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e-CFR data is current as of July 9, 2020

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter IPart 280 → Subpart E


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 280—TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST)


Subpart E—Release Reporting, Investigation, and Confirmation


Contents
§280.50   Reporting of suspected releases.
§280.51   Investigation due to off-site impacts.
§280.52   Release investigation and confirmation steps.
§280.53   Reporting and cleanup of spills and overfills.

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§280.50   Reporting of suspected releases.

Owners and operators of UST systems must report to the implementing agency within 24 hours, or another reasonable period specified by the implementing agency, and follow the procedures in §280.52 for any of the following conditions:

(a) The discovery by owners and operators or others of released regulated substances at the UST site or in the surrounding area (such as the presence of free product or vapors in soils, basements, sewer and utility lines, and nearby surface water).

(b) Unusual operating conditions observed by owners and operators (such as the erratic behavior of product dispensing equipment, the sudden loss of product from the UST system, an unexplained presence of water in the tank, or liquid in the interstitial space of secondarily contained systems), unless:

(1) The system equipment or component is found not to be releasing regulated substances to the environment;

(2) Any defective system equipment or component is immediately repaired or replaced; and

(3) For secondarily contained systems, except as provided for in §280.43(g)(2)(iv), any liquid in the interstitial space not used as part of the interstitial monitoring method (for example, brine filled) is immediately removed.

(c) Monitoring results, including investigation of an alarm, from a release detection method required under §§280.41 and 280.42 that indicate a release may have occurred unless:

(1) The monitoring device is found to be defective, and is immediately repaired, recalibrated or replaced, and additional monitoring does not confirm the initial result;

(2) The leak is contained in the secondary containment and:

(i) Except as provided for in §280.43(g)(2)(iv), any liquid in the interstitial space not used as part of the interstitial monitoring method (for example, brine filled) is immediately removed; and

(ii) Any defective system equipment or component is immediately repaired or replaced;

(3) In the case of inventory control described in §280.43(a), a second month of data does not confirm the initial result or the investigation determines no release has occurred; or

(4) The alarm was investigated and determined to be a non-release event (for example, from a power surge or caused by filling the tank during release detection testing).

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§280.51   Investigation due to off-site impacts.

When required by the implementing agency, owners and operators of UST systems must follow the procedures in §280.52 to determine if the UST system is the source of off-site impacts. These impacts include the discovery of regulated substances (such as the presence of free product or vapors in soils, basements, sewer and utility lines, and nearby surface and drinking waters) that has been observed by the implementing agency or brought to its attention by another party.

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§280.52   Release investigation and confirmation steps.

Unless corrective action is initiated in accordance with subpart F, owners and operators must immediately investigate and confirm all suspected releases of regulated substances requiring reporting under §280.50 within 7 days, or another reasonable time period specified by the implementing agency, using either the following steps or another procedure approved by the implementing agency:

(a) System test. Owners and operators must conduct tests (according to the requirements for tightness testing in §§280.43(c) and 280.44(b) or, as appropriate, secondary containment testing described in §280.33(d)).

(1) The test must determine whether:

(i) A leak exists in that portion of the tank that routinely contains product, or the attached delivery piping; or

(ii) A breach of either wall of the secondary containment has occurred.

(2) If the system test confirms a leak into the interstice or a release, owners and operators must repair, replace, upgrade, or close the UST system. In addition, owners and operators must begin corrective action in accordance with subpart F of this part if the test results for the system, tank, or delivery piping indicate that a release exists.

(3) Further investigation is not required if the test results for the system, tank, and delivery piping do not indicate that a release exists and if environmental contamination is not the basis for suspecting a release.

(4) Owners and operators must conduct a site check as described in paragraph (b) of this section if the test results for the system, tank, and delivery piping do not indicate that a release exists but environmental contamination is the basis for suspecting a release.

(b) Site check. Owners and operators must measure for the presence of a release where contamination is most likely to be present at the UST site. In selecting sample types, sample locations, and measurement methods, owners and operators must consider the nature of the stored substance, the type of initial alarm or cause for suspicion, the type of backfill, the depth of groundwater, and other factors appropriate for identifying the presence and source of the release.

(1) If the test results for the excavation zone or the UST site indicate that a release has occurred, owners and operators must begin corrective action in accordance with subpart F of this part;

(2) If the test results for the excavation zone or the UST site do not indicate that a release has occurred, further investigation is not required.

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§280.53   Reporting and cleanup of spills and overfills.

(a) Owners and operators of UST systems must contain and immediately clean up a spill or overfill and report to the implementing agency within 24 hours, or another reasonable time period specified by the implementing agency, and begin corrective action in accordance with subpart F of this part in the following cases:

(1) Spill or overfill of petroleum that results in a release to the environment that exceeds 25 gallons or another reasonable amount specified by the implementing agency, or that causes a sheen on nearby surface water; and

(2) Spill or overfill of a hazardous substance that results in a release to the environment that equals or exceeds its reportable quantity under CERCLA (40 CFR part 302).

Note to paragraph (a). Pursuant to §§302.6 and 355.40 of this chapter, a release of a hazardous substance equal to or in excess of its reportable quantity must also be reported immediately (rather than within 24 hours) to the National Response Center under sections 102 and 103 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 and to appropriate state and local authorities under Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986.

(b) Owners and operators of UST systems must contain and immediately clean up a spill or overfill of petroleum that is less than 25 gallons or another reasonable amount specified by the implementing agency, and a spill or overfill of a hazardous substance that is less than the reportable quantity. If cleanup cannot be accomplished within 24 hours, or another reasonable time period established by the implementing agency, owners and operators must immediately notify the implementing agency.

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