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e-CFR data is current as of November 27, 2020

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter RPart 745 → Subpart F


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 745—LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES


Subpart F—Disclosure of Known Lead-Based Paint and/or Lead-Based Paint Hazards Upon Sale or Lease of Residential Property


Contents
§745.100   Purpose.
§745.101   Scope and applicability.
§745.102   Effective dates.
§745.103   Definitions.
§745.107   Disclosure requirements for sellers and lessors.
§745.110   Opportunity to conduct an evaluation.
§745.113   Certification and acknowledgment of disclosure.
§745.115   Agent responsibilities.
§745.118   Enforcement.
§745.119   Impact on State and local requirements.

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§745.100   Purpose.

This subpart implements the provisions of 42 U.S.C. 4852d, which impose certain requirements on the sale or lease of target housing. Under this subpart, a seller or lessor of target housing shall disclose to the purchaser or lessee the presence of any known lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards; provide available records and reports; provide the purchaser or lessee with a lead hazard information pamphlet; give purchasers a 10-day opportunity to conduct a risk assessment or inspection; and attach specific disclosure and warning language to the sales or leasing contract before the purchaser or lessee is obligated under a contract to purchase or lease target housing.

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§745.101   Scope and applicability.

This subpart applies to all transactions to sell or lease target housing, including subleases, with the exception of the following:

(a) Sales of target housing at foreclosure.

(b) Leases of target housing that have been found to be lead-based paint free by an inspector certified under the Federal certification program or under a federally accredited State or tribal certification program. Until a Federal certification program or federally accredited State certification program is in place within the State, inspectors shall be considered qualified to conduct an inspection for this purpose if they have received certification under any existing State or tribal inspector certification program. The lessor has the option of using the results of additional test(s) by a certified inspector to confirm or refute a prior finding.

(c) Short-term leases of 100 days or less, where no lease renewal or extension can occur.

(d) Renewals of existing leases in target housing in which the lessor has previously disclosed all information required under §745.107 and where no new information described in §745.107 has come into the possession of the lessor. For the purposes of this paragraph, renewal shall include both renegotiation of existing lease terms and/or ratification of a new lease.

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§745.102   Effective dates.

The requirements in this subpart take effect in the following manner:

(a) For owners of more than four residential dwellings, the requirements shall take effect on September 6, 1996.

(b) For owners of one to four residential dwellings, the requirements shall take effect on December 6, 1996.

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§745.103   Definitions.

The following definitions apply to this subpart.

The Act means the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of 1992, 42 U.S.C. 4852d.

Agent means any party who enters into a contract with a seller or lessor, including any party who enters into a contract with a representative of the seller or lessor, for the purpose of selling or leasing target housing. This term does not apply to purchasers or any purchaser's representative who receives all compensation from the purchaser.

Available means in the possession of or reasonably obtainable by the seller or lessor at the time of the disclosure.

Common area means a portion of a building generally accessible to all residents/users including, but not limited to, hallways, stairways, laundry and recreational rooms, playgrounds, community centers, and boundary fences.

Contract for the purchase and sale of residential real property means any contract or agreement in which one party agrees to purchase an interest in real property on which there is situated one or more residential dwellings used or occupied, or intended to be used or occupied, in whole or in part, as the home or residence of one or more persons.

EPA means the Environmental Protection Agency.

Evaluation means a risk assessment and/or inspection.

Foreclosure means any of the various methods, statutory or otherwise, known in different jurisdictions, of enforcing payment of a debt, by the taking and selling of real property.

Housing for the elderly means retirement communities or similar types of housing reserved for households composed of one or more persons 62 years of age or more at the time of initial occupancy.

HUD means the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.

Inspection means:

(1) A surface-by-surface investigation to determine the presence of lead-based paint as provided in section 302(c) of the Lead-Based Paint Poisoning and Prevention Act [42 U.S.C. 4822], and

(2) The provision of a report explaining the results of the investigation.

Lead-based paint means paint or other surface coatings that contain lead equal to or in excess of 1.0 milligram per square centimeter or 0.5 percent by weight.

Lead-based paint free housing means target housing that has been found to be free of paint or other surface coatings that contain lead equal to or in excess of 1.0 milligram per square centimeter or 0.5 percent by weight.

