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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of December 11, 2019

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter NPart 435 → Subpart D


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 435—OIL AND GAS EXTRACTION POINT SOURCE CATEGORY


Subpart D—Coastal Subcategory


Contents
§435.40   Applicability; description of the coastal subcategory.
§435.41   Specialized definitions.
§435.42   Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT).
§435.43   Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT).
§435.44   Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT).
§435.45   Standards of performance for new sources (NSPS).
§435.46   Pretreatment standards of performance for existing sources (PSES).
§435.47   Pretreatment standards of performance for new sources (PSNS).
Appendix 1 to Subpart D of Part 435—Procedure for Determining When Coastal Cook Inlet Operators Qualify for an Exemption From the Zero Discharge Requirement for EMO-Cuttings and SBF-Cuttings in Coastal Cook Inlet, Alaska

Source: 61 FR 66125, Dec. 16, 1996, unless otherwise noted.

§435.40   Applicability; description of the coastal subcategory.

The provisions of this subpart are applicable to those facilities engaged in field exploration, drilling, well production, and well treatment in the oil and gas industry in areas defined as “coastal.” The term “coastal” shall mean:

(a) Any location in or on a water of the United States landward of the inner boundary of the territorial seas; or

(b)(1) Any location landward from the inner boundary of the territorial seas and bounded on the inland side by the line defined by the inner boundary of the territorial seas eastward of the point defined by 89°45 West Longitude and 29°46 North Latitude and continuing as follows west of that point:

Direction to west
longitude
Direction to north
latitude
West, 89°48North, 29°50.
West, 90°12North, 30°06.
West, 90°20South, 29°35.
West, 90°35South, 29°30.
West, 90°43South, 29°25.
West, 90°57North, 29°32.
West, 91°02North, 29°40.
West, 91°14South, 29°32.
West, 91°27North, 29°37.
West, 91°33North, 29°46.
West, 91°46North, 29°50.
West, 91°50North, 29°55.
West, 91°56South, 29°50.
West, 92°10South, 29°44.
West, 92°55North, 29°46.
West, 93°15North, 30°14.
West, 93°49South, 30°07.
West, 94°03South, 30°03.
West, 94°10South, 30°00.
West, 94°20South, 29°53.
West, 95°00South, 29°35.
West, 95°13South, 29°28.
East, 95°08South, 29°15.
West, 95°11South, 29°08.
West, 95°22South, 28°56.
West, 95°30South, 28°55.
West, 95°33South, 28°49.
West, 95°40South, 28°47.
West, 96°42South, 28°41.
East, 96°40South, 28°28.
West, 96°54South, 28°20.
West, 97°03South, 28°13.
West, 97°15South, 27°58.
West, 97°40South, 27°45.
West, 97°46South, 27°28.
West, 97°51South, 27°22.
East, 97°46South, 27°14.
East, 97°30South, 26°30.
East, 97°26South, 26°11.

(2) East to 97°19 West Longitude and Southward to the U.S.-Mexican border.

§435.41   Specialized definitions.

For the purpose of this subpart:

(a) Except as provided below, the general definitions, abbreviations and methods of analysis set forth in 40 CFR part 401 shall apply to this subpart.

(b) Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days means the average of the daily values obtained during any 30 consecutive day period.

(c) Base fluid means the continuous phase or suspending medium of a drilling fluid formulation.

(d) Base fluid retained on cuttings as applied to BAT effluent limitations and NSPS refers to the “Determination of the Amount of Non-Aqueous Drilling Fluid (NAF) Base Fluid from Drill Cuttings by a Retort Chamber (Derived from API Recommended Practice 13B-2)”, EPA Method 1674, which is published as an appendix to Subpart A of this part and in “Analytic Methods for the Oil and Gas Extraction Point Source Category,” EPA-821-R-11-004. See paragraph (mm) of this section.

(e) Biodegradation rate as applied to BAT effluent limitations and NSPS for drilling fluids and drill cuttings refers to the “Protocol for the Determination of Degradation of Non Aqueous Base Fluids in a Marine Closed Bottle Biodegradation Test System: Modified ISO 11734:1995,” EPA Method 1647, supplemented with “Procedure for Mixing Base Fluids With Sediments,” EPA Method 1646. Both EPA Method 1646 and 1647 are published as appendices to Subpart A of this part and in “Analytic Methods for the Oil and Gas Extraction Point Source Category,” EPA-821-R-11-004. See paragraph (mm) of this section.

