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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of December 9, 2019

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter UPart 1042 → Subpart B


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 1042—CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS


Subpart B—Emission Standards and Related Requirements


Contents
§1042.101   Exhaust emission standards for Category 1 and Category 2 engines.
§1042.104   Exhaust emission standards for Category 3 engines.
§1042.107   Evaporative emission standards.
§1042.110   Recording reductant use and other diagnostic functions.
§1042.115   Other requirements.
§1042.120   Emission-related warranty requirements.
§1042.125   Maintenance instructions.
§1042.130   Installation instructions for vessel manufacturers.
§1042.135   Labeling.
§1042.140   Maximum engine power, displacement, power density, and maximum in-use engine speed.
§1042.145   Interim provisions.

§1042.101   Exhaust emission standards for Category 1 and Category 2 engines.

(a) Duty-cycle standards. Exhaust emissions from your engines may not exceed emission standards, as follows:

(1) Measure emissions using the test procedures described in subpart F of this part.

(2) The following CO emission standards in this paragraph (a)(2) apply starting with the applicable model year identified in §1042.1:

(i) 8.0 g/kW-hr for engines below 8 kW.

(ii) 6.6 g/kW-hr for engines at or above 8 kW and below 19 kW.

(iii) 5.5 g/kW-hr for engines at or above 19 kW and below 37 kW.

(iv) 5.0 g/kW-hr for engines at or above 37 kW.

(3) Except as described in paragraphs (a)(4) and (5) of this section, the Tier 3 standards for PM and NOX+HC emissions are described in the following tables:

Table 1 to §1042.101—Tier 3 Standards for Category 1 Engines Below 3700 kWa

Power density and applicationDisplacement
(L/cyl)
Maximum
engine power
Model yearPM
(g/kW-hr)
NOX+HC
(g/kW-hr)b
Alldisp. < 0.9kW < 192009+0.407.5
   19 ≤ kW < 752009-20130.307.5
   2014+0.30c4.7c
Commercial engines with kW/L ≤ 35disp. < 0.9kW ≥ 752012+0.145.4
   0.9 ≤ disp. < 1.2all2013+0.125.4
   1.2 ≤ disp. < 2.5kW < 6002014-20170.115.6
   2018+0.105.6
   kW ≥ 6002014+0.115.6
   2.5 ≤ disp. < 3.5kW < 6002013-20170.115.6
   2018+0.105.6
   kW ≥ 6002013+0.115.6
   3.5 ≤ disp. < 7.0kW < 6002012-20170.115.8
   2018+0.105.8
   kW ≥ 6002012+0.115.8
Commercial engines with kW/L > 35, and all recreational engines ≥ 75 kWdisp. < 0.9kW ≥ 752012+0.155.8
   0.9 ≤ disp. < 1.2all2013+0.145.8
   1.2 ≤ disp. < 2.52014+0.125.8
   2.5 ≤ disp. < 3.52013+0.125.8
   3.5 ≤ disp. < 7.02012+0.115.8

aNo Tier 3 standards apply for commercial Category 1 engines at or above 3700 kW. See §1042.1(c) and paragraph (a)(7) of this section for the standards that apply for these engines.

bThe applicable NOX+HC standards specified for Tier 2 engines in Appendix I of this part continue to apply instead of the values noted in the table for commercial engines at or above 2000 kW. FELs for these engines may not be higher than the Tier 1 NOX standard specified in Appendix I of this part.

cSee paragraph (a)(4) of this section for alternative PM and NOX+HC standards for engines at or above 19 kW and below 75 kW with displacement below 0.9 L/cyl.

Table 2 to §1042.101— Tier 3 Standards for Category 2 Engines Below 3700 kWa

Displacement
(L/cyl)
Maximum engine powerModel yearPM
(g/kW-hr)
NOX+HC
(g/kW-hr)
7.0 ≤ disp. < 15.0kW < 20002013+0.146.2
   2000 ≤ kW ≤ 37002013+0.147.8b
15.0 ≤ disp. < 20.0ckW < 20002014+0.347.0
20.0 ≤ disp. < 25.0ckW < 20002014+0.279.8
25.0 ≤ disp. < 30.0ckW < 20002014+0.2711.0

aThe Tier 3 standards in this table do not apply for Category 2 engines at or above 2000 kW with per-cylinder displacement at or above 15.0 liters, or for any Category 2 engines at or above 3700 kW. See §1042.1(c) and paragraphs (a)(6) through (8) of this section for the standards that apply for these engines.

bFor engines subject to the 7.8 g/kW-hr NOX+HC standard, FELs may not be higher than the Tier 1 NOX standards specified in Appendix I of this part.

cThere are no Tier 3 standards for Category 2 engines with per-cylinder displacement at or above 15 and 20 liters with maximum engine power at or above 2000 kW. See paragraphs (a)(6) and (7) of this section for the Tier 4 standards that apply for these engines starting with the 2014 model year.

(4) For Tier 3 engines at or above 19 kW and below 75 kW with displacement below 0.9 L/cyl, you may alternatively certify some or all of your engine families to a PM emission standard of 0.20 g/kW-hr and a NOX+HC emission standard of 5.8 g/kW-hr for 2014 and later model years.

(5) Starting with the 2014 model year, recreational marine engines at or above 3700 kW (with any displacement) must be certified under this part 1042 to the Tier 3 standards specified in this section for 3.5 to 7.0 L/cyl recreational marine engines.

(6) Interim Tier 4 p.m. standards apply for 2014 and 2015 model year engines between 2000 and 3700 kW as specified in this paragraph (a)(6). These engines are considered to be Tier 4 engines.

(i) For Category 1 engines, the Tier 3 p.m. standards from Table 1 to this section continue to apply. PM FELs for these engines may not be higher than the applicable Tier 2 p.m. standards specified in Appendix I of this part.

(ii) For Category 2 engines with per-cylinder displacement below 15.0 liters, the Tier 3 p.m. standards from Table 2 to this section continue to apply. PM FELs for these engines may not be higher than 0.27 g/kW-hr.

(iii) For Category 2 engines with per-cylinder displacement at or above 15.0 liters, the PM standard is 0.34 g/kW-hr for engines at or above 2000 kW and below 3300 kW, and 0.27 g/kW-hr for engines at or above 3300 kW and below 3700 kW. PM FELs for these engines may not be higher than 0.50 g/kW-hr.

(7) Except as described in paragraph (a)(8) of this section, the Tier 4 standards for PM, NOX, and HC emissions are described in the following table:

Table 3 to §1042.101—Tier 4 Standards for Category 2 and Commercial Category 1 Engines at or Above 600 kW

Maximum engine powerDisplacement
(L/cyl)
Model yearPM
(g/kW-hr)
NOX
(g/kW-hr)
HC
(g/kW-hr)
600 ≤ kW < 1400all2017+0.041.80.19
1400 ≤ kW < 2000all2016+0.041.80.19
2000 ≤ kW ≤ 3700aall2014+0.041.80.19
kW > 3700disp. < 15.02014-20150.121.80.19
   15.0 ≤ disp. < 30.02014-20150.251.80.19
   all2016+0.061.80.19

aSee paragraph (a)(6) of this section for interim PM standards that apply for model years 2014 and 2015 for engines between 2000 and 3700 kW. The Tier 4 NOX FEL cap for engines at or above 2000 kW and below 3700 kW is 7.0 g/kW-hr. Starting in the 2016 model year, the Tier 4 PM FEL cap for engines at or above 2000 kW and below 3700 kW is 0.34 g/kW-hr.

