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e-CFR data is current as of August 10, 2020

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter IPart 279 → Subpart F


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 279—STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL


Subpart F—Standards for Used Oil Processors and Re-Refiners


Contents
§279.50   Applicability.
§279.51   Notification.
§279.52   General facility standards.
§279.53   Rebuttable presumption for used oil.
§279.54   Used oil management.
§279.55   Analysis plan.
§279.56   Tracking.
§279.57   Operating record and reporting.
§279.58   Off-site shipments of used oil.
§279.59   Management of residues.

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§279.50   Applicability.

(a) The requirements of this subpart apply to owners and operators of facilities that process used oil. Processing means chemical or physical operations designed to produce from used oil, or to make used oil more amenable for production of, fuel oils, lubricants, or other used oil-derived products. Processing includes, but is not limited to: blending used oil with virgin petroleum products, blending used oils to meet the fuel specification, filtration, simple distillation, chemical or physical separation and re-refining. The requirements of this subpart do not apply to:

(1) Transporters that conduct incidental processing operations that occur during the normal course of transportation as provided in §279.41; or

(2) Burners that conduct incidental processing operations that occur during the normal course of used oil management prior to burning as provided in §279.61(b).

(b) Other applicable provisions. Used oil processors/re-refiners who conduct the following activities are also subject to the requirements of other applicable provisions of this part as indicated in paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(5) of this section.

(1) Processors/re-refiners who generate used oil must also comply with subpart C of this part;

(2) Processors/re-refiners who transport used oil must also comply with subpart E of this part;

(3) Except as provided in paragraphs (b)(3)(i) and (b)(3)(ii) of this section, processors/re-refiners who burn off-specification used oil for energy recovery must also comply with subpart G of this part. Processor/re-refiners burning used oil for energy recovery under the following conditions are not subject to subpart G of this part:

(i) The used oil is burned in an on-site space heater that meets the requirements of §279.23; or

(ii) The used oil is burned for purposes of processing used oil, which is considered burning incidentally to used oil processing;

(4) Processors/re-refiners who direct shipments of off-specification used oil from their facility to a used oil burner or first claim that used oil that is to be burned for energy recovery meets the used oil fuel specifications set forth in §279.11 must also comply with subpart H of this part; and

(5) Processors/re-refiners who dispose of used oil, including the use of used oil as a dust suppressant, also must comply with subpart I of this part.

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§279.51   Notification.

(a) Identification numbers. Used oil processors and re-refiners who have not previously complied with the notification requirements of RCRA section 3010 must comply with these requirements and obtain an EPA identification number.

(b) Mechanics of notification. A used oil processor or re-refiner who has not received an EPA identification number may obtain one by notifying the Regional Administrator of their used oil activity by submitting either:

(1) A completed EPA Form 8700-12 (To obtain EPA Form 8700-12 call RCRA/Superfund Hotline at 1-800-424-9346 or 703-920-9810); or

(2) A letter requesting an EPA identification number.

Call RCRA/Superfund Hotline to determine where to send a letter requesting an EPA identification number. The letter should include the following information:

(i) Processor or re-refiner company name;

(ii) Owner of the processor or re-refiner company;

(iii) Mailing address for the processor or re-refiner;

(iv) Name and telephone number for the processor or re-refiner point of contact;

(v) Type of used oil activity (i.e., process only, process and re-refine);

(vi) Location of the processor or re-refiner facility.

[57 FR 41612, Sept. 10, 1992, as amended at 58 FR 33342, June 17, 1993]

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§279.52   General facility standards.

(a) Preparedness and prevention. Owners and operators of used oil processing and re-refining facilities must comply with the following requirements:

(1) Maintenance and operation of facility. Facilities must be maintained and operated to minimize the possibility of a fire, explosion, or any unplanned sudden or non-sudden release of used oil to air, soil, or surface water which could threaten human health or the environment.

