e-CFR banner

Home
gpo.gov
govinfo.gov

e-CFR Navigation Aids

Browse

Simple Search

Advanced Search

 — Boolean

 — Proximity

 

Search History

Search Tips

Corrections

Latest Updates

User Info

FAQs

Agency List

Incorporation By Reference

eCFR logo

Related Resources

 

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of November 18, 2019

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter OPart 503 → Subpart D


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 503—STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE


Subpart D—Pathogens and Vector Attraction Reduction


Contents
§503.30   Scope.
§503.31   Special definitions.
§503.32   Pathogens.
§503.33   Vector attraction reduction.

§503.30   Scope.

(a) This subpart contains the requirements for a sewage sludge to be classified either Class A or Class B with respect to pathogens.

(b) This subpart contains the site restrictions for land on which a Class B sewage sludge is applied.

(c) This subpart contains the pathogen requirements for domestic septage applied to agricultural land, forest, or a reclamation site.

(d) This subpart contains alternative vector attraction reduction requirements for sewage sludge that is applied to the land or placed on a surface disposal site.

§503.31   Special definitions.

(a) Aerobic digestion is the biochemical decomposition of organic matter in sewage sludge into carbon dioxide and water by microorganisms in the presence of air.

(b) Anaerobic digestion is the biochemical decomposition of organic matter in sewage sludge into methane gas and carbon dioxide by microorganisms in the absence of air.

(c) Density of microorganisms is the number of microorganisms per unit mass of total solids (dry weight) in the sewage sludge.

(d) Land with a high potential for public exposure is land that the public uses frequently. This includes, but is not limited to, a public contact site and a reclamation site located in a populated area (e.g, a construction site located in a city).

(e) Land with a low potential for public exposure is land that the public uses infrequently. This includes, but is not limited to, agricultural land, forest, and a reclamation site located in an unpopulated area (e.g., a strip mine located in a rural area).

(f) Pathogenic organisms are disease-causing organisms. These include, but are not limited to, certain bacteria, protozoa, viruses, and viable helminth ova.

(g) pH means the logarithm of the reciprocal of the hydrogen ion concentration measured at 25 °Centigrade or measured at another temperature and then converted to an equivalent value at 25 °Centigrade.

(h) Specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) is the mass of oxygen consumed per unit time per unit mass of total solids (dry weight basis) in the sewage sludge.

(i) Total solids are the materials in sewage sludge that remain as residue when the sewage sludge is dried at 103 to 105 degrees Celsius.

(j) Unstabilized solids are organic materials in sewage sludge that have not been treated in either an aerobic or anaerobic treatment process.

(k) Vector attraction is the characteristic of sewage sludge that attracts rodents, flies, mosquitos, or other organisms capable of transporting infectious agents.

(l) Volatile solids is the amount of the total solids in sewage sludge lost when the sewage sludge is combusted at 550 degrees Celsius in the presence of excess air.

[58 FR 9387, Feb. 19, 1993, as amended at 64 FR 42571, Aug. 4, 1999]

§503.32   Pathogens.

(a) Sewage sludge—Class A. (1) The requirement in §503.32(a)(2) and the requirements in either §503.32(a)(3), (a)(4), (a)(5), (a)(6), (a)(7), or (a)(8) shall be met for a sewage sludge to be classified Class A with respect to pathogens.

(2) The Class A pathogen requirements in §503.32 (a)(3) through (a)(8) shall be met either prior to meeting or at the same time the vector attraction reduction requirements in §503.33, except the vector attraction reduction requirements in §503.33 (b)(6) through (b)(8), are met.

(3) Class A—Alternative 1. (i) Either the density of fecal coliform in the sewage sludge shall be less than 1000 Most Probable Number per gram of total solids (dry weight basis), or the density of Salmonella sp. bacteria in the sewage sludge shall be less than three Most Probable Number per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the sewage sludge is used or disposed; at the time the sewage sludge is prepared for sale or give away in a bag or other container for application to the land; or at the time the sewage sludge or material derived from sewage sludge is prepared to meet the requirements in §503.10 (b), (c), (e), or (f).

(ii) The temperature of the sewage sludge that is used or disposed shall be maintained at a specific value for a period of time.

(A) When the percent solids of the sewage sludge is seven percent or higher, the temperature of the sewage sludge shall be 50 degrees Celsius or higher; the time period shall be 20 minutes or longer; and the temperature and time period shall be determined using equation (2), except when small particles of sewage sludge are heated by either warmed gases or an immiscible liquid.

eCFR graphic ec15no91.193.gif

View or download PDF

Where,

D = time in days.

t = temperature in degrees Celsius.