(8) The following optional provisions apply for complying with the Tier 3 and Tier 4 standards specified in paragraphs (a)(3) through (7) of this section:

(i) You may use NOX credits accumulated through the ABT program to certify Tier 4 engines to a NOX+HC emission standard of 1.9 g/kW-hr instead of the NOX and HC standards that would otherwise apply by certifying your family to a NOX+HC FEL. Calculate the NOX credits needed as specified in subpart H of this part using the NOX+HC emission standard and FEL in the calculation instead of the otherwise applicable NOX standard and FEL. You may not generate credits relative to the alternate standard or certify to the standard without using credits.

(ii) For engines below 1000 kW, you may delay complying with the Tier 4 standards in the 2017 model year for up to nine months, but you must comply no later than October 1, 2017.

(iii) For engines at or above 3700 kW, you may delay complying with the Tier 4 standards in the 2016 model year for up to twelve months, but you must comply no later than December 31, 2016.

(iv) For Category 2 engines at or above 1400 kW, you may alternatively comply with the Tier 3 and Tier 4 standards specified in Table 4 of this section instead of the NOX, HC, NOX+HC, and PM standards specified in paragraphs (a)(3) through (7) of this section. The CO standards specified in paragraph (a)(2) of this section apply without regard to whether you choose this option. If you choose this option, you must do so for all engines at or above 1400 kW in the same displacement category (that is, 7-15, 15-20, 20-25, or 25-30 liters per cylinder) in model years 2012 through 2015.

Table 4 to §1042.101—Optional Tier 3 and Tier 4 Standards for Category 2 Engines at or Above 1400 kW

TierMaximum engine powerModel yearPM
(g/kW-hr)
NOX
(g/kW-hr)
HC
(g/kW-hr)
Tier 3kW ≥ 14002012-20140.147.8 NOX+HC
Tier 41400 ≤ kW ≤ 370020150.041.80.19
   kW > 370020150.061.80.19

(b) Averaging, banking, and trading. You may generate or use emission credits under the averaging, banking, and trading (ABT) program as described in subpart H of this part for demonstrating compliance with NOX, NOX+HC, and PM emission standards for Category 1 and Category 2 engines. You may also use NOX or NOX+HC emission credits to comply with the alternate NOX+HC standard in paragraph (a)(8)(i) of this section. Generating or using emission credits requires that you specify a family emission limit (FEL) for each pollutant you include in the ABT program for each engine family. These FELs serve as the emission standards for the engine family with respect to all required testing instead of the standards specified in paragraph (a) of this section. The FELs determine the not-to-exceed standards for your engine family, as specified in paragraph (c) of this section. Unless otherwise specified, the following FEL caps apply:

(1) FELs for Tier 3 engines may not be higher than the applicable Tier 2 standards specified in Appendix I of this part.

(2) FELs for Tier 4 engines may not be higher than the applicable Tier 3 standards specified in paragraph (a)(3) of this section.

(3) The following FEL caps apply for engines at or above 3700 kW that are not subject to Tier 3 standards under paragraph (a)(3) of this section:

(i) FELs may not be higher than the applicable Tier 1 NOX standards specified in Appendix I of this part before the Tier 4 standards start to apply.

(ii) FELs may not be higher than the applicable Tier 2 NOX+THC standards specified in Appendix I of this part after the Tier 4 standards start to apply.

(c) Not-to-exceed standards. Except as noted in §1042.145(e), exhaust emissions from all engines subject to the requirements of this part may not exceed the not-to-exceed (NTE) standards as follows:

(1) Use the following equation to determine the NTE standards:

(i) NTE standard for each pollutant = STD × M.

Where:

STD = The standard specified for that pollutant in this section if you certify without using ABT for that pollutant; or the FEL for that pollutant if you certify using ABT.

M = The NTE multiplier for that pollutant.

(ii) Round each NTE standard to the same number of decimal places as the emission standard.

(2) Determine the applicable NTE zone and subzones as described in §1042.515. Determine NTE multipliers for specific zones and subzones and pollutants as follows:

(i) For marine engines certified using the duty cycle specified in §1042.505(b)(1), except for variable-speed propulsion marine engines used with controllable-pitch propellers or with electrically coupled propellers, apply the following NTE multipliers:

(A) Subzone 1: 1.2 for Tier 3 NOX+HC standards.

(B) Subzone 1: 1.5 for Tier 4 standards and Tier 3 p.m. and CO standards.

(C) Subzone 2: 1.5 for Tier 4 NOX and HC standards and for Tier 3 NOX+HC standards.

(D) Subzone 2: 1.9 for PM and CO standards.

(ii) For recreational marine engines certified using the duty cycle specified in §1042.505(b)(2), except for variable-speed marine engines used with controllable-pitch propellers or with electrically coupled propellers, apply the following NTE multipliers:

(A) Subzone 1: 1.2 for Tier 3 NOX+HC standards.

(B) Subzone 1: 1.5 for Tier 3 p.m. and CO standards.

(C) Subzones 2 and 3: 1.5 for Tier 3 NOX+HC standards.

(D) Subzones 2 and 3: 1.9 for PM and CO standards.

(iii) For variable-speed marine engines used with controllable-pitch propellers or with electrically coupled propellers that are certified using the duty cycle specified in §1042.505(b)(1), (2), or (3), apply the following NTE multipliers:

(A) Subzone 1: 1.2 for Tier 3 NOX+HC standards.

(B) Subzone 1: 1.5 for Tier 4 standards and Tier 3 p.m. and CO standards.

(C) Subzone 2: 1.5 for Tier 4 NOX and HC standards and for Tier 3 NOX+HC standards.

(D) Subzone 2: 1.9 for PM and CO standards. However, there is no NTE standard in Subzone 2b for PM emissions if the engine family's applicable standard for PM is at or above 0.07 g/kW-hr.

(iv) For constant-speed engines certified using a duty cycle specified in §1042.505(b)(3) or (4), apply the following NTE multipliers:

(A) Subzone 1: 1.2 for Tier 3 NOX+HC standards.

(B) Subzone 1: 1.5 for Tier 4 standards and Tier 3 p.m. and CO standards.

(C) Subzone 2: 1.5 for Tier 4 NOX and HC standards and for Tier 3 NOX+HC standards.

(D) Subzone 2: 1.9 for PM and CO standards. However, there is no NTE standard for PM emissions if the engine family's applicable standard for PM is at or above 0.07 g/kW-hr.

(v) For variable-speed auxiliary marine engines certified using the duty cycle specified in §1042.505(b)(5)(ii) or (iii):

(A) Subzone 1: 1.2 for Tier 3 NOX+HC standards.

(B) Subzone 1: 1.5 for Tier 4 standards and Tier 3 p.m. and CO standards.

(C) Subzone 2: 1.2 for Tier 3 NOX+HC standards.

(D) Subzone 2: 1.5 for Tier 4 standards and Tier 3 p.m. and CO standards. However, there is no NTE standard for PM emissions if the engine family's applicable standard for PM is at or above 0.07 g/kW-hr.

