CH4 to the nearest 0.001 g/kW-hr.

[73 FR 37243, June 30, 2008, as amended at 74 FR 56509, Oct. 30, 2009; 75 FR 23002, Apr. 30, 2010; 81 FR 74148, Oct. 25, 2016]

§1042.240   Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards.

(a) For purposes of certification, your engine family is considered in compliance with the emission standards in §1042.101(a) or §1042.104 if all emission-data engines representing that family have test results showing official emission results and deteriorated emission levels at or below these standards. This also applies for all test points for emission-data engines within the family used to establish deterioration factors. See paragraph (f) of this section for provisions related to demonstrating compliance with non-duty-cycle standards, such as NTE standards. Note that your FELs are considered to be the applicable emission standards with which you must comply if you participate in the ABT program in subpart H of this part.

(b) Your engine family is deemed not to comply if any emission-data engine representing that family has test results showing an official emission result or a deteriorated emission level for any pollutant that is above an applicable emission standard. Similarly, your engine family is deemed not to comply if any emission-data engine representing that family has test results showing any emission level above the applicable not-to-exceed emission standard for any pollutant. This also applies for all test points for emission-data engines within the family used to establish deterioration factors.

(c) To compare emission levels from the emission-data engine with the applicable emission standards, apply deterioration factors to the measured emission levels for each pollutant. Section 1042.245 specifies how to test your Category 1 or Category 2 engine to develop deterioration factors that represent the deterioration expected in emissions over your engines' full useful life. See paragraph (e) of this section for determining deterioration factors for Category 3 engines. Your deterioration factors must take into account any available data from in-use testing with similar engines. Small-volume engine manufacturers and post-manufacture marinizers may use assigned deterioration factors that we establish. Apply deterioration factors as follows:

(1) Additive deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. Except as specified in paragraph (c)(2) of this section, use an additive deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. An additive deterioration factor is the difference between exhaust emissions at the end of the useful life and exhaust emissions at the low-hour test point. In these cases, adjust the official emission results for each tested engine at the selected test point by adding the factor to the measured emissions. If the deterioration factor is less than zero, use zero. Additive deterioration factors must be specified to one more decimal place than the applicable standard.

(2) Multiplicative deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. Use a multiplicative deterioration factor if good engineering judgment calls for the deterioration factor for a pollutant to be the ratio of exhaust emissions at the end of the useful life to exhaust emissions at the low-hour test point. For example, if you use aftertreatment technology that controls emissions of a pollutant proportionally to engine-out emissions, it is often appropriate to use a multiplicative deterioration factor. Adjust the official emission results for each tested engine at the selected test point by multiplying the measured emissions by the deterioration factor. If the deterioration factor is less than one, use one. A multiplicative deterioration factor may not be appropriate in cases where testing variability is significantly greater than engine-to-engine variability. Multiplicative deterioration factors must be specified to one more significant figure than the applicable standard.

(3) Sawtooth and other nonlinear deterioration patterns. The deterioration factors described in paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of this section assume that the highest useful life emissions occur either at the end of useful life or at the low-hour test point. The provisions of this paragraph (c)(3) apply where good engineering judgment indicates that the highest emissions over the useful life will occur between these two points. For example, emissions may increase with service accumulation until a certain maintenance step is performed, then return to the low-hour emission levels and begin increasing again. Base deterioration factors for engines with such emission patterns on the difference between (or ratio of) the point at which the highest emissions occur and the low-hour test point. Note that this applies for maintenance-related deterioration only where we allow such critical emission-related maintenance.

(4) Deterioration factor for crankcase emissions. If your engine vents crankcase emissions to the exhaust or to the atmosphere, you must account for crankcase emission deterioration, using good engineering judgment. You may use separate deterioration factors for crankcase emissions of each pollutant (either multiplicative or additive) or include the effects in combined deterioration factors that include exhaust and crankcase emissions together for each pollutant.