(f) Cook Inlet refers to coastal locations north of the line between Cape Douglas on the West and Port Chatham on the east.

(g) Daily values as applied to produced water effluent limitations and NSPS means the daily measurements used to assess compliance with the maximum for any one day.

(h) Deck drainage means any waste resulting from deck washings, spillage, rainwater, and runoff from gutters and drains including drip pans and work areas within facilities subject to this subpart.

(i) Development facility means any fixed or mobile structure subject to this subpart that is engaged in the drilling of productive wells.

(j) Dewatering effluent means wastewater from drilling fluids and drill cuttings dewatering activities (including but not limited to reserve pits or other tanks or vessels, and chemical or mechanical treatment occurring during the drilling solids separation/recycle/disposal process).

(k) Diesel oil refers to the grade of distillate fuel oil, as specified in the American Society for Testing and Materials Standard Specification for Diesel Fuel Oils D975-91, that is typically used as the continuous phase in conventional oil-based drilling fluids. This incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the American Society for Testing and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428. Copies may be inspected at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal__register/code__of__federal__regulations/ibr__locations.html.\n. A copy may also be inspected at EPA's Water Docket, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20460.

(l) Domestic waste means the materials discharged from sinks, showers, laundries, safety showers, eye-wash stations, hand-wash stations, fish cleaning stations, and galleys located within facilities subject to this subpart.

(m) Drill cuttings means the particles generated by drilling into subsurface geologic formations and carried out from the wellbore with the drilling fluid. Examples of drill cuttings include small pieces of rock varying in size and texture from fine silt to gravel. Drill cuttings are generally generated from solids control equipment and settle out and accumulate in quiescent areas in the solids control equipment or other equipment processing drilling fluid (i.e., accumulated solids).

(1) Wet drill cuttings means the unaltered drill cuttings and adhering drilling fluid and formation oil carried out from the wellbore with the drilling fluid.

(2) Dry drill cuttings means the residue remaining in the retort vessel after completing the retort procedure specified in EPA Method 1674, which is published as an appendix to Subpart A of this part and in “Analytic Methods for the Oil and Gas Extraction Point Source Category,” EPA-821-R-11-004. See paragraph (mm) of this section.

(n) Drilling fluid means the circulating fluid (mud) used in the rotary drilling of wells to clean and condition the hole and to counterbalance formation pressure. Classes of drilling fluids are:

(1) Water-based drilling fluid means the continuous phase and suspending medium for solids is a water-miscible fluid, regardless of the presence of oil.

(2) Non-aqueous drilling fluid means the continuous phase and suspending medium for solids is a water-immiscible fluid, such as oleaginous materials (e.g., mineral oil, enhanced mineral oil, paraffinic oil, C16-C18 internal olefins, and C8-C16 fatty acid/2-ethylhexyl esters).

(i) Oil-based means the continuous phase of the drilling fluid consists of diesel oil, mineral oil, or some other oil, but contains no synthetic material or enhanced mineral oil.

(ii) Enhanced mineral oil-based means the continuous phase of the drilling fluid is enhanced mineral oil.

(iii) Synthetic-based means the continuous phase of the drilling fluid is a synthetic material or a combination of synthetic materials.

(o) Enhanced mineral oil as applied to enhanced mineral oil-based drilling fluid means a petroleum distillate which has been highly purified and is distinguished from diesel oil and conventional mineral oil in having a lower polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content. Typically, conventional mineral oils have a PAH content on the order of 0.35 weight percent expressed as phenanthrene, whereas enhanced mineral oils typically have a PAH content of 0.001 or lower weight percent PAH expressed as phenanthrene.

(p) Exploratory facility means any fixed or mobile structure subject to this subpart that is engaged in the drilling of wells to determine the nature of potential hydrocarbon reservoirs.

(q) Formation oil means the oil from a producing formation which is detected in the drilling fluid, as determined by the GC/MS compliance assurance method, EPA Method 1655, when the drilling fluid is analyzed before being shipped offshore, and as determined by the RPE method, EPA Method 1670, when the drilling fluid is analyzed at the offshore point of discharge. The GC/MS compliance assurance method and the RPE method approved for use with this part are published as appendices to Subpart A of this part and in “Analytic Methods for the Oil and Gas Extraction Point Source Category,” EPA-821-R-11-004. See paragraph (mm) of this section. Detection of formation oil by the RPE method may be confirmed by the GC/MS compliance assurance method, and the results of the GC/MS compliance assurance method shall supersede those of the RPE method.