(3) The NTE standards apply to your engines whenever they operate within the NTE zone for an NTE sampling period of at least thirty seconds, during which only a single operator demand set point may be selected. Engine operation during a change in operator demand is excluded from any NTE sampling period. There is no maximum NTE sampling period.

(4) Collect emission data for determining compliance with the NTE standards using the procedures described in subpart F of this part.

(5) You may ask us to accept as compliant an engine that does not fully meet specific requirements under the applicable NTE standards where such deficiencies are necessary for safety.

(d) Fuel types. The exhaust emission standards in this section apply for engines using the fuel type on which the engines in the engine family are designed to operate.

(1) You must meet the numerical emission standards for hydrocarbons in this section based on the following types of hydrocarbon emissions for engines powered by the following fuels:

(i) Alcohol-fueled engines must comply with Tier 3 HC standards based on THCE emissions and with Tier 4 standards based on NMHCE emissions.

(ii) Gaseous-fueled engines must comply with HC standards based on nonmethane-nonethane hydrocarbon emissions.

(iii) Diesel-fueled and all other engines not described in paragraph (d)(1)(i) or (ii) of this section must comply with Tier 3 HC standards based on THC emissions and with Tier 4 standards based on NMHC emissions.

(2) Tier 3 and later engines must comply with the exhaust emission standards when tested using test fuels containing 15 ppm or less sulfur (ultra low-sulfur diesel fuel). Manufacturers may use low-sulfur diesel fuel (without request) to certify an engine otherwise requiring an ultra low-sulfur test fuel; however, emissions may not be corrected to account for the effects of using higher sulfur fuel.

(3) Engines designed to operate using residual fuel must comply with the standards and requirements of this part when operated using residual fuel in addition to complying with the requirements of this part when operated using diesel fuel.

(e) Useful life. Your engines must meet the exhaust emission standards of this section over their full useful life, expressed as a period in years or hours of engine operation, whichever comes first.

(1) The minimum useful life values are as follows, except as specified by paragraph (e)(2) or (3) of this section:

(i) 10 years or 1,000 hours of operation for recreational Category 1 engines

(ii) 5 years or 3,000 hours of operation for commercial engines below 19 kW.

(iii) 7 years or 5,000 hours of operation for commercial engines at or above 19 kW and below 37kW.

(iv) 10 years or 10,000 hours of operation for commercial Category 1 engines at or above 37 kW.

(v) 10 years or 20,000 hours of operation for Category 2 engines.

(2) Specify a longer useful life in hours for an engine family under either of two conditions:

(i) If you design, advertise, or market your engine to operate longer than the minimum useful life (your recommended hours until rebuild indicates a longer design life).

(ii) If your basic mechanical warranty is longer than the minimum useful life.

(3) You may request in your application for certification that we approve a shorter useful life for an engine family. We may approve a shorter useful life, in hours of engine operation but not in years, if we determine that these engines will rarely operate longer than the shorter useful life. If engines identical to those in the engine family have already been produced and are in use, your demonstration must include documentation from such in-use engines. In other cases, your demonstration must include an engineering analysis of information equivalent to such in-use data, such as data from research engines or similar engine models that are already in production. Your demonstration must also include any overhaul interval that you recommend, any mechanical warranty that you offer for the engine or its components, and any relevant customer design specifications. Your demonstration may include any other relevant information. The useful life value may not be shorter than any of the following:

(i) 1,000 hours of operation.

(ii) Your recommended overhaul interval.

(iii) Your mechanical warranty for the engine.

(f) Applicability for testing. The duty-cycle emission standards in this subpart apply to all testing performed according to the procedures in §1042.505, including certification, production-line, and in-use testing. The not-to-exceed standards apply for all testing performed according to the procedures of subpart F of this part.

[73 FR 37243, June 30, 2008, as amended at 73 FR 59192, Oct. 8, 2008; 74 FR 8425, Feb. 24, 2009; 75 FR 22996, Apr. 30, 2010; 81 FR 74142, Oct. 25, 2016]

§1042.104   Exhaust emission standards for Category 3 engines.

(a) Duty-cycle standards. Exhaust emissions from your engines may not exceed emission standards, as follows:

(1) Measure emissions using the test procedures described in subpart F of this part. Note that while no PM standards apply for Category 3 engines, PM emissions must be measured for certification testing and reported under §1042.205. Note also that you are not required to measure PM emissions for other testing.

(2) NOX standards apply based on the engine's model year and maximum in-use engine speed as shown in the following table:

Table 1 to §1042.104—NOX Emission Standards for Category 3 Engines (g/kW-hr)

Emission standardsModel yearMaximum in-use engine speed
Less than 130 RPM130-2000 RPMaOver 2000 RPM
Tier 12004-2010b17.045.0 ·  n(−0.20)9.8
Tier 22011-201514.444.0 ·  n(−0.23)7.7
Tier 3c2016 and later3.49.0 ·  n(−0.20)2.0

aApplicable standards are calculated from n (maximum in-use engine speed, in RPM, as specified in §1042.140). Round the standards to one decimal place.

bTier 1 NOX standards apply as specified in 40 CFR part 94 for engines originally manufactured in model years 2004 through 2010. They are shown here only for reference.

cFor engines designed with on-off controls as specified in §1042.115(g), the Tier 2 standards continue to apply any time the engine has disabled its Tier 3 NOX emission controls.

(3) The HC standard for Tier 2 and later engines is 2.0 g/kW-hr. This standard applies as follows:

(i) Alcohol-fueled engines must comply with HC standards based on THCE emissions.

(ii) Natural gas-fueled engines must comply with HC standards based on NMHC emissions.

(iii) Diesel-fueled and all other engines not described in paragraph (a)(3)(i) or (ii) of this section must comply with HC standards based on THC emissions.

(4) The CO standard for Tier 2 and later engines is 5.0 g/kW-hr.

(b) Averaging, banking, and trading. Category 3 engines are not eligible for participation in the averaging, banking, and trading (ABT) program as described in subpart H of this part.

(c) Mode caps. Measured NOX emissions may not exceed the cap specified in this paragraph (c) for any applicable duty-cycle test modes with power greater than 10 percent maximum engine power. Calculate the mode cap by multiplying the applicable NOX standard by 1.5 and rounding to the nearest 0.1 g/kW-hr. Note that mode caps do not apply for pollutants other than NOX and do not apply for any modes of operation outside of the applicable duty cycles in §1042.505. Category 3 engines are not subject to not-to-exceed standards.

(d) Useful life. Your engines must meet the exhaust emission standards of this section over their full useful life, expressed as a period in years or hours of engine operation, whichever comes first.

(1) The minimum useful life value is 3 years or 10,000 hours of operation.

(2) Specify a longer useful life in hours for an engine family under either of two conditions:

(i) If you design, advertise, or market your engine to operate longer than the minimum useful life (your recommended hours until rebuild indicates a longer design life).

(ii) If your basic mechanical warranty is longer than the minimum useful life.

(e) Applicability for testing. The duty-cycle emission standards in this section apply to all testing performed according to the procedures in §1042.505, including certification, production-line, and in-use testing. See paragraph (g) of this section for standards that apply for certain other test procedures, such as some production-line testing.

