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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of December 12, 2019

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter NPart 461 → Subpart A


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 461—BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY


Subpart A—Cadmium Subcategory


Contents
§461.10   Applicability; description of the cadmium subcategory.
§461.11   Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT).
§461.12   Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT).
§461.13   New source performance standards (NSPS).
§461.14   Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).
§461.15   Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

§461.10   Applicability; description of the cadmium subcategory.

This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United States, and introductions of pollutants into publicly owned treatment works from the manufacturing of cadmium anode batteries.

§461.11   Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT).

(a) Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve the following effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available:

(1) Subpart A—Pasted and Pressed Powder Anodes.

BPT Effluent Limitations

Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average
  Metric units—mg/kg of cadmium
  English units—pounds per 1,000,000 pounds of cadmium
Cadmium0.920.41
Nickel5.183.43
Zinc3.941.65
Cobalt0.570.24
Oil and grease54.0032.40
TSS111.0052.65
pH(1)(1)

1Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times.

(2) Subpart A—Electrodeposited Anodes.

BPT Effluent Limitations

Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average
  Metric units—mg/kg of cadmium
  English units—pounds per 1,000,000 pounds of cadmium
Cadmium237.0104.6
Nickel1,338.2885.2
Zinc1,017.6425.2
Cobalt146.462.7
Oil and grease13,940.08,364.0
TSS28,577.013,592.0
pH(1)(1)

1Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times.

(3) Subpart A—Impregnated Anodes.

BPT Effluent Limitations

Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average
  Metric units—mg/kg of cadmium
  English units—pounds per 1,000,000 pounds of cadmium
Cadmium339.3149.7
Nickel1,916.21,267.5
Zinc1,457.1608.8
Cobalt209.689.8
Oil and grease19,960.011,976.0
TSS40,918.019,461.0
pH(1)(1)

1Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times.

(4) Subpart A—Nickel Electrodeposited Cathodes.

BPT Effluent Limitations

Pollutant or pollutant propertyMaximum for any 1 dayMaximum for monthly average
  Metric units—mg/kg of nickel applied
  English units—pounds per 1,000,000 pounds of nickel applied
Cadmium193.585.4
Nickel1,092.5722.6
Zinc830.7347.1
Cobalt119.551.2
Oil and grease11,380.06,828.0
TSS23,329.011,095.5
pH(1)(1)

1Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times.

(5) Subpart A—Nickel Impregnated Cathodes.

BPT Effluent Limitations

Pollutant or pollutant propertyMaximum for any 1 dayMaximum for monthly average
  Metric units—mg/kg of nickel applied
  English units—pounds per 1,000,000 pounds of nickel applied
Cadmium557.6246.0
Nickel3,148.82,082.8
Zinc2,394.41,000.4
Cobalt344.4147.6
Oil and grease32,800.019,680.0
TSS67,240.031,980.0
pH(1)(1)

1Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times.

(6) Subpart A—Miscellaneous Wastewater Streams.

BPT Effluent Limitations

Pollutant or pollutant propertyMaximum for any 1 dayMaximum for monthly average
  Metric units—mg/kg of cells produced
  English units—pounds per 1,000,000 pounds of cells produced
Cadmium6.292.77
Nickel35.5423.50
Zinc27.0211.29
Cobalt3.891.66
Oil and grease370.20222.12
TSS758.91360.94
pH(1)(1)

1Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times.

(7) Subpart A—Cadmium Powder Production.

BPT Effluent Limitations

Pollutant or pollutant propertyMaximum for any 1 dayMaximum for monthly average
  Metric units—mg/kg of cadmium powder produced
  English units—pounds per 1,000,000 pounds of cadmium powder produced
Cadmium22.349.86
Nickel126.1483.44
Zinc95.9240.08
Cobalt13.805.91
Oil and grease1,314.00788.40
TSS2,693.001,281.20
pH(1)(1)

1Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times.

(8) Subpart A—Silver Powder Production.