Lead-based paint hazard means any condition that causes exposure to lead from lead-contaminated dust, lead-contaminated soil, or lead-contaminated paint that is deteriorated or present in accessible surfaces, friction surfaces, or impact surfaces that would result in adverse human health effects as established by the appropriate Federal agency.

Lessee means any entity that enters into an agreement to lease, rent, or sublease target housing, including but not limited to individuals, partnerships, corporations, trusts, government agencies, housing agencies, Indian tribes, and nonprofit organizations.

Lessor means any entity that offers target housing for lease, rent, or sublease, including but not limited to individuals, partnerships, corporations, trusts, government agencies, housing agencies, Indian tribes, and nonprofit organizations.

Owner means any entity that has legal title to target housing, including but not limited to individuals, partnerships, corporations, trusts, government agencies, housing agencies, Indian tribes, and nonprofit organizations, except where a mortgagee holds legal title to property serving as collateral for a mortgage loan, in which case the owner would be the mortgagor.

Purchaser means an entity that enters into an agreement to purchase an interest in target housing, including but not limited to individuals, partnerships, corporations, trusts, government agencies, housing agencies, Indian tribes, and nonprofit organizations.

Reduction means measures designed to reduce or eliminate human exposure to lead-based paint hazards through methods including interim controls and abatement.

Residential dwelling means:

(1) A single-family dwelling, including attached structures such as porches and stoops; or

(2) A single-family dwelling unit in a structure that contains more than one separate residential dwelling unit, and in which each such unit is used or occupied, or intended to be used or occupied, in whole or in part, as the residence of one or more persons.

Risk assessment means an on-site investigation to determine and report the existence, nature, severity, and location of lead-based paint hazards in residential dwellings, including:

(1) Information gathering regarding the age and history of the housing and occupancy by children under age 6;

(2) Visual inspection;

(3) Limited wipe sampling or other environmental sampling techniques;

(4) Other activity as may be appropriate; and

(5) Provision of a report explaining the results of the investigation.

Secretary means the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development.

Seller means any entity that transfers legal title to target housing, in whole or in part, in return for consideration, including but not limited to individuals, partnerships, corporations, trusts, government agencies, housing agencies, Indian tribes, and nonprofit organizations. The term “seller” also includes:

(1) An entity that transfers shares in a cooperatively owned project, in return for consideration; and

(2) An entity that transfers its interest in a leasehold, in jurisdictions or circumstances where it is legally permissible to separate the fee title from the title to the improvement, in return for consideration.

Target housing means any housing constructed prior to 1978, except housing for the elderly or persons with disabilities (unless any child who is less than 6 years of age resides or is expected to reside in such housing) or any 0-bedroom dwelling.

TSCA means the Toxic Substances Control Act, 15 U.S.C. 2601.

0-bedroom dwelling means any residential dwelling in which the living area is not separated from the sleeping area. The term includes efficiencies, studio apartments, dormitory housing, military barracks, and rentals of individual rooms in residential dwellings.

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§745.107   Disclosure requirements for sellers and lessors.

(a) The following activities shall be completed before the purchaser or lessee is obligated under any contract to purchase or lease target housing that is not otherwise an exempt transaction pursuant to §745.101. Nothing in this section implies a positive obligation on the seller or lessor to conduct any evaluation or reduction activities.

(1) The seller or lessor shall provide the purchaser or lessee with an EPA-approved lead hazard information pamphlet. Such pamphlets include the EPA document entitled Protect Your Family From Lead in Your Home (EPA #747-K-94-001) or an equivalent pamphlet that has been approved for use in that State by EPA.

(2) The seller or lessor shall disclose to the purchaser or lessee the presence of any known lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards in the target housing being sold or leased. The seller or lessor shall also disclose any additional information available concerning the known lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards, such as the basis for the determination that lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards exist, the location of the lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards, and the condition of the painted surfaces.

(3) The seller or lessor shall disclose to each agent the presence of any known lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards in the target housing being sold or leased and the existence of any available records or reports pertaining to lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards. The seller or lessor shall also disclose any additional information available concerning the known lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards, such as the basis for the determination that lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards exist, the location of the lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards, and the condition of the painted surfaces.