(f) Domestic engines. Engines installed on vessels excluded from 40 CFR part 1043 because they operate only domestically may not be certified for use with residual fuels.

(g) Alternate installed-engine standards. NOX emissions may not exceed the standard specified in this paragraph (g) for test of engines installed on vessels when you are unable to operate the engine at the test points for the specified duty cycle, and you approximate these points consistent with the specifications of section 6 of Appendix 8 to the NOX Technical Code (incorporated by reference in §1042.910). Calculate the alternate installed-engine standard by multiplying the applicable NOX standard by 1.1 and rounding to the nearest 0.1 g/kW-hr.

[75 FR 22997, Apr. 30, 2010; 81 FR 74145, Oct. 25, 2016]

§1042.107   Evaporative emission standards.

(a) There are no evaporative emission standards for diesel-fueled engines, or engines using other nonvolatile or nonliquid fuels (for example, natural gas).

(b) If an engine uses a volatile liquid fuel, such as methanol, the engine's fuel system and the vessel in which the engine is installed must meet the evaporative emission requirements of 40 CFR part 1045 that apply with respect to spark-ignition engines. Manufacturers subject to evaporative emission standards must meet the requirements of 40 CFR 1045.112 as described in 40 CFR part 1060 and do all the following things in the application for certification:

(1) Describe how evaporative emissions are controlled.

(2) Present test data to show that fuel systems and vessels meet the evaporative emission standards we specify in this section if you do not use design-based certification under 40 CFR 1060.240. Show these figures before and after applying deterioration factors, where applicable.

[73 FR 59193, Oct. 8, 2008]

§1042.110   Recording reductant use and other diagnostic functions.

(a) Engines equipped with SCR systems using a reductant other than the engine's fuel must meet the following requirements:

(1) The diagnostic system must monitor reductant quality and tank levels and alert operators to the need to refill the reductant tank before it is empty, or to replace the reductant if it does not meet your concentration specifications. Unless we approve other alerts, use a malfunction-indicator light (MIL) and an audible alarm. You do not need to separately monitor reductant quality if your system uses input from an exhaust NOX sensor (or other sensor) to alert operators when reductant quality is inadequate. However, tank level must be monitored in all cases.

(2) The onboard computer log must record in nonvolatile computer memory all incidents of engine operation with inadequate reductant injection or reductant quality. Use good engineering judgment to ensure that the operator can readily access the information to submit the report required by §1042.660. For example, you may meet this requirement by documenting the incident in a text file that can be downloaded or printed by the operator.

(3) SCR systems must also conform to the provisions of paragraph (d) of this section if they are equipped with on-off controls as allowed under §1042.115(g).

(b) [Reserved]

(c) You may equip your engine with other diagnostic features. If you do, they must be designed to allow us to read and interpret the codes. Note that §§1042.115 and 1042.205 require that you provide us any information needed to read, record, and interpret all the information broadcast by an engine's onboard computers and electronic control units.

(d) For Category 3 engines equipped with on-off NOX controls (as allowed by §1042.115(g)), you must also equip your engine to continuously monitor NOX concentrations in the exhaust. See §1042.650 to determine if this requirement applies for a given Category 1 or Category 2 engine. For measurement technologies involving discrete sampling events, measurements are considered continuous if they repeat at least once every 60 seconds; we may approve a longer sampling period if it is necessary or appropriate for sufficiently accurate measurements. Describe your system for onboard NOX measurements in your application for certification. Use good engineering judgment to alert operators if measured NOX concentrations indicate malfunctioning emission controls. Record any such operation in nonvolatile computer memory. You are not required to monitor NOX concentrations during operation for which the emission controls may be disabled under §1042.115(g). For the purpose of this paragraph (d), “malfunctioning emission controls” means any condition in which the measured NOX concentration exceeds the highest value expected when the engine is in compliance with the installed engine standard of §1042.104(g). Use good engineering judgment to determine these expected values during production-line testing of the engine using linear interpolation between test points and accounting for the degree to which the cycle-weighted emissions of the engine are below the standard. You may also use additional intermediate test points measured during the production-line test. Note that the provisions of paragraph (a) of this section also apply for SCR systems covered by this paragraph (d). For engines subject to both the provisions of paragraph (a) of this section and this paragraph (d), use good engineering judgment to integrate diagnostic features to comply with both paragraphs. For example, engines may use on-off NOX controls to disable certain emission control functions only if the diagnostic system indicates that the monitoring described in this paragraph (d) is active.

[73 FR 37243, June 30, 2008, as amended at 75 FR 22998, Apr. 30, 2010; 81 FR 74145, Oct. 25, 2016]

§1042.115   Other requirements.

Engines that are required to comply with the emission standards of this part must meet the following requirements:

(a) Crankcase emissions. Crankcase emissions may not be discharged directly into the ambient atmosphere from any engine throughout its useful life, except as follows:

(1) Engines may discharge crankcase emissions to the ambient atmosphere if the emissions are added to the exhaust emissions (either physically or mathematically) during all emission testing. If you take advantage of this exception, you must do both of the following things:

(i) Manufacture the engines so that all crankcase emissions can be routed into the applicable sampling systems specified in 40 CFR part 1065.

(ii) Account for deterioration in crankcase emissions when determining exhaust deterioration factors.

(2) For purposes of this paragraph (a), crankcase emissions that are routed to the exhaust upstream of exhaust aftertreatment during all operation are not considered to be discharged directly into the ambient atmosphere.

(b) Torque broadcasting. Electronically controlled engines must broadcast their speed and output shaft torque (in newton-meters). Engines may alternatively broadcast a surrogate value for determining torque. Engines must broadcast engine parameters such that they can be read with a remote device, or broadcast them directly to their controller area networks. This information is necessary for testing engines in the field (see §1042.515).

(c) EPA access to broadcast information. If we request it, you must provide us any hardware or tools we would need to readily read, interpret, and record all information broadcast by an engine's on-board computers and electronic control modules. If you broadcast a surrogate parameter for torque values, you must provide us what we need to convert these into torque units. We will not ask for hardware or tools if they are readily available commercially.

(d) Adjustable parameters. An operating parameter is not considered adjustable if you permanently seal it or if it is not normally accessible using ordinary tools. The following provisions apply for adjustable parameters:

(1) Category 1 engines that have adjustable parameters must meet all the requirements of this part for any adjustment in the physically adjustable range. We may require that you set adjustable parameters to any specification within the adjustable range during any testing, including certification testing, selective enforcement auditing, or in-use testing.

(2) Category 2 and Category 3 engines that have adjustable parameters must meet all the requirements of this part for any adjustment in the specified adjustable range. You must specify in your application for certification the adjustable range of each adjustable parameter on a new engine to—

(i) Ensure that safe engine operating characteristics are available within that range, as required by section 202(a)(4) of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7521(a)(4)), taking into consideration the production tolerances.

(ii) Limit the physical range of adjustability to the maximum extent practicable to the range that is necessary for proper operation of the engine.

(e) Prohibited controls. You may not design your engines with emission-control devices, systems, or elements of design that cause or contribute to an unreasonable risk to public health, welfare, or safety while operating. For example, this would apply if the engine emits a noxious or toxic substance it would otherwise not emit, that contributes to such an unreasonable risk.