(2) Required equipment. All facilities must be equipped with the following, unless none of the hazards posed by used oil handled at the facility could require a particular kind of equipment specified in paragraphs (a)(2)(i) through (iv) of this section:

(i) An internal communications or alarm system capable of providing immediate emergency instruction (voice or signal) to facility personnel;

(ii) A device, such as a telephone (immediately available at the scene of operations) or a hand-held two-way radio, capable of summoning emergency assistance from local police departments, fire departments, or State or local emergency response teams;

(iii) Portable fire extinguishers, fire control equipment (including special extinguishing equipment, such as that using foam, inert gas, or dry chemicals), spill control equipment and decontamination equipment; and

(iv) Water at adequate volume and pressure to supply water hose streams, or foam producing equipment, or automatic sprinklers, or water spray systems.

(3) Testing and maintenance of equipment. All facility communications or alarm systems, fire protection equipment, spill control equipment, and decontamination equipment, where required, must be tested and maintained as necessary to assure its proper operation in time of emergency.

(4) Access to communications or alarm system. (i) Whenever used oil is being poured, mixed, spread, or otherwise handled, all personnel involved in the operation must have immediate access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or through visual or voice contact with another employee, unless such a device is not required in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(ii) If there is ever just one employee on the premises while the facility is operating, the employee must have immediate access to a device, such as a telephone (immediately available at the scene of operation) or a hand-held two-way radio, capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless such a device is not required in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(5) Required aisle space. The owner or operator must maintain aisle space to allow the unobstructed movement of personnel, fire protection equipment, spill control equipment, and decontamination equipment to any area of facility operation in an emergency, unless aisle space is not needed for any of these purposes.

(6) Arrangements with local authorities. (i) The owner or operator must attempt to make the following arrangements, as appropriate for the type of used oil handled at the facility and the potential need for the services of these organizations:

(A) Arrangements to familiarize police, fire departments, and emergency response teams with the layout of the facility, properties of used oil handled at the facility and associated hazards, places where facility personnel would normally be working, entrances to roads inside the facility, and possible evacuation routes;

(B) Where more than one police and fire department might respond to an emergency, agreements designating primary emergency authority to a specific police and a specific fire department, and agreements with any others to provide support to the primary emergency authority;

(C) Agreements with State emergency response teams, emergency response contractors, and equipment suppliers; and

(D) Arrangements to familiarize local hospitals with the properties of used oil handled at the facility and the types of injuries or illnesses which could result from fires, explosions, or releases at the facility.

(ii) Where State or local authorities decline to enter into such arrangements, the owner or operator must document the refusal in the operating record.

(b) Contingency plan and emergency procedures. Owners and operators of used oil processing and re-refining facilities must comply with the following requirements:

(1) Purpose and implementation of contingency plan. (i) Each owner or operator must have a contingency plan for the facility. The contingency plan must be designed to minimize hazards to human health or the environment from fires, explosions, or any unplanned sudden or non-sudden release of used oil to air, soil, or surface water.

(ii) The provisions of the plan must be carried out immediately whenever there is a fire, explosion, or release of used oil which could threaten human health or the environment.

(2) Content of contingency plan. (i) The contingency plan must describe the actions facility personnel must take to comply with paragraphs (b) (1) and (6) of this section in response to fires, explosions, or any unplanned sudden or non-sudden release of used oil to air, soil, or surface water at the facility.

(ii) If the owner or operator has already prepared a Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan in accordance with part 112 of this chapter, or part 1510 of chapter V of this title, or some other emergency or contingency plan, the owner or operator need only amend that plan to incorporate used oil management provisions that are sufficient to comply with the requirements of this part.

(iii) The plan must describe arrangements agreed to by local police departments, fire departments, hospitals, contractors, and State and local emergency response teams to coordinate emergency services, pursuant to paragraph (a)(6) of this section.

(iv) The plan must list names, addresses, and phone numbers (office and home) of all persons qualified to act as emergency coordinator (see paragraph (b)(5) of this section), and this list must be kept up to date. Where more than one person is listed, one must be named as primary emergency coordinator and others must be listed in the order in which they will assume responsibility as alternates.