(4) The seller or lessor shall provide the purchaser or lessee with any records or reports available to the seller or lessor pertaining to lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards in the target housing being sold or leased. This requirement includes records or reports regarding common areas. This requirement also includes records or reports regarding other residential dwellings in multifamily target housing, provided that such information is part of an evaluation or reduction of lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards in the target housing as a whole.

(b) If any of the disclosure activities identified in paragraph (a) of this section occurs after the purchaser or lessee has provided an offer to purchase or lease the housing, the seller or lessor shall complete the required disclosure activities prior to accepting the purchaser's or lessee's offer and allow the purchaser or lessee an opportunity to review the information and possibly amend the offer.

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§745.110   Opportunity to conduct an evaluation.

(a) Before a purchaser is obligated under any contract to purchase target housing, the seller shall permit the purchaser a 10-day period (unless the parties mutually agree, in writing, upon a different period of time) to conduct a risk assessment or inspection for the presence of lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards.

(b) Not withstanding paragraph (a) of this section, a purchaser may waive the opportunity to conduct the risk assessment or inspection by so indicating in writing.

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§745.113   Certification and acknowledgment of disclosure.

(a) Seller requirements. Each contract to sell target housing shall include an attachment containing the following elements, in the language of the contract (e.g., English, Spanish):

(1) A Lead Warning Statement consisting of the following language:

Every purchaser of any interest in residential real property on which a residential dwelling was built prior to 1978 is notified that such property may present exposure to lead from lead-based paint that may place young children at risk of developing lead poisoning. Lead poisoning in young children may produce permanent neurological damage, including learning disabilities, reduced intelligence quotient, behavioral problems, and impaired memory. Lead poisoning also poses a particular risk to pregnant women. The seller of any interest in residential real property is required to provide the buyer with any information on lead-based paint hazards from risk assessments or inspections in the seller's possession and notify the buyer of any known lead-based paint hazards. A risk assessment or inspection for possible lead-based paint hazards is recommended prior to purchase.

(2) A statement by the seller disclosing the presence of known lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards in the target housing being sold or indicating no knowledge of the presence of lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards. The seller shall also provide any additional information available concerning the known lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards, such as the basis for the determination that lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards exist, the location of the lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards, and the condition of the painted surfaces.

(3) A list of any records or reports available to the seller pertaining to lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards in the housing that have been provided to the purchaser. If no such records or reports are available, the seller shall so indicate.

(4) A statement by the purchaser affirming receipt of the information set out in paragraphs (a)(2) and (a)(3) of this section and the lead hazard information pamphlet required under 15 U.S.C. 2696.

(5) A statement by the purchaser that he/she has either:

(i) Received the opportunity to conduct the risk assessment or inspection required by §745.110(a); or

(ii) Waived the opportunity.

(6) When one or more agents are involved in the transaction to sell target housing on behalf of the seller, a statement that:

(i) The agent has informed the seller of the seller's obligations under 42 U.S.C. 4852d; and

(ii) The agent is aware of his/her duty to ensure compliance with the requirements of this subpart.

(7) The signatures of the sellers, agents, and purchasers certifying to the accuracy of their statements to the best of their knowledge, along with the dates of signature.

(b) Lessor requirements. Each contract to lease target housing shall include, as an attachment or within the contract, the following elements, in the language of the contract (e.g., English, Spanish):

(1) A Lead Warning Statement with the following language:

Housing built before 1978 may contain lead-based paint. Lead from paint, paint chips, and dust can pose health hazards if not managed properly. Lead exposure is especially harmful to young children and pregnant women. Before renting pre-1978 housing, lessors must disclose the presence of lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards in the dwelling. Lessees must also receive a federally approved pamphlet on lead poisoning prevention.

(2) A statement by the lessor disclosing the presence of known lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards in the target housing being leased or indicating no knowledge of the presence of lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards. The lessor shall also disclose any additional information available concerning the known lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards, such as the basis for the determination that lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards exist, the location of the lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards, and the condition of the painted surfaces.