(f) Defeat devices. You may not equip your engines with a defeat device. A defeat device is an auxiliary emission control device that reduces the effectiveness of emission controls under conditions that the engine may reasonably be expected to encounter during normal operation and use. (Note that this means emission control for operation outside of and between the official test modes is generally expected to be similar to emission control demonstrated at the test modes.) This does not apply to auxiliary emission control devices you identify in your application for certification if any of the following is true:

(1) The conditions of concern were substantially included in the applicable duty-cycle test procedures described in subpart F of this part (the portion during which emissions are measured).

(2) You show your design is necessary to prevent engine (or vessel) damage or accidents.

(3) The reduced effectiveness applies only to starting the engine.

(4) The engine is a Category 3 engine and the AECD conforms to the requirements of paragraph (g) of this section. See §1042.650 to determine if this allowance applies for a given Category 1 or Category 2 engine.

(g) On-off controls for Category 3 engines. Manufacturers may equip Category 3 engines with features that disable Tier 3 NOX emission controls subject to the provisions of this paragraph (g). See §1042.650 to determine if this allowance applies for a given Category 1 or Category 2 engine. Where this paragraph (g) applies for a Category 1 or Category 2 engine, read “Tier 2” to mean “Tier 3” and read “Tier 3” to mean “Tier 4”.

(1) Features that disable Tier 3 emission controls are considered to be AECDs whether or not they meet the definition of an AECD. For example, manually operated on-off features are AECDs under this paragraph (g). The features must be identified in your application for certification as AECDs. For purposes of this paragraph (g), the term “features that disable Tier 3 emission controls” includes (but is not limited to) any combination of the following that cause the engine's emissions to exceed any Tier 3 emission standard:

(i) Bypassing of exhaust aftertreatment.

(ii) Reducing or eliminating flow of reductant to an SCR system.

(iii) Modulating engine calibration in a manner that increases engine-out emissions of a regulated pollutant.

(2) You must demonstrate that the AECD will not disable emission controls while operating in areas where emissions could reasonably be expected to adversely affect U.S. air quality. If an ECA has been established for U.S. waters, this means you must demonstrate that the AECD will not disable emission control while operating in waters within the ECA or any ECA associated area. (Note: See the regulations in 40 CFR part 1043 for requirements related to operation in ECAs, including foreign ECAs.) Compliance with this paragraph will generally require that the AECD operation be based on Global Positioning System (GPS) inputs. We may consider any relevant information to determine whether your AECD conforms to this paragraph (g).

(3) The onboard computer log must record in nonvolatile computer memory all incidents of engine operation with the Tier 3 emission controls disabled.

(4) The engine must comply fully with the Tier 2 standards when the Tier 3 emission controls are disabled.

[73 FR 37243, June 30, 2008, as amended at 73 FR 59193, Oct. 8, 2008; 75 FR 22998, Apr. 30, 2010]

§1042.120   Emission-related warranty requirements.

(a) General requirements. You must warrant to the ultimate purchaser and each subsequent purchaser that the new engine, including all parts of its emission control system, meets two conditions:

(1) It is designed, built, and equipped so it conforms at the time of sale to the ultimate purchaser with the requirements of this part.

(2) It is free from defects in materials and workmanship that may keep it from meeting these requirements.

(b) Warranty period. Your emission-related warranty must be valid for at least as long as the minimum warranty periods listed in this paragraph (b) in hours of operation and years, whichever comes first. You may offer an emission-related warranty more generous than we require. The emission-related warranty for the engine may not be shorter than any basic mechanical warranty you provide without charge for the engine. Similarly, the emission-related warranty for any component may not be shorter than any warranty you provide without charge for that component. This means that your warranty may not treat emission-related and nonemission-related defects differently for any component. If an engine has no hour meter, we base the warranty periods in this paragraph (b) only on the engine's age (in years). The warranty period begins when the engine is placed into service. The following minimum warranty periods apply:

(1) For Category 1 and Category 2 engines, your emission-related warranty must be valid for at least 50 percent of the engine's useful life in hours of operation or a number of years equal to at least 50 percent of the useful life in years, whichever comes first.

(2) For Category 3 engines, your emission-related warranty must be valid throughout the engine's full useful life as specified in §1042.104(d).

(c) Components covered. The emission-related warranty covers all components whose failure would increase an engine's emissions of any regulated pollutant, including components listed in 40 CFR part 1068, Appendix I, and components from any other system you develop to control emissions. The emission-related warranty for freshly manufactured marine engines covers these components even if another company produces the component. Your emission-related warranty does not need to cover components whose failure would not increase an engine's emissions of any regulated pollutant. For remanufactured engines, your emission-related warranty is required to cover only those parts that you supply or those parts for which you specify allowable part manufacturers. It does not need to cover used parts that are not replaced during the remanufacture.

(d) Limited applicability. You may deny warranty claims under this section if the operator caused the problem through improper maintenance or use, as described in 40 CFR 1068.115.

(e) Owners manual. Describe in the owners manual the emission-related warranty provisions from this section that apply to the engine.

[73 FR 37243, June 30, 2008, as amended at 75 FR 22999, Apr. 30, 2010; 81 FR 74146, Oct. 25, 2016]

§1042.125   Maintenance instructions.

Give the ultimate purchaser of each new engine written instructions for properly maintaining and using the engine, including the emission control system, as described in this section. The maintenance instructions also apply to service accumulation on your emission-data engines as described in §1042.245 and in 40 CFR part 1065. The restrictions specified in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section related to allowable maintenance apply only to Category 1 and Category 2 engines. Manufacturers may specify any maintenance for Category 3 engines.

(a) Critical emission-related maintenance. Critical emission-related maintenance includes any adjustment, cleaning, repair, or replacement of critical emission-related components. This may also include additional emission-related maintenance that you determine is critical if we approve it in advance. You may schedule critical emission-related maintenance on these components if you meet the following conditions:

(1) You demonstrate that the maintenance is reasonably likely to be done at the recommended intervals on in-use engines. We will accept scheduled maintenance as reasonably likely to occur if you satisfy any of the following conditions:

(i) You present data showing that any lack of maintenance that increases emissions also unacceptably degrades the engine's performance.

(ii) You present survey data showing that at least 80 percent of engines in the field get the maintenance you specify at the recommended intervals.

(iii) You provide the maintenance free of charge and clearly say so in your maintenance instructions.

(iv) You otherwise show us that the maintenance is reasonably likely to be done at the recommended intervals.

(2) For engines below 130 kW, you may not schedule critical emission-related maintenance more frequently than the following minimum intervals, except as specified in paragraphs (a)(4), (b), and (c) of this section:

(i) For EGR-related filters and coolers, DEF filters, crankcase ventilation valves and filters, and fuel injector tips (cleaning only), the minimum interval is 1,500 hours.

(ii) For the following components, including associated sensors and actuators, the minimum interval is 3,000 hours: Fuel injectors, turbochargers, catalytic converters, electronic control units, particulate traps, trap oxidizers, components related to particulate traps and trap oxidizers, EGR systems (including related components, but excluding filters and coolers), and other add-on components. For particulate traps, trap oxidizers, and components related to either of these, maintenance is limited to cleaning and repair only.