BPT Effluent Limitations

Pollutant or pollutant propertyMaximum for any 1 dayMaximum for monthly average
  Metric units—mg/kg of silver powder produced
  English units—pounds per 1,000,000 pounds of silver powder produced
Cadmium7.213.18
Nickel40.7026.92
Silver8.693.61
Zinc30.9512.93
Cobalt4.451.91
Oil and grease424.00254.40
TSS869.20413.40
pH(1)(1)

1Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times.

(9) Subpart A—Cadmium Hydroxide Production.

BPT Effluent Limitations

Pollutant or pollutant propertyMaximum for any 1 dayMaximum for monthly average
  Metric units—mg/kg of cadmium used
  English units—pounds per 1,000,000 pounds of cadmium used
Cadmium0.310.14
Nickel1.731.14
Zinc1.310.55
Cobalt0.190.08
Oil and grease18.0010.80
TSS36.9017.60
pH(1)(1)

1Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times.

(10) Subpart A—Nickel Hydroxide Production.

BPT Effluent Limitations

Pollutant or pollutant propertyMaximum for any 1 dayMaximum for monthly average
  Metric units—mg/kg of nickel used
  English units—pounds per 1,000,000 pounds of nickel used
Cadmium37.416.5
Nickel211.2139.7
Zinc160.667.1
Cobalt23.19.9
Oil and grease2,200.01,320.0
TSS4,510.02,145.0
pH(1)(1)

1Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times.

(b) There shall be no discharge allowance for process wastewater pollutants from any battery manufacturing operation other than those battery manufacturing operations listed above.

§461.12   Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT).

(a) Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve the following effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically achievable:

(1) Subpart A—Electrodeposited Anodes.

BAT Effluent Limitations

Pollutant or pollutant propertyMaximum for any 1 dayMaximum for monthly average
  Metric units—mg/kg of cadmium
  English units—pounds per 1,000,000 pounds of cadmium
Cadmium11.955.27
Nickel67.4944.64
Zinc51.3221.44
Cobalt7.383.16

(2) Subpart A—Impregnated Anodes.

BAT Effluent Limitations

Pollutant or pollutant propertyMaximum for any 1 dayMaximum for monthly average
  Metric units—mg/kg of cadmium
  English units—pounds per 1,000,000 pounds of cadmium
Cadmium68.030.0
Nickel384.0254.0
Zinc292.0122.0
Cobalt42.018.0

(3) Subpart A—Nickel Electrodeposited Cathodes.

BAT Effluent Limitations

Pollutant or pollutant propertyMaximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average
  Metric units—mg/kg of nickel applied
  English units—pounds per 1,000,000 pounds of nickel applied
Cadmium11.224.95
Nickel63.3641.91
Zinc48.1820.13
Cobalt6.932.97

(4) Subpart A—Nickel Impregnated Cathodes.

BAT Effluent Limitations

Pollutant or pollutant propertyMaximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average
  Metric units—mg/kg of nickel applied
  English units—pounds per 1,000,000 pounds of nickel applied
Cadmium68.030.0
Nickel384.0254.0
Zinc292.0122.0
Cobalt42.018.0

(5) Subpart A—Miscellaneous Wastewater Streams.

BAT Effluent Limitations

Pollutant or pollutant propertyMaximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average
  Metric units—mg/kg of cells produced
  English units—pounds per 1,000,000 pounds of cells produced
Cadmium0.790.35
Nickel4.472.96
Zinc3.401.42
Cobalt0.490.21

(6) Subpart A—Cadmium Powder Production.

BAT Effluent Limitations

Pollutant or pollutant propertyMaximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average
  Metric units—mg/kg of cadmium powder produced
  English units—pounds per 1,000,000 pounds of cadmium powder produced
Cadmium2.230.99
Nickel12.618.34
Zinc9.594.01
Cobalt1.380.59

(7) Subpart A—Silver Powder Production.

BAT Effluent Limitations

Pollutant or pollutant propertyMaximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average
  Metric units—mg/kg of silver powder produced
  English units—pounds per 1,000,000 pounds of silver powder produced
Cadmium1.090.48
Nickel6.164.08
Silver1.320.55
Zinc4.691.96
Cobalt0.670.29

(8) Subpart A—Cadmium Hydroxide Production.

