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e-CFR data is current as of September 23, 2020

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter OPart 503 → Subpart A


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 503—STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE


Subpart A—General Provisions


Contents
§503.1   Purpose and applicability.
§503.2   Compliance period.
§503.3   Permits and direct enforceability.
§503.4   Relationship to other regulations.
§503.5   Additional or more stringent requirements.
§503.6   Exclusions.
§503.7   Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.
§503.8   Sampling and analysis.
§503.9   General definitions.

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§503.1   Purpose and applicability.

(a) Purpose. (1) This part establishes standards, which consist of general requirements, pollutant limits, management practices, and operational standards, for the final use or disposal of sewage sludge generated during the treatment of domestic sewage in a treatment works. Standards are included in this part for sewage sludge applied to the land, placed on a surface disposal site, or fired in a sewage sludge incinerator. Also included in this part are pathogen and alternative vector attraction reduction requirements for sewage sludge applied to the land or placed on a surface disposal site.

(2) In addition, the standards in this part include the frequency of monitoring and recordkeeping requirements when sewage sludge is applied to the land, placed on a surface disposal site, or fired in a sewage sludge incinerator. Also included in this part are reporting requirements for Class I sludge management facilities, publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) with a design flow rate equal to or greater than one million gallons per day, and POTWs that serve 10,000 people or more.

(b) Applicability. (1) This part applies to any person who prepares sewage sludge, applies sewage sludge to the land, or fires sewage sludge in a sewage sludge incinerator and to the owner/operator of a surface disposal site.

(2) This part applies to sewage sludge applied to the land, placed on a surface disposal site, or fired in a sewage sludge incinerator.

(3) This part applies to the exit gas from a sewage sludge incinerator stack.

(4) This part applies to land where sewage sludge is applied, to a surface disposal site, and to a sewage sludge incinerator.

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§503.2   Compliance period.

(a) Compliance with the standards in this part shall be achieved as expeditiously as practicable, but in no case later than February 19, 1994. When compliance with the standards requires construction of new pollution control facilities, compliance with the standards shall be achieved as expeditiously as practicable, but in no case later than February 19, 1995.

(b) The requirements for frequency of monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting in this part for total hydrocarbons in the exit gas from a sewage sludge incinerator are effective February 19, 1994 or, if compliance with the operational standard for total hydrocarbons in this part requires the construction of new pollution control facilities, February 19, 1995.

(c) All other requirements for frequency of monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting in this part are effective on July 20, 1993.

(d) Unless otherwise specified in subpart E, compliance with the requirements in §§503.41(c) through (r), 503.43(c), (d) and (e), 503.45(a)(1), (b) through (f), 503.46(a)(1), (a)(3), and (c), and 503.47(f) that were revised on September 3, 1999 shall be achieved as expeditiously as practicable, but in no case later than September 5, 2000. When new pollution control facilities must be constructed to comply with the revised requirements in subpart E, compliance with the revised requirements shall be achieved as expeditiously as practicable but no later than September 4, 2001.

[58 FR 9387, Feb. 19, 1993, as amended at 64 FR 42568, Aug. 4, 1999]

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§503.3   Permits and direct enforceability.

(a) Permits. The requirements in this part may be implemented through a permit:

(1) Issued to a “treatment works treating domestic sewage”, as defined in 40 CFR 122.2, in accordance with 40 CFR parts 122 and 124 by EPA or by a State that has a State sludge management program approved by EPA in accordance with 40 CFR part 123 or 40 CFR part 501 or

(2) Issued under subtitle C of the Solid Waste Disposal Act; part C of the Safe Drinking Water Act; the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972; or the Clean Air Act. “Treatment works treating domestic sewage” shall submit a permit application in accordance with either 40 CFR 122.21 or an approved State program.

(b) Direct enforceability. No person shall use or dispose of sewage sludge through any practice for which requirements are established in this part except in accordance with such requirements.