(3) For Category 1 and Category 2 engines at or above 130 kW, you may not schedule critical emission-related maintenance more frequently than the following minimum intervals, except as specified in paragraphs (a)(4), (b), and (c) of this section:

(i) For EGR-related filters and coolers, DEF filters, crankcase ventilation valves and filters, and fuel injector tips (cleaning only), the minimum interval is 1,500 hours.

(ii) For the following components, including associated sensors and actuators, the minimum interval is 4500 hours: Fuel injectors, turbochargers, catalytic converters, electronic control units, particulate traps, trap oxidizers, components related to particulate traps and trap oxidizers, EGR systems (including related components, but excluding filters and coolers), and other add-on components. For particulate traps, trap oxidizers, and components related to either of these, maintenance is limited to cleaning and repair only.

(4) We may approve shorter maintenance intervals than those listed in paragraph (a)(3) of this section where technologically necessary.

(5) If your engine family has an alternate useful life under §1042.101(e) that is shorter than the period specified in paragraph (a)(2) or (a)(3) of this section, you may not schedule critical emission-related maintenance more frequently than the alternate useful life, except as specified in paragraph (c) of this section.

(b) Recommended additional maintenance. You may recommend any additional amount of maintenance on the components listed in paragraph (a) of this section, as long as you state clearly that these maintenance steps are not necessary to keep the emission-related warranty valid. If operators do the maintenance specified in paragraph (a) of this section, but not the recommended additional maintenance, this does not allow you to disqualify those engines from in-use testing or deny a warranty claim. Do not take these maintenance steps during service accumulation on your emission-data engines.

(c) Special maintenance. You may specify more frequent maintenance to address problems related to special situations, such as atypical engine operation. You must clearly state that this additional maintenance is associated with the special situation you are addressing. You may also address maintenance of low-use engines (such as recreational or stand-by engines) by specifying the maintenance interval in terms of calendar months or years in addition to your specifications in terms of engine operating hours. All special maintenance instructions must be consistent with good engineering judgment. We may disapprove your maintenance instructions if we determine that you have specified special maintenance steps to address maintenance that is unlikely to occur in use, or engine operation that is not atypical. For example, this paragraph (c) does not allow you to design engines that require special maintenance for a certain type of expected operation. If we determine that certain maintenance items do not qualify as special maintenance under this paragraph (c), you may identify this as recommended additional maintenance under paragraph (b) of this section.

(d) Noncritical emission-related maintenance. Subject to the provisions of this paragraph (d), you may schedule any amount of emission-related inspection or maintenance that is not covered by paragraph (a) of this section (that is, maintenance that is neither explicitly identified as critical emission-related maintenance, nor that we approve as critical emission-related maintenance). Noncritical emission-related maintenance generally includes maintenance on the components we specify in 40 CFR part 1068, Appendix I that is not covered in paragraph (a) of this section. You must state in the owners manual that these steps are not necessary to keep the emission-related warranty valid. If operators fail to do this maintenance, this does not allow you to disqualify those engines from in-use testing or deny a warranty claim. Do not take these inspection or maintenance steps during service accumulation on your emission-data engines.

(e) Maintenance that is not emission-related. For maintenance unrelated to emission controls, you may schedule any amount of inspection or maintenance. You may also take these inspection or maintenance steps during service accumulation on your emission-data engines, as long as they are reasonable and technologically necessary. This might include adding engine oil, changing air, fuel, or oil filters, servicing engine-cooling systems, and adjusting idle speed, governor, engine bolt torque, valve lash, or injector lash. You may not perform this nonemission-related maintenance on emission-data engines more often than the least frequent intervals that you recommend to the ultimate purchaser.

(f) Source of parts and repairs. State clearly in your written maintenance instructions that a repair shop or person of the owner's choosing may maintain, replace, or repair emission control devices and systems. Your instructions may not require components or service identified by brand, trade, or corporate name. Also, do not directly or indirectly condition your warranty on a requirement that the engine be serviced by your franchised dealers or any other service establishments with which you have a commercial relationship. You may disregard the requirements in this paragraph (f) if you do one of two things:

(1) Provide a component or service without charge under the purchase agreement.

(2) Get us to waive this prohibition in the public's interest by convincing us the engine will work properly only with the identified component or service.

(g) Payment for scheduled maintenance. Owners are responsible for properly maintaining their engines. This generally includes paying for scheduled maintenance. However, manufacturers must pay for scheduled maintenance during the useful life if it meets all the following criteria:

(1) Each affected component was not in general use on similar engines before the applicable dates shown in paragraph (6) of the definition of “new marine engine” in §1042.901.

(2) The primary function of each affected component is to reduce emissions.

(3) The cost of the scheduled maintenance is more than 2 percent of the price of the engine.

(4) Failure to perform the maintenance would not cause clear problems that would significantly degrade the engine's performance.

(h) Owners manual. Explain the owner's responsibility for proper maintenance in the owners manual.

[73 FR 37243, June 30, 2008, as amended at 75 FR 22999, Apr. 30, 2010; 81 FR 74146, Oct. 25, 2016]

§1042.130   Installation instructions for vessel manufacturers.

(a) If you sell an engine for someone else to install in a vessel, give the engine installer instructions for installing it consistent with the requirements of this part. Include all information necessary to ensure that an engine will be installed in its certified configuration.

(b) Make sure these instructions have the following information:

(1) Include the heading: “Emission-related installation instructions”.

(2) State: “Failing to follow these instructions when installing a certified engine in a vessel violates federal law (40 CFR 1068.105(b)), subject to fines or other penalties as described in the Clean Air Act.”

(3) Describe the instructions needed to properly install the exhaust system and any other components. Include instructions consistent with the requirements of §1042.205(u).

(4) Describe any necessary steps for installing the diagnostic system described in §1042.110.

(5) Describe how your certification is limited for any type of application. For example, if your engines are certified only for constant-speed operation, tell vessel manufacturers not to install the engines in variable-speed applications or modify the governor.

(6) Describe any other instructions to make sure the installed engine will operate according to design specifications in your application for certification. This may include, for example, instructions for installing aftertreatment devices when installing the engines.

(7) State: “If you install the engine in a way that makes the engine's emission control information label hard to read during normal engine maintenance, you must place a duplicate label on the vessel, as described in 40 CFR 1068.105.”

(8) Describe any vessel labeling requirements specified in §1042.135.

(c) You do not need installation instructions for engines you install in your own vessels.

(d) Provide instructions in writing or in an equivalent format. For example, you may post instructions on a publicly available Web site for downloading or printing. If you do not provide the instructions in writing, explain in your application for certification how you will ensure that each installer is informed of the installation requirements.

[73 FR 37243, June 30, 2008, as amended at 81 FR 74146, Oct. 25, 2016]

§1042.135   Labeling.

(a) Assign each engine a unique identification number and permanently affix, engrave, or stamp it on the engine in a legible way.

(b) At the time of manufacture, affix a permanent and legible label identifying each engine. The label must meet the requirements of 40 CFR 1068.45.

(c) The label must—

(1) Include the heading “EMISSION CONTROL INFORMATION”.

(2) Include your full corporate name and trademark. You may identify another company and use its trademark instead of yours if you comply with the branding provisions of 40 CFR 1068.45.

(3) Include EPA's standardized designation for the engine family (and subfamily, where applicable).