(r) Garbage means all kinds of victual, domestic, and operational waste, excluding fresh fish and parts thereof, generated during the normal operation of coastal oil and gas facility and liable to be disposed of continuously or periodically, except dishwater, graywater, and those substances that are defined or listed in other Annexes to MARPOL 73/78. A copy of MARPOL may be inspected at EPA's Water Docket, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20460.

(s) M9IM means those offshore facilities continuously manned by nine (9) or fewer persons or only intermittently manned by any number of persons.

(t) M10 means those offshore facilities continuously manned by ten (10) or more persons.

(u) Maximum as applied to BAT effluent limitations and NSPS for drilling fluids and drill cuttings means the maximum concentration allowed as measured in any single sample of the barite for determination of cadmium and mercury content.

(v) Maximum for any one day as applied to BPT, BCT and BAT effluent limitations and NSPS for oil and grease in produced water means the maximum concentration allowed as measured by the average of four grab samples collected over a 24-hour period that are analyzed separately. Alternatively, for BAT and NSPS the maximum concentration allowed may be determined on the basis of physical composition of the four grab samples prior to a single analysis.

(w) Minimum as applied to BAT effluent limitations and NSPS for drilling fluids and drill cuttings means the minimum 96-hour LC50. value allowed as measured in any single sample of the discharged waste stream. Minimum as applied to BPT and BCT effluent limitations and NSPS for sanitary wastes means the minimum concentration value allowed as measured in any single sample of the discharged waste stream.

(x)(1) New source means any facility or activity of this subcategory that meets the definition of “new source” under 40 CFR 122.2 and meets the criteria for determination of new sources under 40 CFR 122.29(b) applied consistently with all of the following definitions:

(i) Water area as used in “site” in 40 CFR 122.29 and 122.2 means the water area and water body floor beneath any exploratory, development, or production facility where such facility is conducting its exploratory, development or production activities.

(ii) Significant site preparation work as used in 40 CFR 122.29 means the process of surveying, clearing or preparing an area of the water body floor for the purpose of constructing or placing a development or production facility on or over the site.

(2) “New Source” does not include facilities covered by an existing NPDES permit immediately prior to the effective date of these guidelines pending EPA issuance of a new source NPDES permit.

(y) No discharge of free oil means that waste streams may not be discharged that contain free oil as evidenced by the monitoring method specified for that particular stream, e.g., deck drainage or miscellaneous discharges cannot be discharged when they would cause a film or sheen upon or discoloration of the surface of the receiving water; drilling fluids or cuttings may not be discharged when they fail EPA Method 1617 (Static Sheen Test), which is published as an appendix to Subpart A of this part and in “Analytic Methods for the Oil and Gas Extraction Point Source Category,” EPA-821-R-11-004. See paragraph (mm) of this section.

(z) Parameters that are regulated in this subpart and listed with approved methods of analysis in Table 1B at 40 CFR 136.3 are defined as follows:

(1) Cadmium means total cadmium.

(2) Chlorine means total residual chlorine.

(3) Mercury means total mercury.

(4) Oil and Grease means total recoverable oil and grease.

(aa) Produced sand means the slurried particles used in hydraulic fracturing, the accumulated formation sands and scales particles generated during production. Produced sand also includes desander discharge from the produced water waste stream, and blowdown of the water phase from the produced water treating system.

(bb) Produced water means the water (brine) brought up from the hydrocarbon-bearing strata during the extraction of oil and gas, and can include formation water, injection water, and any chemicals added downhole or during the oil/water separation process.

(cc) Production facility means any fixed or mobile structure subject to this subpart that is either engaged in well completion or used for active recovery of hydrocarbons from producing formations. It includes facilities that are engaged in hydrocarbon fluids separation even if located separately from wellheads.

(dd) Sanitary waste means the human body waste discharged from toilets and urinals located within facilities subject to this subpart.

(ee) SPP toxicity as applied to BAT effluent limitations and NSPS for drilling fluids and drill cuttings refers to the bioassay test procedure, “Suspended Particulate Phase (SPP) Toxicity Test,” presented in EPA Method 1619, which is published as an appendix to Subpart A of this part and in “Analytic Methods for the Oil and Gas Extraction Point Source Category,” EPA-821-R-11-004. See paragraph (mm) of this section.