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§503.4   Relationship to other regulations.

Disposal of sewage sludge in a municipal solid waste landfill unit, as defined in 40 CFR 258.2, that complies with the requirements in 40 CFR part 258 constitutes compliance with section 405(d) of the CWA. Any person who prepares sewage sludge that is disposed in a municipal solid waste landfill unit shall ensure that the sewage sludge meets the requirements in 40 CFR part 258 concerning the quality of materials disposed in a municipal solid waste landfill unit.

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§503.5   Additional or more stringent requirements.

(a) On a case-by-case basis, the permitting authority may impose requirements for the use or disposal of sewage sludge in addition to or more stringent than the requirements in this part when necessary to protect public health and the environment from any adverse effect of a pollutant in the sewage sludge.

(b) Nothing in this part precludes a State or political subdivision thereof or interstate agency from imposing requirements for the use or disposal of sewage sludge more stringent than the requirements in this part or from imposing additional requirements for the use or disposal of sewage sludge.

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§503.6   Exclusions.

(a) Treatment processes. This part does not establish requirements for processes used to treat domestic sewage or for processes used to treat sewage sludge prior to final use or disposal, except as provided in §503.32 and §503.33.

(b) Selection of a use or disposal practice. This part does not require the selection of a sewage sludge use or disposal practice. The determination of the manner in which sewage sludge is used or disposed is a local determination.

(c) Co-firing of sewage sludge. This part does not establish requirements for sewage sludge co-fired in an incinerator with other wastes or for the incinerator in which sewage sludge and other wastes are co-fired. Other wastes do not include auxiliary fuel, as defined in 40 CFR 503.41(b), fired in a sewage sludge incinerator.

(d) Sludge generated at an industrial facility. This part does not establish requirements for the use or disposal of sludge generated at an industrial facility during the treatment of industrial wastewater, including sewage sludge generated during the treatment of industrial wastewater combined with domestic sewage.

(e) Hazardous sewage sludge. This part does not establish requirements for the use or disposal of sewage sludge determined to be hazardous in accordance with 40 CFR part 261.

(f) Sewage sludge with high PCB concentration. This part does not establish requirements for the use or disposal of sewage sludge with a concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) equal to or greater than 50 milligrams per kilogram of total solids (dry weight basis).

(g) Incinerator ash. This part does not establish requirements for the use or disposal of ash generated during the firing of sewage sludge in a sewage sludge incinerator.

(h) Grit and screenings. This part does not establish requirements for the use or disposal of grit (e.g., sand, gravel, cinders, or other materials with a high specific gravity) or screenings (e.g., relatively large materials such as rags) generated during preliminary treatment of domestic sewage in a treatment works.

(i) Drinking water treatment sludge. This part does not establish requirements for the use or disposal of sludge generated during the treatment of either surface water or ground water used for drinking water.

(j) Commercial and industrial septage. This part does not establish requirements for the use or disposal of commercial septage, industrial septage, a mixture of domestic septage and commercial septage, or a mixture of domestic septage and industrial septage.

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§503.7   Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.

Any person who prepares sewage sludge shall ensure that the applicable requirements in this part are met when the sewage sludge is applied to the land, placed on a surface disposal site, or fired in a sewage sludge incinerator.

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§503.8   Sampling and analysis.

(a) Sampling. Representative samples of sewage sludge that is applied to the land, placed on a surface disposal site, or fired in a sewage sludge incinerator shall be collected and analyzed.

(b) Methods. The materials listed below are incorporated by reference in this part. These incorporations by reference were approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. The materials are incorporated as they exist on the date of approval, and notice of any change in these materials will be published in the Federal Register. They are available for inspection at the HQ Water Docket Center, EPA/DC, EPA West, Room B102, 1301 Constitution Ave., NW., Washington, DC, and at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal__register/code__of__federal__regulations/ibr__locations.html.\n. Copies may be obtained from the standard producer or publisher listed in the regulation. The methods in the materials listed below (or in 40 CFR part 136) shall be used to analyze samples of sewage sludge.