(4) Identify all the emission standards that apply to the engine (or FELs, if applicable). If you do not declare an FEL under subpart H of this part, you may alternatively state the engine's category, displacement (in liters or L/cyl), maximum engine power (in kW), and power density (in kW/L) as needed to determine the emission standards for the engine family. You may specify displacement, maximum engine power, or power density as a range consistent with the ranges listed in §1042.101. See §1042.140 for descriptions of how to specify per-cylinder displacement, maximum engine power, and power density.

(5) State the date of manufacture [DAY (optional), MONTH, and YEAR]; however, you may omit this from the label if you stamp, engrave, or otherwise permanently identify it elsewhere on the engine, in which case you must also describe in your application for certification where you will identify the date on the engine.

(6) Identify the application(s) for which the engine family is certified (such as constant-speed auxiliary, variable-speed propulsion engines used with fixed-pitch propellers, etc.). If the engine is certified as a recreational engine, state: “INSTALLING THIS RECREATIONAL ENGINE IN A COMMERCIAL VESSEL OR USING THE VESSEL FOR COMMERCIAL PURPOSES MAY VIOLATE FEDERAL LAW SUBJECT TO CIVIL PENALTY (40 CFR 1042.601).”

(7) For engines using sulfur-sensitive technologies, state: “ULTRA LOW SULFUR DIESEL FUEL ONLY”.

(8) State the useful life for your engine family if the applicable useful life is based on the provisions of §1042.101(e)(2) or (3), or §1042.104(d)(2).

(9) Identify the emission control system. Use terms and abbreviations as described in 40 CFR 1068.45. You may omit this information from the label if there is not enough room for it and you put it in the owners manual instead.

(10) State: “THIS MARINE ENGINE COMPLIES WITH U.S. EPA REGULATIONS FOR [MODEL YEAR].”

(11) For a Category 1 or Category 2 engine that can be modified to operate on residual fuel, but has not been certified to meet the standards on such a fuel, include the statement: “THIS ENGINE IS CERTIFIED FOR OPERATION ONLY WITH DIESEL FUEL. MODIFYING THE ENGINE TO OPERATE ON RESIDUAL OR INTERMEDIATE FUEL MAY BE A VIOLATION OF FEDERAL LAW SUBJECT TO CIVIL PENALTIES.”

(12) For an engine equipped with on-off emission controls as allowed by §1042.115, include the statement: “THIS ENGINE IS CERTIFIED WITH ON-OFF EMISSION CONTROLS. OPERATION OF THE ENGINE CONTRARY TO 40 CFR 1042.115(g) IS A VIOLATION OF FEDERAL LAW SUBJECT TO CIVIL PENALTIES.”

(13) For engines intended for installation on domestic or public vessels, include the following statement: “THIS ENGINE DOES NOT COMPLY WITH INTERNATIONAL MARINE REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL VESSELS UNLESS IT IS ALSO COVERED BY AN EIAPP CERTIFICATE.”

(d) You may add information to the emission control information label as follows:

(1) You may identify other emission standards that the engine meets or does not meet (such as international standards), as long as this does not cause you to omit any of the information described in paragraphs (c)(5) through (9) of this section. You may add the information about the other emission standards to the statement we specify, or you may include it in a separate statement.

(2) You may add other information to ensure that the engine will be properly maintained and used.

(3) You may add appropriate features to prevent counterfeit labels. For example, you may include the engine's unique identification number on the label.

(e) For engines using sulfur-sensitive technologies, create a separate label with the statement: “ULTRA LOW SULFUR DIESEL FUEL ONLY”. Permanently attach this label to the vessel near the fuel inlet or, if you do not manufacture the vessel, take one of the following steps to ensure that the vessel will be properly labeled:

(1) Provide the label to each vessel manufacturer and include in the emission-related installation instructions the requirement to place this label near the fuel inlet.

(2) Confirm that the vessel manufacturers install their own complying labels.

(f) You may ask us to approve modified labeling requirements in this part 1042 if you show that it is necessary or appropriate. We will approve your request if your alternate label is consistent with the intent of the labeling requirements of this part.

(g) If you obscure the engine label while installing the engine in the vessel such that the label will be hard to read during normal maintenance, you must place a duplicate label on the vessel. If others install your engine in their vessels in a way that obscures the engine label, we require them to add a duplicate label on the vessel (see 40 CFR 1068.105); in that case, give them the number of duplicate labels they request and keep the following records for at least five years:

(1) Written documentation of the request from the vessel manufacturer.

(2) The number of duplicate labels you send for each family and the date you sent them.

[73 FR 37243, June 30, 2008, as amended at 75 FR 22999, Apr. 30, 2010; 81 FR 74147, Oct. 25, 2016]

§1042.140   Maximum engine power, displacement, power density, and maximum in-use engine speed.

This section describes how to determine the maximum engine power, displacement, and power density of an engine for the purposes of this part. Note that maximum engine power may differ from the definition of “maximum test power” in §1042.901. This section also specifies how to determine maximum in-use engine speed for Category 3 engines.

(a) An engine configuration's maximum engine power is the maximum brake power point on the nominal power curve for the engine configuration, as defined in this section. Round the power value to the nearest whole kilowatt.

(b) The nominal power curve of an engine configuration is the relationship between maximum available engine brake power and engine speed for an engine, using the mapping procedures of 40 CFR part 1065, based on the manufacturer's design and production specifications for the engine. This information may also be expressed by a torque curve that relates maximum available engine torque with engine speed.

(c) An engine configuration's per-cylinder displacement is the intended swept volume of each cylinder. The swept volume of the engine is the product of the internal cross-section area of the cylinders, the stroke length, and the number of cylinders. Calculate the engine's intended swept volume from the design specifications for the cylinders using enough significant figures to allow determination of the displacement to the nearest 0.02 liters. Determine the final value by truncating digits to establish the per-cylinder displacement to the nearest 0.1 liters. For example, for an engine with circular cylinders having an internal diameter of 13.0 cm and a 15.5 cm stroke length, the rounded displacement would be: (13.0/2)2 × (π) × (15.5) ÷ 1000 = 2.0 liters.

(d) The nominal power curve and intended swept volume must be within the range of the actual power curves and swept volumes of production engines considering normal production variability. If after production begins, it is determined that either your nominal power curve or your intended swept volume does not represent production engines, we may require you to amend your application for certification under §1042.225.

(e) Throughout this part, references to a specific power value for an engine are based on maximum engine power. For example, the group of engines with maximum engine power below 600 kW may be referred to as engines below 600 kW.

(f) Calculate an engine family's power density in kW/L by dividing the unrounded maximum engine power by the engine's unrounded per-cylinder displacement, then dividing by the number of cylinders. Round the calculated value to the nearest whole number.

(g) Calculate a maximum test speed for the nominal power curve as specified in 40 CFR 1065.610. This is the maximum in-use engine speed used for calculating the NOX standard in §1042.104 for Category 3 engines. Alternatively, you may use a lower value if engine speed will be limited in actual use to that lower value.

[73 FR 37243, June 30, 2008, as amended at 75 FR 23000, Apr. 30, 2010; 81 FR 74147, Oct. 25, 2016]

§1042.145   Interim provisions.

(a) General. The provisions in this section apply instead of other provisions in this part. This section describes when these interim provisions expire. Only the provisions of paragraph (h) of this section apply for Category 3 engines.