(5) Dual-fuel and flexible-fuel engines. In the case of dual-fuel and flexible-fuel engines, apply deterioration factors separately for each fuel type. You may accumulate service hours on a single emission-data engine using the type of fuel or the fuel mixture expected to have the highest combustion and exhaust temperatures; you may ask us to approve a different fuel mixture if you demonstrate that a different criterion is more appropriate.

(d) Determine the official emission result for each pollutant to at least one more decimal place than the applicable standard. Apply the deterioration factor to the official emission result, as described in paragraph (c) of this section, then round the adjusted figure to the same number of decimal places as the emission standard. Compare the rounded emission levels to the emission standard for each emission-data engine. In the case of NOX+HC standards, apply the deterioration factor to each pollutant and then add the results before rounding.

(e) For Category 3 engines, determine a deterioration factor based on an engineering analysis. The engineering analysis must describe how the measured emission levels from the emission-data engine show that engines comply with applicable emission standards throughout the useful life. Include this analysis in your application for certification and add a statement that all data, analyses, evaluations, and other information you used are available for our review upon request.

(f) For NTE standards and mode caps, use good engineering judgment to demonstrate compliance throughout the useful life. You may, but are not required to, apply the same deterioration factors used to show compliance with the applicable duty-cycle standards. We will deny your application for certification if we determine that your test data show that your engines would exceed one or more NTE standard or mode cap during their useful lives.

[73 FR 37243, June 30, 2008, as amended at 75 FR 23002, Apr. 30, 2010; 81 FR 74148, Oct. 25, 2016]

§1042.245   Deterioration factors.

This section describes how to determine deterioration factors for Category 1 and Category 2 engines, either with an engineering analysis, with pre-existing test data, or with new emission measurements. Apply these deterioration factors to determine whether your engines will meet the duty-cycle emission standards throughout the useful life as described in §1042.240. This section does not apply for Category 3 engines.

(a) You may ask us to approve deterioration factors for an engine family with established technology based on engineering analysis instead of testing. Engines certified to a NOX + HC standard or FEL greater than the Tier 3 NOX + HC standard are considered to rely on established technology for control of gaseous emissions, except that this does not include any engines that use exhaust-gas recirculation or aftertreatment. In most cases, technologies used to meet the Tier 1 and Tier 2 emission standards would qualify as established technology. We must approve your plan to establish a deterioration factor under this paragraph (a) before you submit your application for certification.

(b) You may ask us to approve deterioration factors for an engine family based on emission measurements from similar highway, stationary, or nonroad engines (including locomotive engines or other marine engines) if you have already given us these data for certifying the other engines in the same or earlier model years. Use good engineering judgment to decide whether the two engines are similar. We must approve your plan to establish a deterioration factor under this paragraph (b) before you submit your application for certification. We will approve your request if you show us that the emission measurements from other engines reasonably represent in-use deterioration for the engine family for which you have not yet determined deterioration factors.

(c) If you are unable to determine deterioration factors for an engine family under paragraph (a) or (b) of this section, first get us to approve a plan for determining deterioration factors based on service accumulation and related testing. We will respond to your proposed plan within 45 days of receiving your request. Your plan must involve measuring emissions from an emission-data engine at least three times, which are evenly spaced over the service-accumulation period unless we specify otherwise, such that the resulting measurements and calculations will represent the deterioration expected from in-use engines over the full useful life. You may use extrapolation to determine deterioration factors once you have established a trend of changing emissions with age for each pollutant. You may use an engine installed in a vessel to accumulate service hours instead of running the engine only in the laboratory. You may perform maintenance on emission-data engines as described in §1042.125 and 40 CFR part 1065, subpart E.

(d) Include the following information in your application for certification:

(1) If you determine your deterioration factors based on test data from a different engine family, explain why this is appropriate and include all the emission measurements on which you base the deterioration factor.

(2) If you determine your deterioration factors based on engineering analysis, explain why this is appropriate and include a statement that all data, analyses, evaluations, and other information you used are available for our review upon request.