(1) Enteric viruses. ASTM Designation: D 4994-89, “Standard Practice for Recovery of Viruses From Wastewater Sludges”, 1992 Annual Book of ASTM Standards: Section 11—Water and Environmental Technology, ASTM, 1916 Race Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103-1187.

(2) Fecal coliform. Part 9221 E. or Part 9222 D., “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater”, 18th Edition, 1992, American Public Health Association, 1015 15th Street, NW., Washington, DC 20005.

(3) Helminth ova. Yanko, W.A., “Occurrence of Pathogens in Distribution and Marketing Municipal Sludges”, EPA 600/1-87-014, 1987. National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22161 (PB 88-154273/AS).

(4) Inorganic pollutants. “Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods”, EPA Publication SW-846, Second Edition (1982) with Updates I (April 1984) and II (April 1985) and Third Edition (November 1986) with Revision I (December 1987). Second Edition and Updates I and II are available from the National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22161 (PB-87-120-291). Third Edition and Revision I are available from Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, 941 North Capitol Street, NE., Washington, DC 20002 (Document Number 955-001-00000-1).

(5) Salmonella sp. bacteria. Part 9260 D., “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater”, 18th Edition, 1992, American Public Health Association, 1015 15th Street, NW., Washington, DC 20005; or

Kenner, B.A. and H.P. Clark, “Detection and enumeration of Salmonella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa”, Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation, Vol. 46, no. 9, September 1974, pp. 2163-2171. Water Environment Federation, 601 Wythe Street, Alexandria, Virginia 22314.

(6) Specific oxygen uptake rate. Part 2710 B., “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater”, 18th Edition, 1992, American Public Health Association, 1015 15th Street, NW., Washington, DC 20005.

(7) Total, fixed, and volatile solids. Part 2540 G., “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater”, 18th Edition, 1992, American Public Health Association, 1015 15th Street, NW., Washington, DC 20005.

[58 FR 9387, Feb. 19, 1993, as amended at 69 FR 18803, Apr. 9, 2004; 72 FR 14233, Mar. 26, 2007]

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§503.9   General definitions.

(a) Apply sewage sludge or sewage sludge applied to the land means land application of sewage sludge.

(b) Base flood is a flood that has a one percent chance of occurring in any given year (i.e., a flood with a magnitude equalled once in 100 years).

(c) Class I sludge management facility is any publicly owned treatment works (POTW), as defined in 40 CFR 501.2, required to have an approved pretreatment program under 40 CFR 403.8(a) (including any POTW located in a State that has elected to assume local program responsibilities pursuant to 40 CFR 403.10(e)) and any treatment works treating domestic sewage, as defined in 40 CFR 122.2, classified as a Class I sludge management facility by the EPA Regional Administrator, or, in the case of approved State programs, the Regional Administrator in conjunction with the State Director, because of the potential for its sewage sludge use or disposal practice to affect public health and the environment adversely.

(d) Cover crop is a small grain crop, such as oats, wheat, or barley, not grown for harvest.

(e) CWA means the Clean Water Act (formerly referred to as either the Federal Water Pollution Act or the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972), Public Law 92-500, as amended by Public Law 95-217, Public Law 95-576, Public Law 96-483, Public Law 97-117, and Public Law 100-4.

(f) Domestic septage is either liquid or solid material removed from a septic tank, cesspool, portable toilet, Type III marine sanitation device, or similar treatment works that receives only domestic sewage. Domestic septage does not include liquid or solid material removed from a septic tank, cesspool, or similar treatment works that receives either commercial wastewater or industrial wastewater and does not include grease removed from a grease trap at a restaurant.

(g) Domestic sewage is waste and wastewater from humans or household operations that is discharged to or otherwise enters a treatment works.