BAT Effluent Limitations

Pollutant or pollutant propertyMaximum for any 1 dayMaximum for monthly average
  Metric units—mg/kg of cadmium used
  English units—pounds per 1,000,000 pounds of cadmium used
Cadmium0.050.02
Nickel0.270.18
Zinc0.200.09
Cobalt0.030.01

(9) Subpart A—Nickel Hydroxide Production.

BAT Effluent Limitations

Pollutant or pollutant propertyMaximum for any 1 dayMaximum for monthly average
  Metric units—mg/kg of nickel used
  English units—pounds per 1,000,000 pounds of nickel used
Cadmium5.612.48
Nickel31.6820.96
Zinc24.0910.07
Cobalt3.471.49

(b) There shall be no discharge allowance for process wastewater pollutants from any battery manufacturing operation other than those battery manufacturing operations listed above.

§461.13   New source performance standards (NSPS).

(a) The discharge of wastewater pollutants from any new source subject to this subpart shall not exceed the standards set forth below:

(1) Subpart A—Electrodeposited Anodes—NSPS.

Pollutant or pollutant propertyMaximum for any 1 dayMaximum for monthly average
  Metric units—mg/kg of cadmium
  English units—pounds per 1,000,000 pounds of cadmium
Cadmium7.032.81
Nickel19.3313.01
Zinc35.8514.76
Cobalt4.922.46
Oil and grease351.5351.5
TSS527.3421.8
pH(1)(1)

1Within the range of 7.5-10.0 at all times.

(2) Subpart A—Impregnated Anodes—NSPS.

Pollutant or pollutant propertyMaximum for any 1 dayMaximum for monthly average
  Metric units—mg/kg of cadmium
  English units—pounds per 1,000,000 pounds of cadmium
Cadmium40.016.0
Nickel110.074.0
Zinc204.084.0
Cobalt28.014.0
Oil and grease2,000.02,000.0
TSS3,000.02,400.0
pH(1)(1)

1Within the range of 7.5-10.0 at all times.

(3) Subpart A—Nickel Electrodeposited Cathodes—NSPS.

Pollutant or pollutant propertyMaximum for any 1 dayMaximum for monthly average
  Metric units—mg/kg of nickel applied
  English units—pounds per 1,000,000 pounds of nickel applied
Cadmium6.602.64
Nickel18.1512.21
Zinc33.6613.86
Cobalt4.622.31
Oil and grease330.0330.0
TSS495.0396.0
pH(1)(1)

1Within the range of 7.5-10.0 at all times.

(4) Subpart A—Nickel Impregnated Cathodes—NSPS.

Pollutant or pollutant propertyMaximum for any 1 dayMaximum for monthly average
  Metric units—mg/kg of nickel applied
  English units—pounds per 1,000,000 pounds of nickel applied
Cadmium40.016.0
Nickel110.074.0
Zinc204.084.0
Cobalt28.014.0
Oil and grease2,000.02,000.0
TSS3,000.02,400.0
pH(1)(1)

1Within the range of 7.5-10.0 at all times.

(5) Subpart A—Miscellaneous Wastewater Streams—NSPS.

Pollutant or pollutant propertyMaximum for any 1 dayMaximum for monthly average
  Metric units—mg/kg of cells produced
  English units—pounds per 1,000,000 pounds of cells produced
Cadmium0.470.19
Nickel1.280.86
Zinc2.380.98
Cobalt0.330.16
Oil and grease23.323.3
TSS35.028.0
pH(1)(1)

1Within the range of 7.5-10.0 at all times.

(6) Subpart A—Cadmium Powder Production—NSPS.

Pollutant or pollutant propertyMaximum for any 1 dayMaximum for monthly average
  Metric units—mg/kg of cadmium powder produced
  English units—pounds per 1,000,000 pounds of cadmium powder produced
Cadmium1.310.53
Nickel3.612.43
Zinc6.702.76
Cobalt0.920.46
Oil and grease65.7065.70
TSS98.5578.84
pH(1)(1)

1Within the range of 7.5-10.0 at all times.