(B) When the percent solids of the sewage sludge is seven percent or higher and small particles of sewage sludge are heated by either warmed gases or an immiscible liquid, the temperature of the sewage sludge shall be 50 degrees Celsius or higher; the time period shall be 15 seconds or longer; and the temperature and time period shall be determined using equation (2).

(C) When the percent solids of the sewage sludge is less than seven percent and the time period is at least 15 seconds, but less than 30 minutes, the temperature and time period shall be determined using equation (2).

(D) When the percent solids of the sewage sludge is less than seven percent; the temperature of the sewage sludge is 50 degrees Celsius or higher; and the time period is 30 minutes or longer, the temperature and time period shall be determined using equation (3).

eCFR graphic ec15no91.194.gif

View or download PDF

Where,

D = time in days.

t = temperature in degrees Celsius.

(4) Class A—Alternative 2. (i) Either the density of fecal coliform in the sewage sludge shall be less than 1000 Most Probable Number per gram of total solids (dry weight basis), or the density of Salmonella sp. bacteria in the sewage sludge shall be less than three Most Probable Number per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the sewage sludge is used or disposed; at the time the sewage sludge is prepared for sale or give away in a bag or other container for application to the land; or at the time the sewage sludge or material derived from sewage sludge is prepared to meet the requirements in §503.10 (b), (c), (e), or (f).

(ii)(A) The pH of the sewage sludge that is used or disposed shall be raised to above 12 and shall remain above 12 for 72 hours.

(B) The temperature of the sewage sludge shall be above 52 degrees Celsius for 12 hours or longer during the period that the pH of the sewage sludge is above 12.

(C) At the end of the 72 hour period during which the pH of the sewage sludge is above 12, the sewage sludge shall be air dried to achieve a percent solids in the sewage sludge greater than 50 percent.

(5) Class A—Alternative 3. (i) Either the density of fecal coliform in the sewage sludge shall be less than 1000 Most Probable Number per gram of total solids (dry weight basis), or the density of Salmonella sp. bacteria in sewage sludge shall be less than three Most Probable Number per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the sewage sludge is used or disposed; at the time the sewage sludge is prepared for sale or give away in a bag or other container for application to the land; or at the time the sewage sludge or material derived from sewage sludge is prepared to meet the requirements in §503.10 (b), (c), (e), or (f).

(ii)(A) The sewage sludge shall be analyzed prior to pathogen treatment to determine whether the sewage sludge contains enteric viruses.

(B) When the density of enteric viruses in the sewage sludge prior to pathogen treatment is less than one Plaque-forming Unit per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis), the sewage sludge is Class A with respect to enteric viruses until the next monitoring episode for the sewage sludge.

(C) When the density of enteric viruses in the sewage sludge prior to pathogen treatment is equal to or greater than one Plaque-forming Unit per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis), the sewage sludge is Class A with respect to enteric viruses when the density of enteric viruses in the sewage sludge after pathogen treatment is less than one Plaque-forming Unit per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) and when the values or ranges of values for the operating parameters for the pathogen treatment process that produces the sewage sludge that meets the enteric virus density requirement are documented.

(D) After the enteric virus reduction in paragraph (a)(5)(ii)(C) of this section is demonstrated for the pathogen treatment process, the sewage sludge continues to be Class A with respect to enteric viruses when the values for the pathogen treatment process operating parameters are consistent with the values or ranges of values documented in paragraph (a)(5)(ii)(C) of this section.

(iii)(A) The sewage sludge shall be analyzed prior to pathogen treatment to determine whether the sewage sludge contains viable helminth ova.

(B) When the density of viable helminth ova in the sewage sludge prior to pathogen treatment is less than one per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis), the sewage sludge is Class A with respect to viable helminth ova until the next monitoring episode for the sewage sludge.

(C) When the density of viable helminth ova in the sewage sludge prior to pathogen treatment is equal to or greater than one per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis), the sewage sludge is Class A with respect to viable helminth ova when the density of viable helminth ova in the sewage sludge after pathogen treatment is less than one per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) and when the values or ranges of values for the operating parameters for the pathogen treatment process that produces the sewage sludge that meets the viable helminth ova density requirement are documented.

(D) After the viable helminth ova reduction in paragraph (a)(5)(iii)(C) of this section is demonstrated for the pathogen treatment process, the sewage sludge continues to be Class A with respect to viable helminth ova when the values for the pathogen treatment process operating parameters are consistent with the values or ranges of values documented in paragraph (a)(5)(iii)(C) of this section.

(6) Class A—Alternative 4. (i) Either the density of fecal coliform in the sewage sludge shall be less than 1000 Most Probable Number per gram of total solids (dry weight basis), or the density of Salmonella sp. bacteria in the sewage sludge shall be less than three Most Probable Number per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the sewage sludge is used or disposed; at the time the sewage sludge is prepared for sale or give away in a bag or other container for application to the land; or at the time the sewage sludge or material derived from sewage sludge is prepared to meet the requirements in §503.10 (b), (c), (e), or (f).