(h) Dry weight basis means calculated on the basis of having been dried at 105 degrees Celsius until reaching a constant mass (i.e., essentially 100 percent solids content).

(i) EPA means the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

(j) Feed crops are crops produced primarily for consumption by animals.

(k) Fiber crops are crops such as flax and cotton.

(l) Food crops are crops consumed by humans. These include, but are not limited to, fruits, vegetables, and tobacco.

(m) Ground water is water below the land surface in the saturated zone.

(n) Industrial wastewater is wastewater generated in a commercial or industrial process.

(o) Municipality means a city, town, borough, county, parish, district, association, or other public body (including an intermunicipal Agency of two or more of the foregoing entities) created by or under State law; an Indian tribe or an authorized Indian tribal organization having jurisdiction over sewage sludge management; or a designated and approved management Agency under section 208 of the CWA, as amended. The definition includes a special district created under State law, such as a water district, sewer district, sanitary district, utility district, drainage district, or similar entity, or an integrated waste management facility as defined in section 201(e) of the CWA, as amended, that has as one of its principal responsibilities the treatment, transport, use, or disposal of sewage sludge.

(p) Permitting authority is either EPA or a State with an EPA-approved sludge management program.

(q) Person is an individual, association, partnership, corporation, municipality, State or Federal agency, or an agent or employee thereof.

(r) Person who prepares sewage sludge is either the person who generates sewage sludge during the treatment of domestic sewage in a treatment works or the person who derives a material from sewage sludge.

(s) Place sewage sludge or sewage sludge placed means disposal of sewage sludge on a surface disposal site.

(t) Pollutant is an organic substance, an inorganic substance, a combination of organic and inorganic substances, or a pathogenic organism that, after discharge and upon exposure, ingestion, inhalation, or assimilation into an organism either directly from the environment or indirectly by ingestion through the food chain, could, on the basis of information available to the Administrator of EPA, cause death, disease, behavioral abnormalities, cancer, genetic mutations, physiological malfunctions (including malfunction in reproduction), or physical deformations in either organisms or offspring of the organisms.

(u) Pollutant limit is a numerical value that describes the amount of a pollutant allowed per unit amount of sewage sludge (e.g., milligrams per kilogram of total solids); the amount of a pollutant that can be applied to a unit area of land (e.g., kilograms per hectare); or the volume of a material that can be applied to a unit area of land (e.g., gallons per acre).

(v) Runoff is rainwater, leachate, or other liquid that drains overland on any part of a land surface and runs off of the land surface.

(w) Sewage sludge is solid, semi-solid, or liquid residue generated during the treatment of domestic sewage in a treatment works. Sewage sludge includes, but is not limited to, domestic septage; scum or solids removed in primary, secondary, or advanced wastewater treatment processes; and a material derived from sewage sludge. Sewage sludge does not include ash generated during the firing of sewage sludge in a sewage sludge incinerator or grit and screenings generated during preliminary treatment of domestic sewage in a treatment works.

(x) State is one of the United States of America, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and an Indian Tribe eligible for treatment as a State pursuant to regulations promulgated under the authority of section 518(e) of the CWA.

(y) Store or storage of sewage sludge is the placement of sewage sludge on land on which the sewage sludge remains for two years or less. This does not include the placement of sewage sludge on land for treatment.

(z) Treat or treatment of sewage sludge is the preparation of sewage sludge for final use or disposal. This includes, but is not limited to, thickening, stabilization, and dewatering of sewage sludge. This does not include storage of sewage sludge.

(aa) Treatment works is either a federally owned, publicly owned, or privately owned device or system used to treat (including recycle and reclaim) either domestic sewage or a combination of domestic sewage and industrial waste of a liquid nature.

(bb) Wetlands means those areas that are inundated or saturated by surface water or ground water at a frequency and duration to support, and that under normal circumstances do support, a prevalence of vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soil conditions. Wetlands generally include swamps, marshes, bogs, and similar areas.

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