(7) Subpart A—Silver Powder Production—NSPS.

Pollutant or pollutant propertyMaximum for any 1 dayMaximum for monthly average
  Metric units—mg/kg of silver powder produced
  English units—pounds per 1,000,000 pounds of silver powder produced
Cadmium0.640.26
Nickel1.771.19
Silver0.930.39
Zinc3.271.35
Cobalt0.450.22
Oil and grease32.1032.10
TSS48.1538.52
pH(1)(1)

1Within the range of 7.5-10.0 at all times.

(8) Subpart A—Cadmium Hydroxide Production—NSPS.

Pollutant or pollutant propertyMaximum for any 1 dayMaximum for monthly average
  Metric units—mg/kg of cadmium used
  English units—pounds per 1,000,000 pounds of cadmium used
Cadmium0.0280.011
Nickel0.0770.051
Zinc0.1420.058
Cobalt0.0190.009
Oil and grease1.401.40
TSS2.101.68
pH(1)(1)

1Within the range of 7.5-10.0 at all times.

(9) Subpart A—Nickel Hydroxide Production—NSPS.

Pollutant or pollutant propertyMaximum for any 1 dayMaximum for monthly average
  Metric units—mg/kg of nickel used
  English units—pounds per 1,000,000 pounds of nickel used
Cadmium3.301.32
Nickel9.086.11
Zinc16.836.93
Cobalt2.311.16
Oil and grease165.0165.0
TSS247.5198.0
pH(1)(1)

1Within the range of 7.5-10.0 at all times.

(b) There shall be no discharge allowance for process wastewater pollutants from any battery manufacturing operation other than those battery manufacturing operations listed above.

[49 FR 9134, Mar. 9, 1984; 49 FR 13879, Apr. 9, 1984]

§461.14   Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

(a) Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7 and §403.13, any existing source subject to this subpart which introduces pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403 and achieve the pretreatment standards for existing sources listed below:

(1) Subpart A—Electrodeposited Anodes.

PSES

Pollutant or pollutant propertyMaximum for any 1 dayMaximum for monthly average
  Metric units—mg/kg of cadmium
  English units—pounds per 1,000,000 pounds of cadmium
Cadmium11.955.27
Nickel67.4944.64
Zinc51.3221.44
Cobalt7.383.16

(2) Subpart A—Impregnated Anodes.

PSES

Pollutant or pollutant propertyMaximum for any 1 dayMaximum for monthly average
  Metric units—mg/kg of cadmium
  English units—pounds per 1,000,000 pounds of cadmium
Cadmium68.030.0
Nickel384.0254.0
Zinc292.0122.0
Cobalt42.018.0

(3) Subpart A—Nickel Electrodeposited Cathodes.

PSES

Pollutant or pollutant propertyMaximum for any 1 dayMaximum for monthly average
  Metric units—mg/kg of nickel applied
  English units—pounds per 1,000,000 pounds of nickel applied
Cadmium11.224.95
Nickel63.3641.91
Zinc48.1820.13
Cobalt6.932.97

(4) Subpart A—Nickel Impregnated Cathodes—PSES.

Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average
  Metric units—mg/kg of nickel applied
  English units—pounds per 1,000,000 pounds of nickel applied
Cadmium68.030.0
Nickel384.0254.0
Zinc292.0122.0
Cobalt42.018.0

(5) Subpart A—Miscellaneous Wastewater Streams—PSES.

Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average
  Metric units—mg/kg of cells produced
  English units—pounds per 1,000,000 pounds of cells produced
Cadmium0.790.35
Nickel4.472.96
Zinc3.401.42
Cobalt0.490.21

(6) Subpart A—Cadmium Powder Production—PSES.

Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average
  Metric units—mg/kg of cadmium powder produced
  English units—pounds per 1,000,000 pounds of cadmium powder produced
Cadmium2.230.99
Nickel12.618.34
Zinc9.594.01
Cobalt1.380.59

(7) Subpart A—Silver Powder Production—PSES.