(ff) Static sheen test means the standard test procedure that has been developed for this industrial subcategory for the purpose of demonstrating compliance with the requirement of no discharge of free oil. The methodology for performing the static sheen test is presented in EPA Method 1617, which is published as an appendix to Subpart A of this part and in “Analytic Methods for the Oil and Gas Extraction Point Source Category,” EPA-821-R-11-004. See paragraph (mm) of this section.

(gg) Stock barite means the barite that was used to formulate a drilling fluid.

(hh) Synthetic material as applied to synthetic-based drilling fluid means material produced by the reaction of specific purified chemical feedstock, as opposed to the traditional base fluids such as diesel and mineral oil which are derived from crude oil solely through physical separation processes. Physical separation processes include fractionation and distillation and/or minor chemical reactions such as cracking and hydro processing. Since they are synthesized by the reaction of purified compounds, synthetic materials suitable for use in drilling fluids are typically free of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) but are sometimes found to contain levels of PAH up to 0.001 weight percent PAH expressed as phenanthrene. Internal olefins and vegetable esters are two examples of synthetic materials suitable for use by the oil and gas extraction industry in formulating drilling fluids. Internal olefins are synthesized from the isomerization of purified straight-chain (linear) hydrocarbons such as C16-C18 linear alpha olefins. C16-C18 linear alpha olefins are unsaturated hydrocarbons with the carbon to carbon double bond in the terminal position. Internal olefins are typically formed from heating linear alpha olefins with a catalyst. The feed material for synthetic linear alpha olefins is typically purified ethylene. Vegetable esters are synthesized from the acid-catalyzed esterification of vegetable fatty acids with various alcohols. EPA listed these two branches of synthetic fluid base materials to provide examples, and EPA does not mean to exclude other synthetic materials that are either in current use or may be used in the future. A synthetic-based drilling fluid may include a combination of synthetic materials.

(ii) Well completion fluids means salt solutions, weighted brines, polymers, and various additives used to prevent damage to the well bore during operations which prepare the drilled well for hydrocarbon production.

(jj) Well treatment fluids means any fluid used to restore or improve productivity by chemically or physically altering hydrocarbon-bearing strata after a well has been drilled.

(kk) Workover fluids means salt solutions, weighted brines, polymers, or other specialty additives used in a producing well to allow for maintenance, repair or abandonment procedures.

(ll) 96-hour LC5. means the concentration (parts per million) or percent of the suspended particulate phase (SPP) from a sample that is lethal to 50 percent of the test organisms exposed to that concentration of the SPP after 96 hours of constant exposure.

(mm) Analytic Methods for the Oil and Gas Extraction Point Source Category is the EPA document, EPA-821-R-11-004, that compiles analytic methods for this category. Copies may be inspected at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal__register/code__of__federal__regulations/ibr__locations.html.\n. A copy may also be inspected at EPA's Water Docket, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20460. This method may be obtained at http://water.epa.gov/scitech/methods/cwa/index.cfm.

[61 FR 66125, Dec. 16, 1996; 62 FR 1681, Jan. 13, 1997, as amended at 66 FR 6914, Jan. 22, 2001; 69 FR 18803, Apr. 9, 2004; 77 FR 29845, May 18, 2012]

§435.42   Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT).

Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30-125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve the following effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available.

BPT Effluent Limitations—Oil and Grease

[In milligrams per liter]

Pollutant parameter waste source Maximum for any 1 day Average of values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed Residual chlorine minimum for any 1 day
Produced water7248NA
Deck drainage(1)(1)NA
Water-based:
Drilling fluids(1)(1)NA
Drill Cuttings(1)(1)NA
Non-aqueous:
Drilling fluidsNo dischargeNo dischargeNA
Drill Cuttings(1)(1)NA
Well treatment, workover, and completion fluids(1)(1)NA
Sanitary:
M10NANA21
M9IM3NANANA
Domestic3NANANA
Produced sandZero dischargeZero dischargeNA

1No discharge of free oil. See §435.41(y).

2Minimum of 1 mg/l and maintained as close to this concentration as possible.

3There shall be no floating solids as a result of the discharge of these wastes.

[61 FR 66125, Dec. 16, 1996, as amended at 66 FR 6916, Jan. 22, 2001; 77 FR 29846, May 18, 2012]

§435.43   Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT).

Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30-125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve the following effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT):

BAT Effluent Limitations

Stream Pollutant parameter BAT effluent limitations
Produced Water:
(A) All coastal areas except Cook InletNo discharge.
(B) Cook InletOil & GreaseThe maximum for any one day shall not exceed 42 mg/l, and the 30-day average shall not exceed 29 mg/l.
Drilling Fluids, Drill Cuttings, and Dewatering Effluent:1
(A) All coastal areas except Cook InletNo discharge.
(B) Cook Inlet:
Water-based drilling fluids, drill cuttings, and dewatering effluentSPP ToxicityMinimum 96-hour LC50. of the SPP Toxicity Test4 shall be 3% by volume.
   Free oilNo discharge.2
   Diesel oilNo discharge.
   Mercury1 mg/kg dry weight maximum in the stock barite.
   Cadmium3 mg/kg dry weight maximum in the stock barite.
Non-aqueous drilling fluids and dewatering effluent   No discharge.
Drill cuttings associated with non-aqueous drilling fluids   No discharge.5
Well Treatment, Workover and Completion Fluids:
(A) All coastal areas except Cook InletNo discharge.
(B) Cook InletOil & GreaseThe maximum for any one day shall not exceed 42 mg/l, and the 30-day average shall not exceed 29 mg/l.
Produced SandNo discharge.
Deck DrainageFree Oil3No discharge.
Domestic WasteFoamNo discharge.

1BAT limitations for dewatering effluent are applicable prospectively, BAT limitations in this rule are not applicable to discharges of dewatering effluent from reserve pits which as of the effective date of this rule no longer receive drilling fluids and drill cuttings. Limitations on such discharges shall be determined by the NPDES permit issuing authority.

2As determined by the static sheen test. See §435.41(ff).

3As determined by the presence of a film or sheen upon or a discoloration of the surface of the receiving water (visual sheen).

4As determined by the suspended particulate phase (SPP) toxicity test. See §435.41(ee).

5When Cook Inlet operators cannot comply with this no discharge requirement due to technical limitations (see appendix 1 of subpart D of this part), Cook Inlet operators shall meet the same stock limitations (C16-C18 internal olefin) and discharge limitations for drill cuttings associated with non-aqueous drilling fluids for operators in Offshore waters (see §435.13) in order to discharge drill cuttings associated with non-aqueous drilling fluids.

[61 FR 66125, Dec. 16, 1996; 62 FR 1681, Jan. 13, 1997, as amended at 66 FR 6917, Jan. 22, 2001; 77 FR 29846, May 18, 2012]

§435.44   Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT).

Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30-125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve the following effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT):

BCT Effluent Limitations

Stream Pollutant parameter BCT effluent limitations
Produced Water (all facilities)Oil & GreaseThe maximum for any one day shall not exceed 72 mg/l and the 30-day average shall not exceed 48 mg/l.
Drilling Fluids and Drill Cuttings and Dewatering Effluent:1
All facilities except Cook InletNo discharge.
Cook Inlet:
Water-based drilling fluids, drill cuttings, and dewatering effluentFree OilNo discharge.2
Non-aqueous drilling fluids and dewatering effluent   No discharge.
Drill cuttings associated with non-aqueous drilling fluidsFree OilNo discharge.2
Well Treatment, Workover and Completion FluidsFree OilNo discharge.2
Produced SandNo discharge.
Deck DrainageFree OilNo discharge.3
Sanitary Waste:
Sanitary M10Residual ChlorineMinimum of 1 mg/l maintained as close to this concentration as possible.
Sanitary M91MFloating SolidsNo discharge.
Domestic WasteFloating Solids and garbageNo discharge of Floating Solids or garbage.

1BCT limitations for dewatering effluent are applicable prospectively. BCT limitations in this rule are not applicable to discharges of dewatering effluent from reserve pits which as of the effective date of this rule no longer receive drilling fluids and drill cuttings. Limitations on such discharges shall be determined by the NPDES permit issuing authority.

2As determined by the static sheen test. See §435.41(ff).

3As determined by the presence of a film or sheen upon or a discoloration of the surface of the receiving water (visual sheen).

[61 FR 66125, Dec. 16, 1996; 62 FR 1682, Jan. 13, 1997, as amended at 66 FR 6917, Jan. 22, 2001; 77 FR 29846, May 18, 2012]

§435.45   Standards of performance for new sources (NSPS).