(3) If you do testing to determine deterioration factors, describe the form and extent of service accumulation, including a rationale for selecting the service-accumulation period and the method you use to accumulate hours.

[73 FR 37243, June 30, 2008, as amended at 75 FR 23003, Apr. 30, 2010]

§1042.250   Recordkeeping and reporting.

(a) Send the Designated Compliance Officer information related to your U.S.-directed production volumes as described in §1042.345. In addition, within 45 days after the end of the model year, you must send us a report describing information about engines you produced during the model year as follows:

(1) State the total production volume for each engine family that is not subject to reporting under §1042.345.

(2) State the total production volume for any engine family for which you produce engines after completing the reports required in §1042.345.

(b) Organize and maintain the following records:

(1) A copy of all applications and any summary information you send us.

(2) Any of the information we specify in §1042.205 that you were not required to include in your application.

(3) A detailed history of each emission-data engine. For each engine, describe all of the following:

(i) The emission-data engine's construction, including its origin and buildup, steps you took to ensure that it represents production engines, any components you built specially for it, and all the components you include in your application for certification.

(ii) How you accumulated engine operating hours (service accumulation), including the dates and the number of hours accumulated.

(iii) All maintenance, including modifications, parts changes, and other service, and the dates and reasons for the maintenance.

(iv) All your emission tests, including the date and purpose of each test and documentation of test parameters as specified in part 40 CFR part 1065.

(v) All tests to diagnose engine or emission control performance, giving the date and time of each and the reasons for the test.

(vi) Any other significant events.

(4) Production figures for each engine family divided by assembly plant.

(5) Keep a list of engine identification numbers for all the engines you produce under each certificate of conformity.

(c) Keep required data from emission tests and all other information specified in this section for eight years after we issue your certificate. If you use the same emission data or other information for a later model year, the eight-year period restarts with each year that you continue to rely on the information.

(d) Store these records in any format and on any media, as long as you can promptly send us organized, written records in English if we ask for them. You must keep these records readily available. We may review them at any time.

[73 FR 37243, June 30, 2008, as amended at 75 FR 23003, Apr. 30, 2010; 81 FR 74149, Oct. 25, 2016]

§1042.255   EPA decisions.

(a) If we determine your application is complete and shows that the engine family meets all the requirements of this part and the Clean Air Act, we will issue a certificate of conformity for your engine family for that model year. We may make the approval subject to additional conditions.

(b) We may deny your application for certification if we determine that your engine family fails to comply with emission standards or other requirements of this part or the Clean Air Act. We will base our decision on all available information. If we deny your application, we will explain why in writing.

(c) In addition, we may deny your application or suspend or revoke your certificate if you do any of the following:

(1) Refuse to comply with any testing or reporting requirements.

(2) Submit false or incomplete information (paragraph (e) of this section applies if this is fraudulent). This includes doing anything after submission of your application to render any of the submitted information false or incomplete.

(3) Render inaccurate any test data.

(4) Deny us from completing authorized activities (see 40 CFR 1068.20). This includes a failure to provide reasonable assistance.

(5) Produce engines for importation into the United States at a location where local law prohibits us from carrying out authorized activities.

(6) Fail to supply requested information or amend your application to include all engines being produced.

(7) Take any action that otherwise circumvents the intent of the Clean Air Act or this part.

(d) We may void the certificate of conformity for an engine family if you fail to keep records, send reports, or give us information as required under this part or the Clean Air Act. Note that these are also violations of 40 CFR 1068.101(a)(2).

(e) We may void your certificate if we find that you intentionally submitted false or incomplete information. This includes rendering submitted information false or incomplete after submission.

(f) If we deny your application or suspend, revoke, or void your certificate, you may ask for a hearing (see §1042.920).

[73 FR 37243, June 30, 2008, as amended at 75 FR 23003, Apr. 30, 2010; 81 FR 74149, Oct. 25, 2016]

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