Pollutant or pollutant propertyMaximum for any 1 dayMaximum for monthly average
  Metric units—mg/kg of silver powder produced
  English units—pounds per 1,000,000 pounds of silver powder produced
Cadmium1.090.48
Nickel6.164.08
Silver1.320.55
Zinc4.691.96
Cobalt0.670.29

(8) Subpart A—Cadmium Hydroxide Production—PSES.

Pollutant or pollutant propertyMaximum for any 1 dayMaximum for monthly average
  Metric units—mg/kg of cadmium used
  English units—pounds per 1,000,000 pounds of cadmium used
Cadmium0.050.02
Nickel0.270.18
Zinc0.200.09
Cobalt0.030.012

(9) Subpart A—Nickel Hydroxide Production—PSES.

Pollutant or pollutant propertyMaximum for any 1 dayMaximum for monthly average
  Metric units—mg/kg of nickel used
  English units—pounds per 1,000,000 pounds of nickel used
Cadmium5.612.48
Nickel31.6820.96
Zinc24.0910.07
Cobalt3.471.49

(b) There shall be no discharge allowance for process wastewater pollutants from any battery manufacturing operation other than those battery manufacturing operations listed above.

§461.15   Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

(a) Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7 any new source subject to this subpart that introduces pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403 and achieve the pretreatment standards for new sources listed below:

(1) Subpart A—Electrodeposited Anodes—PSNS.

Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average
  Metric units—mg/kg of cadmium
  English units—pounds per 1,000,000 pounds of cadmium
Cadmium7.032.81
Nickel19.3313.01
Zinc35.8514.76
Cobalt4.922.46

(2) Subpart A—Impregnated Anodes—PSNS.

Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average
  Metric units—mg/kg of cadmium
  English units—pounds per 1,000,000 pounds of cadmium
Cadmium40.016.0
Nickel110.074.0
Zinc204.084.0
Cobalt28.014.0

(3) Subpart A—Nickel Electrodeposited Cathodes—PSNS.

Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average
  Metric units—mg/kg of nickel applied
  English units—pounds per 1,000,000 pounds of nickel applied
Cadmium6.602.64
Nickel18.1512.21
Zinc33.6613.86
Cobalt4.622.31

(4) Subpart A—Nickel Impregnated Cathodes—PSNS.

Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average
  Metric units—mg/kg of nickel applied
  English units—pounds per 1,000,000 pounds of nickel applied
Cadmium40.016.0
Nickel110.074.0
Zinc204.084.0
Cobalt28.014.0

(5) Subpart A—Miscellaneous Wastewater Streams—PSNS.

Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average
  Metric units—mg/kg of cells produced
  English units—pounds per 1,000,000 pounds of cells produced
Cadmium0.470.19
Nickel1.280.86
Zinc2.380.98
Cobalt0.330.16

(6) Subpart A—Cadmium Powder Production—PSNS.

Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average.
  Metric units—mg/kg of cadmium powder produced
  English units—pounds per 1,000,000 pounds of cadmium powder produced
Cadmium1.310.53
Nickel3.612.43
Zinc6.702.76
Cobalt0.920.46

(7) Subpart A—Silver Powder Production—PSNS.

Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average.
  Metric units—mg/kg of silver powder produced
  English units—pounds per 1,000,000 pounds of silver powder produced
Cadmium0.640.26
Nickel1.771.19
Silver0.930.39
Zinc3.271.35
Cobalt0.450.22

(8) Subpart A—Cadmium Hydroxide Production—PSNS.

Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average
  Metric units—mg/kg of cadmium used
  English units—pounds per 1,000,000 pounds of cadmium used
Cadmium0.0280.011
Nickel0.0770.051
Zinc0.1420.058
Cobalt0.0190.009

(9) Subpart A—Nickel Hydroxide Production—PSNS.

Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average
  Metric units—mg/kg of nickel used
  English units—pounds per 1,000,000 pounds of nickel used
Cadmium3.301.32
Nickel9.086.11
Zinc16.836.93
Cobalt2.311.16

(b) There shall be no discharge allowance for process wastewater pollutants from any battery manufacturing operation other than those battery manufacturing operations listed above.

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