Any new source subject to this subpart must achieve the following new source performance standards (NSPS):

NSPS Effluent Limitations

StreamPollutant parameterNSPS effluent limitations
Produced Water:
(A) All coastal areas except Cook InletNo discharge.
(B) Cook InletOil & GreaseThe maximum for any one day shall not exceed 42 mg/l, and the 30-day average shall not exceed 29 mg/l.
Drilling Fluids, Drill Cuttings, and Dewatering Effluent:1
(A) All coastal areas except Cook InletNo discharge.
(B) Cook Inlet:
Water-based drilling fluids, drill cuttings, and dewatering effluentSPP ToxicityMinimum 96-hour LC50. of the SPP Toxicity Test4 shall be 3% by volume.
   Free oilNo discharge.2
   Diesel oilNo discharge.
   Mercury1 mg/kg dry weight maximum in the stock barite.
   Cadmium3 mg/kg dry weight maximum in the stock barite.
Non-aqueous drilling fluids and dewatering effluent   No discharge.
Drill cuttings associated with non-aqueous drilling fluids   No discharge.5
Well Treatment, Workover and Completion Fluids:
(A) All coastal areas except Cook InletNo discharge.
(B) Cook InletOil & GreaseThe maximum for any one day shall not exceed 42 mg/l, and the 30-day average shall not exceed 29 mg/l.
Produced SandNo discharge.
Deck DrainageFree Oil3No discharge.
Sanitary Waste
Sanitary M10Residual ChlorineMinimum of 1 mg/l and maintained as close to this concentration as possible.
Sanitary M9IMFloating SolidsNo discharge.
Domestic WasteFloating Solids, Garbage and FoamNo discharge of floating solids or garbage or foam.

1NSPS limitations for dewatering effluent are applicable prospectively. NSPS limitations in this rule are not applicable to discharges of dewatering effluent from reserve pits which as of the effective date of this rule no longer receive drilling fluids and drill cuttings. Limitations on such discharges shall be determined by the NPDES permit issuing authority.

2As determined by the static sheen test. See §435.41(ff).

3As determined by the presence of a film or sheen upon or a discoloration of the surface of the receiving water (visual sheen).

4As determined by the suspended particulate phase (SPP) toxicity test. See §435.41(ee).

5When Cook Inlet operators cannot comply with this no discharge requirement due to technical limitations (see appendix 1 of subpart D of this part), Cook Inlet operators shall meet the same stock limitations (C16-C18 internal olefin) and discharge limitations for drill cuttings associated with non-aqueous drilling fluids for operators in Offshore waters (see §435.15) in order to discharge drill cuttings associated with non-aqueous drilling fluids.

[61 FR 66125, Dec. 16, 1996; 62 FR 1682, Jan. 13, 1997, as amended at 66 FR 6918, Jan. 22, 2001; 77 FR 29846, May 18, 2012]

§435.46   Pretreatment standards of performance for existing sources (PSES).

Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7 and 403.13, any existing source with discharges subject to this subpart that introduces pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403 and achieve the following pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

PSES Effluent Limitations

Stream Pollutant parameter PSES effluent limitations
Produced WaterNo discharge.
Drilling Fluids and Drill Cuttings Well Treatment
Workover and Completion FluidsNo discharge.
Produced SandNo discharge.
Deck DrainageNo discharge.

§435.47   Pretreatment standards of performance for new sources (PSNS).

Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7 and 403.13, any new source with discharges subject to this subpart that introduces pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403 and achieve the following pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

PSNS Effluent Limitations

Stream Pollutant
parameter
PSNS effluent limitations
Produced Water (all facilities)No discharge.
Drilling fluids and Drill CuttingsNo discharge.
Well Treatment, Workover and Completion FluidsNo discharge.
Produced SandNo discharge.
Deck DrainageNo discharge.

Appendix 1 to Subpart D of Part 435—Procedure for Determining When Coastal Cook Inlet Operators Qualify for an Exemption From the Zero Discharge Requirement for EMO-Cuttings and SBF-Cuttings in Coastal Cook Inlet, Alaska

1.0   Scope and Application

This appendix is to be used to determine whether a Cook Inlet, Alaska, operator in Coastal waters (Coastal Cook Inlet operator) qualifies for the exemption to the zero discharge requirement established by 40 CFR 435.43 and 435.45 for drill cuttings associated with the following non-aqueous drilling fluids: enhanced mineral oil based drilling fluids (EMO-cuttings) and synthetic-based drilling fluids (SBF-cuttings). Coastal Cook Inlet operators are prohibited from discharging oil-based drilling fluids. This appendix is intended to define those situations under which technical limitations preclude Coastal Cook Inlet operators from complying with the zero discharge requirement for EMO-cuttings and SBF-cuttings. Coastal Cook Inlet operators that qualify for this exemption may be authorized to discharge EMO-cuttings and SBF-cuttings subject to the limitations applicable to operators in Offshore waters (see subpart A of this part).