(b) Delayed standards. Post-manufacturer marinizers that are small-volume engine manufacturers may delay compliance with the Tier 3 standards for engines below 600 kW as follows:

(1) You may delay compliance with the Tier 3 standards for one model year, as long as the engines meet all the requirements that apply to Tier 2 engines.

(2) You may delay compliance with the NTE standards for Tier 3 engines for three model years in addition to the one-year delay specified in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, as long as the engines meet all other Tier 3 requirements for the appropriate model year.

(c) Part 1065 test procedures for Category 1 and Category 2 engines. You must generally use the test procedures specified in subpart F of this part, including the applicable test procedures in 40 CFR part 1065. As specified in this paragraph (c), you may use a combination of the test procedures specified in this part and the test procedures specified for Tier 2 engines before January 1, 2015. After this date, you must use test procedures only as specified in subpart F of this part.

(1) You may determine maximum test speed for engines below 37 kW as specified in 40 CFR part 89 without request through the 2009 model year.

(2) Before January 1, 2015, you may ask to use some or all of the procedures specified in 40 CFR part 94 (or 40 CFR part 89 for engines below 37 kW) for engines certified under this part 1042. If you ask to rely on a combination of procedures under this paragraph (c)(2), we will approve your request only if you show us that it does not affect your ability to demonstrate compliance with the applicable emission standards. This generally requires that the combined procedures would result in emission measurements at least as high as those that would be measured using the procedures specified in this part. Alternatively, you may demonstrate that the combined effects of the different procedures is small relative to your compliance margin (the degree to which your emissions are below the applicable standards).

(d) [Reserved]

(e) Delayed compliance with NTE standards. Engines below 56 kW may delay complying with the NTE standards specified in §1042.101(c) until the 2013 model year. Engines at or above 56 kW and below 75 kW may delay complying with the NTE standards specified in §1042.101(c) until the 2012 model year.

(f) In-use compliance limits. The provisions of this paragraph (f) apply for the first three model years of the Tier 4 standards. For purposes of determining compliance based on testing other than certification or production-line testing, calculate the applicable in-use compliance limits by adjusting the applicable standards/FELs. The PM adjustment does not apply for engines with a PM standard or FEL above 0.04 g/kW-hr. The NOX adjustment does not apply for engines with a NOX FEL above 2.7 g/kW-hr. Add the applicable adjustments in one of the following tables to the otherwise applicable standards and NTE limits. You must specify during certification which add-ons, if any, will apply for your engines.

Table 1 to §1042.145—In-use Adjustments for the First Three Model Years of the Tier 4 Standards

Fraction of useful life already usedIn-use adjustments (g/kW-hr)
For Tier 4 NOX standardsFor Tier 4
PM standards
0 <hours ≤50% of useful life0.90.02
50 <hours ≤75% of useful life1.30.02
hours >75% of useful life1.70.02

Table 2 to §1042.145—Optional In-Use Adjustments for the First Three Model Years of the Tier 4 Standards

Fraction of useful life already used In-use adjustments (g/kW-hr)
For model year 2017 and earlier Tier 4 NOX standards For model year 2017 and earlier Tier 4 PM standards
0 <hours ≤50% of useful life0.30.05
50 <hours ≤75% of useful life0.40.05
hours >75% of useful life0.50.05

(g) Deficiencies for NTE standards. You may ask us to accept as compliant an engine that does not fully meet specific requirements under the applicable NTE standards. Such deficiencies are intended to allow for minor deviations from the NTE standards under limited conditions. We expect your engines to have functioning emission control hardware that allows you to comply with the NTE standards.

(1) Request our approval for specific deficiencies in your application for certification, or before you submit your application. We will not approve deficiencies retroactively to cover engines already certified. In your request, identify the scope of each deficiency and describe any auxiliary emission control devices you will use to control emissions to the lowest practical level, considering the deficiency you are requesting.

(2) We will approve a deficiency only if compliance would be infeasible or unreasonable considering such factors as the technical feasibility of the given hardware and the applicable lead time and production cycles. We may consider other relevant factors.

(3) Our approval applies only for a single model year and may be limited to specific engine configurations. We may approve your request for the same deficiency in the following model year if correcting the deficiency would require unreasonable hardware or software modifications and we determine that you have demonstrated an acceptable level of effort toward complying.

(4) You may ask for any number of deficiencies in the first three model years during which NTE standards apply for your engines. For the next four model years, we may approve up to three deficiencies per engine family. Deficiencies of the same type that apply similarly to different power ratings within a family count as one deficiency per family. We may condition approval of any such additional deficiencies during these four years on any additional conditions we determine to be appropriate. We will not approve deficiencies after the seven-year period specified in this paragraph (g)(4), unless they are related to safety.

(h) The following interim provisions apply for Category 3 engines:

(1) Applicability of Tier 3 standards to Category 3 engines operating in Alaska, Hawaii, and U.S. territories. (i) Category 3 engines are not required to comply with the Tier 3 NOX standard when operating in areas of Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, or U.S. Virgin Islands. Category 3 engines are also not required to comply with the Tier 3 NOX standards when operating in the waters of the smallest Hawaiian islands or in the waters of Alaska west of Kodiak. For the purpose of this paragraph (h)(1), “the smallest Hawaiian islands” includes all Hawaiian islands other than Hawaii, Kahoolawe, Kauai, Lanai, Maui, Molokai, Niihau, and Oahu. Engines must comply fully with the appropriate Tier 2 NOX standard and all other applicable requirements when operating in the areas identified in this paragraph (h)(1).

(ii) The provisions of paragraph (h)(1)(i) of this section do not apply to ships operating in an ECA or an ECA associated area. The Tier 3 standards apply in full for any area included in an ECA or an ECA associated area.

(2) Part 1065 test procedures. You must generally use the test procedures specified in subpart F of this part for Category 3 engines, including the applicable test procedures in 40 CFR part 1065. You may use a combination of the test procedures specified in this part and the test procedures specified in 40 CFR part 94 before January 1, 2016 without request. After this date, you must use test procedures only as specified in subpart F of this part.

(i) Limitation of 40 CFR 1068.101 before July 1, 2010. Notwithstanding other provisions of this part or 40 CFR part 94, for the period June 29, 2010 through July 1, 2010, it is not a violation of 40 CFR 1068.101 to operate in U.S. waters uncertified engines installed on vessels manufactured outside of the United States before June 29, 2010. Operation of such vessels in U.S. waters on or after July 1, 2010 is deemed to be introduction into U.S. commerce of a new marine engine.

(j) Vessel manufacturers and marine equipment manufacturers may apply the provisions of §1042.605 to land-based engines with maximum engine power at or above 19 kW and below 600 kW produced under the allowances provided in 40 CFR 1039.625 for model year 2013 marine engines. All the provisions of §1042.605 apply as if those engines were certified to emission standards under 40 CFR part 1039. Similarly, engine manufacturers, vessel manufacturers, and marine equipment manufacturers must comply with all the provisions of 40 CFR 1039.625 as if those engines were installed in land-based equipment.

[73 FR 37243, June 30, 2008, as amended at 73 FR 59194, Oct. 8, 2008; 75 FR 23000, Apr. 30, 2010; 78 FR 36396, June 17, 2013]

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