(3) A list of any records or reports available to the lessor pertaining to lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards in the housing that have been provided to the lessee. If no such records or reports are available, the lessor shall so indicate.

(4) A statement by the lessee affirming receipt of the information set out in paragraphs (b)(2) and (b)(3) of this section and the lead hazard information pamphlet required under 15 U.S.C. 2696.

(5) When one or more agents are involved in the transaction to lease target housing on behalf of the lessor, a statement that:

(i) The agent has informed the lessor of the lessor as obligations under 42 U.S.C. 4852d; and

(ii) The agent is aware of his/her duty to ensure compliance with the requirements of this subpart.

(6) The signatures of the lessors, agents, and lessees, certifying to the accuracy of their statements, to the best of their knowledge, along with the dates of signature.

(c) Retention of Certification and Acknowledgment Information. (1) The seller, and any agent, shall retain a copy of the completed attachment required under paragraph (a) of this section for no less than 3 years from the completion date of the sale. The lessor, and any agent, shall retain a copy of the completed attachment or lease contract containing the information required under paragraph (b) of this section for no less than 3 years from the commencement of the leasing period.

(2) This recordkeeping requirement is not intended to place any limitations on civil suits under the Act, or to otherwise affect a lessee's or purchaser's rights under the civil penalty provisions of 42 U.S.C. 4852d(b)(3).

(d) The seller, lessor, or agent shall not be responsible for the failure of a purchaser's or lessee's legal representative (where such representative receives all compensation from the purchaser or lessee) to transmit disclosure materials to the purchaser or lessee, provided that all required parties have completed and signed the necessary certification and acknowledgment language required under paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section.

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§745.115   Agent responsibilities.

(a) Each agent shall ensure compliance with all requirements of this subpart. To ensure compliance, the agent shall:

(1) Inform the seller or lessor of his/her obligations under §§745.107, 745.110, and 745.113.

(2) Ensure that the seller or lessor has performed all activities required under §§745.107, 745.110, and 745.113, or personally ensure compliance with the requirements of §§745.107, 745.110, and 745.113.

(b) If the agent has complied with paragraph (a)(1) of this section, the agent shall not be liable for the failure to disclose to a purchaser or lessee the presence of lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards known by a seller or lessor but not disclosed to the agent.

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§745.118   Enforcement.

(a) Any person who knowingly fails to comply with any provision of this subpart shall be subject to civil monetary penalties in accordance with the provisions of 42 U.S.C. 3545 and 24 CFR part 30.

(b) The Secretary is authorized to take such action as may be necessary to enjoin any violation of this subpart in the appropriate Federal district court.

(c) Any person who knowingly violates the provisions of this subpart shall be jointly and severally liable to the purchaser or lessee in an amount equal to 3 times the amount of damages incurred by such individual.

(d) In any civil action brought for damages pursuant to 42 U.S.C. 4852d(b)(3), the appropriate court may award court costs to the party commencing such action, together with reasonable attorney fees and any expert witness fees, if that party prevails.

(e) Failure or refusal to comply with §745.107 (disclosure requirements for sellers and lessors), §745.110 (opportunity to conduct an evaluation), §745.113 (certification and acknowledgment of disclosure), or §745.115 (agent responsibilities) is a violation of 42 U.S.C. 4852d(b)(5) and of TSCA section 409 (15 U.S.C. 2689).

(f) Violators may be subject to civil and criminal sanctions pursuant to TSCA section 16 (15 U.S.C. 2615) for each violation. For purposes of enforcing this subpart, the penalty for each violation applicable under 15 U.S.C. 2615 shall not be more than $11,000 for all violations occuring after July 28, 1997; all violations occuring on or prior to that date are subject to a penalty not more than $10,000.

[61 FR 9085, Mar. 6, 1996, as amended at 62 FR 35041, June 27, 1997]

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§745.119   Impact on State and local requirements.

Nothing in this subpart shall relieve a seller, lessor, or agent from any responsibility for compliance with State or local laws, ordinances, codes, or regulations governing notice or disclosure of known lead-based paint or lead-based paint hazards. Neither HUD nor EPA assumes any responsibility for ensuring compliance with such State or local requirements.

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