(ii) The density of enteric viruses in the sewage sludge shall be less than one Plaque-forming Unit per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the sewage sludge is used or disposed; at the time the sewage sludge is prepared for sale or give away in a bag or other container for application to the land; or at the time the sewage sludge or material derived from sewage sludge is prepared to meet the requirements in §503.10 (b), (c), (e), or (f), unless otherwise specified by the permitting authority.

(iii) The density of viable helminth ova in the sewage sludge shall be less than one per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the sewage sludge is used or disposed; at the time the sewage sludge is prepared for sale or give away in a bag or other container for application to the land; or at the time the sewage sludge or material derived from sewage sludge is prepared to meet the requirements in §503.10 (b), (c), (e), or (f), unless otherwise specified by the permitting authority.

(7) Class A—Alternative 5. (i) Either the density of fecal coliform in the sewage sludge shall be less than 1000 Most Probable Number per gram of total solids (dry weight basis), or the density of Salmonella, sp. bacteria in the sewage sludge shall be less than three Most Probable Number per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the sewage sludge is used or disposed; at the time the sewage sludge is prepared for sale or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land; or at the time the sewage sludge or material derived from sewage sludge is prepared to meet the requirements in §503.10(b), (c), (e), or (f).

(ii) Sewage sludge that is used or disposed shall be treated in one of the Processes to Further Reduce Pathogens described in appendix B of this part.

(8) Class A—Alternative 6. (i) Either the density of fecal coliform in the sewage sludge shall be less than 1000 Most Probable Number per gram of total solids (dry weight basis), or the density of Salmonella, sp. bacteria in the sewage sludge shall be less than three Most Probable Number per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the sewage sludge is used or disposed; at the time the sewage sludge is prepared for sale or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land; or at the time the sewage sludge or material derived from sewage sludge is prepared to meet the requirements in §503.10(b), (c), (e), or (f).

(ii) Sewage sludge that is used or disposed shall be treated in a process that is equivalent to a Process to Further Reduce Pathogens, as determined by the permitting authority.

(b) Sewage sludge—Class B. (1)(i) The requirements in either §503.32(b)(2), (b)(3), or (b)(4) shall be met for a sewage sludge to be classified Class B with respect to pathogens.

(ii) The site restrictions in §503.32(b)(5) shall be met when sewage sludge that meets the Class B pathogen requirements in §503.32(b)(2), (b)(3), or (b)(4) is applied to the land.

(2) Class B—Alternative 1. (i) Seven representative samples of the sewage sludge that is used or disposed shall be collected.

(ii) The geometric mean of the density of fecal coliform in the samples collected in paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section shall be less than either 2,000,000 Most Probable Number per gram of total solids (dry weight basis) or 2,000,000 Colony Forming Units per gram of total solids (dry weight basis).

(3) Class B—Alternative 2. Sewage sludge that is used or disposed shall be treated in one of the Processes to Significantly Reduce Pathogens described in appendix B of this part.

(4) Class B—Alternative 3. Sewage sludge that is used or disposed shall be treated in a process that is equivalent to a Process to Significantly Reduce Pathogens, as determined by the permitting authority.

(5) Site restrictions. (i) Food crops with harvested parts that touch the sewage sludge/soil mixture and are totally above the land surface shall not be harvested for 14 months after application of sewage sludge.

(ii) Food crops with harvested parts below the surface of the land shall not be harvested for 20 months after application of sewage sludge when the sewage sludge remains on the land surface for four months or longer prior to incorporation into the soil.

(iii) Food crops with harvested parts below the surface of the land shall not be harvested for 38 months after application of sewage sludge when the sewage sludge remains on the land surface for less than four months prior to incorporation into the soil.

(iv) Food crops, feed crops, and fiber crops shall not be harvested for 30 days after application of sewage sludge.

(v) Animals shall not be grazed on the land for 30 days after application of sewage sludge.

(vi) Turf grown on land where sewage sludge is applied shall not be harvested for one year after application of the sewage sludge when the harvested turf is placed on either land with a high potential for public exposure or a lawn, unless otherwise specified by the permitting authority.

(vii) Public access to land with a high potential for public exposure shall be restricted for one year after application of sewage sludge.

(viii) Public access to land with a low potential for public exposure shall be restricted for 30 days after application of sewage sludge.

(c) Domestic septage. (1) The site restrictions in §503.32(b)(5) shall be met when domestic septage is applied to agricultural land, forest, or a reclamation site; or

(2) The pH of domestic septage applied to agricultural land, forest, or a reclamation site shall be raised to 12 or higher by alkali addition and, without the addition of more alkali, shall remain at 12 or higher for 30 minutes and the site restrictions in §503.32 (b)(5)(i) through (b)(5)(iv) shall be met.