2.0   Method

2.1   Any Coastal Cook Inlet operator must achieve the zero discharge limit for EMO-cuttings and SBF-cuttings unless it successfully demonstrates that technical limitations prevent it from being able to dispose of its EMO-cuttings or SBF-cuttings through on-site annular disposal, injection into a Class II underground injection control (UIC) well, or onshore land application.

2.2   To successfully demonstrate that technical limitations prevent it from being able to dispose of its EMO-cuttings or SBF-cuttings through on-site annular disposal, a Coastal Cook Inlet operator must show that it has been unable to establish formation injection in nearby wells that were initially considered for annular or dedicated disposal of EMO-cuttings or SBF-cuttings or prove to the satisfaction of the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (AOGCC) that the EMO-cuttings or SBF-cuttings will be confined to the formation disposal interval. This demonstration must include:

a. Documentation, including engineering analysis, that shows (1) an inability to establish formation injection (e.g., formation is too tight), (2) an inability to confine EMO-cuttings or SBF-cuttings in disposal formation (e.g., no confining zone or adequate barrier to confine wastes in formation), or (3) the occurrence of high risk emergency (e.g., mechanical failure of well, loss of ability to inject that risks loss of well which would cause significant economic harm or create a substantial risk to safety); and

b. A risk analysis of alternative disposal options, including environmental assessment, human health and safety, and economic impact, that shows discharge as the lowest risk option.

2.3   To successfully demonstrate that technical limitations prevent it from being able to dispose of its EMO-cuttings or SBF-cuttings through injection into a Class II UIC well, a Coastal Cook Inlet operator must show that it has been unable to establish injection into a Class II UIC well or prove to the satisfaction of the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (AOGCC) that the EMO-cuttings or SBF-cuttings will be confined to the formation disposal interval. This demonstration must include:

a. Documentation, including engineering analysis, that shows the inability to confine EMO-cuttings or SBF-cuttings in a Class II UIC well (e.g., no confining zone or adequate barrier to confine wastes in formation);

b. Documentation demonstrating that no Class II UIC well is accessible (e.g., operator does not own, competitor will not allow injection); and

c. A risk analysis of alternative disposal option, including environmental assessment, human health and safety, and economic impact, that shows discharge as the lowest risk option.

2.4   To successfully demonstrate that technical limitations prevent it from being able to dispose of its EMO-cuttings or SBF-cuttings through land application, a Coastal Cook Inlet operator must show that it has been unable to handle drilling waste or dispose of EMO-cuttings or SBF-cuttings at an appropriate land disposal site. This demonstration must include:

a. Documentation of site restrictions that preclude land application (e.g., no land disposal sites available);

b. Documentation of the platform's lack of capacity for adequate storage of EMO-cuttings or SBF-cuttings (e.g., limited storage or room for cuttings transfer); or

c. Documentation of inability to transfer EMO-cuttings or SBF-cuttings from platform to land for disposal (e.g., extremely low tides, high wave action).

3.0   Procedure

3.1   Except as described in Section 3.2 of this appendix, a Coastal Cook Inlet operator believing that it qualifies for the exemption to the zero discharge requirement for EMO-cuttings or SBF-cuttings must apply for and obtain an individual NPDES permit prior to discharging EMO-cuttings or SBF-cuttings to waters of the United States.

3.2   Discharges occurring as the result a high risk emergency (e.g., mechanical failure of well, loss of ability to inject that risks loss of well which would cause significant economic harm or safety) may be authorized by a general NPDES permit provided that:

a. The Coastal Cook Inlet operator satisfactorily demonstrates to EPA Region 10 the fulfillment of the other exemption requirements described in Section 2.0 of this appendix, or

b. The general permit allows for high risk emergency discharges and provides Reporting Requirements to EPA Region 10 immediately upon commencing discharge.

[66 FR 6918, Jan. 22, 2001]

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