[58 FR 9387, Feb. 19, 1993, as amended at 64 FR 42571, Aug. 4, 1999]

§503.33   Vector attraction reduction.

(a)(1) One of the vector attraction reduction requirements in §503.33 (b)(1) through (b)(10) shall be met when bulk sewage sludge is applied to agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site.

(2) One of the vector attraction reduction requirements in §503.33 (b)(1) through (b)(8) shall be met when bulk sewage sludge is applied to a lawn or a home garden.

(3) One of the vector attraction reduction requirements in §503.33 (b)(1) through (b)(8) shall be met when sewage sludge is sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land.

(4) One of the vector attraction reduction requirements in §503.33 (b)(1) through (b)(11) shall be met when sewage sludge (other than domestic septage) is placed on an active sewage sludge unit.

(5) One of the vector attraction reduction requirements in §503.33 (b)(9), (b)(10), or (b)(12) shall be met when domestic septage is applied to agricultural land, forest, or a reclamation site and one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in §503.33 (b)(9) through (b)(12) shall be met when domestic septage is placed on an active sewage sludge unit.

(b)(1) The mass of volatile solids in the sewage sludge shall be reduced by a minimum of 38 percent (see calculation procedures in “Environmental Regulations and Technology—Control of Pathogens and Vector Attraction in Sewage Sludge”, EPA-625/R-92/013, 1992, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio 45268).

(2) When the 38 percent volatile solids reduction requirement in §503.33(b)(1) cannot be met for an anaerobically digested sewage sludge, vector attraction reduction can be demonstrated by digesting a portion of the previously digested sewage sludge anaerobically in the laboratory in a bench-scale unit for 40 additional days at a temperature between 30 and 37 degrees Celsius. When at the end of the 40 days, the volatile solids in the sewage sludge at the beginning of that period is reduced by less than 17 percent, vector attraction reduction is achieved.

(3) When the 38 percent volatile solids reduction requirement in §503.33(b)(1) cannot be met for an aerobically digested sewage sludge, vector attraction reduction can be demonstrated by digesting a portion of the previously digested sewage sludge that has a percent solids of two percent or less aerobically in the laboratory in a bench-scale unit for 30 additional days at 20 degrees Celsius. When at the end of the 30 days, the volatile solids in the sewage sludge at the beginning of that period is reduced by less than 15 percent, vector attraction reduction is achieved.

(4) The specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) for sewage sludge treated in an aerobic process shall be equal to or less than 1.5 milligrams of oxygen per hour per gram of total solids (dry weight basis) at a temperature of 20 degrees Celsius.

(5) Sewage sludge shall be treated in an aerobic process for 14 days or longer. During that time, the temperature of the sewage sludge shall be higher than 40 degrees Celsius and the average temperature of the sewage sludge shall be higher than 45 degrees Celsius.

(6) The pH of sewage sludge shall be raised to 12 or higher by alkali addition and, without the addition of more alkali, shall remain at 12 or higher for two hours and then at 11.5 or higher for an additional 22 hours.

(7) The percent solids of sewage sludge that does not contain unstabilized solids generated in a primary wastewater treatment process shall be equal to or greater than 75 percent based on the moisture content and total solids prior to mixing with other materials.

(8) The percent solids of sewage sludge that contains unstabilized solids generated in a primary wastewater treatment process shall be equal to or greater than 90 percent based on the moisture content and total solids prior to mixing with other materials.

(9)(i) Sewage sludge shall be injected below the surface of the land.

(ii) No significant amount of the sewage sludge shall be present on the land surface within one hour after the sewage sludge is injected.

(iii) When the sewage sludge that is injected below the surface of the land is Class A with respect to pathogens, the sewage sludge shall be injected below the land surface within eight hours after being discharged from the pathogen treatment process.

(10)(i) Sewage sludge applied to the land surface or placed on an active sewage sludge unit shall be incorporated into the soil within six hours after application to or placement on the land, unless otherwise specified by the permitting authority.

(ii) When sewage sludge that is incorporated into the soil is Class A with respect to pathogens, the sewage sludge shall be applied to or placed on the land within eight hours after being discharged from the pathogen treatment process.

(11) Sewage sludge placed on an active sewage sludge unit shall be covered with soil or other material at the end of each operating day.

(12) The pH of domestic septage shall be raised to 12 or higher by alkali addition and, without the addition of more alkali, shall remain at 12 or higher for 30 minutes.

[58 FR 9387, Feb. 19, 1993, as amended at 64 FR 42571, Aug. 4, 1999]

Need assistance?