(v) The plan must include a list of all emergency equipment at the facility (such as fire extinguishing systems, spill control equipment, communications and alarm systems (internal and external), and decontamination equipment), where this equipment is required. This list must be kept up to date. In addition, the plan must include the location and a physical description of each item on the list, and a brief outline of its capabilities.

(vi) The plan must include an evacuation plan for facility personnel where there is a possibility that evacuation could be necessary. This plan must describe signal(s) to be used to begin evacuation, evacuation routes, and alternate evacuation routes (in cases where the primary routes could be blocked by releases of used oil or fires).

(3) Copies of contingency plan. A copy of the contingency plan and all revisions to the plan must be:

(i) Maintained at the facility; and

(ii) Submitted to all local police departments, fire departments, hospitals, and State and local emergency response teams that may be called upon to provide emergency services.

(4) Amendment of contingency plan. The contingency plan must be reviewed, and immediately amended, if necessary, whenever:

(i) Applicable regulations are revised;

(ii) The plan fails in an emergency;

(iii) The facility changes—in its design, construction, operation, maintenance, or other circumstances—in a way that materially increases the potential for fires, explosions, or releases of used oil, or changes the response necessary in an emergency;

(iv) The list of emergency coordinators changes; or

(v) The list of emergency equipment changes.

(5) Emergency coordinator. At all times, there must be at least one employee either on the facility premises or on call (i.e., available to respond to an emergency by reaching the facility within a short period of time) with the responsibility for coordinating all emergency response measures. This emergency coordinator must be thoroughly familiar with all aspects of the facility's contingency plan, all operations and activities at the facility, the location and characteristic of used oil handled, the location of all records within the facility, and facility layout. In addition, this person must have the authority to commit the resources needed to carry out the contingency plan.

Guidance: The emergency coordinator's responsibilities are more fully spelled out in paragraph (b)(6) of this section. Applicable responsibilities for the emergency coordinator vary, depending on factors such as type and variety of used oil handled by the facility, and type and complexity of the facility.

(6) Emergency procedures. (i) Whenever there is an imminent or actual emergency situation, the emergency coordinator (or the designee when the emergency coordinator is on call) must immediately:

(A) Activate internal facility alarms or communication systems, where applicable, to notify all facility personnel; and

(B) Notify appropriate State or local agencies with designated response roles if their help is needed.

(ii) Whenever there is a release, fire, or explosion, the emergency coordinator must immediately identify the character, exact source, amount, and areal extent of any released materials. He may do this by observation or review of facility records or manifests and, if necessary, by chemical analyses.

(iii) Concurrently, the emergency coordinator must assess possible hazards to human health or the environment that may result from the release, fire, or explosion. This assessment must consider both direct and indirect effects of the release, fire, or explosion (e.g., the effects of any toxic, irritating, or asphyxiating gases that are generated, or the effects of any hazardous surface water run-offs from water or chemical agents used to control fire and heat-induced explosions).

(iv) If the emergency coordinator determines that the facility has had a release, fire, or explosion which could threaten human health, or the environment, outside the facility, he must report his findings as follows:

(A) If his assessment indicated that evacuation of local areas may be advisable, he must immediately notify appropriate local authorities. He must be available to help appropriate officials decide whether local areas should be evacuated; and

(B) He must immediately notify either the government official designated as the on-scene coordinator for the geographical area (in the applicable regional contingency plan under part 1510 of this title), or the National Response Center (using their 24-hour toll free number 800/424-8802). The report must include:

(1) Name and telephone number of reporter;

(2) Name and address of facility;

(3) Time and type of incident (e.g., release, fire);

(4) Name and quantity of material(s) involved, to the extent known;

(5) The extent of injuries, if any; and

(6) The possible hazards to human health, or the environment, outside the facility.

(v) During an emergency, the emergency coordinator must take all reasonable measures necessary to ensure that fires, explosions, and releases do not occur, recur, or spread to other used oil or hazardous waste at the facility. These measures must include, where applicable, stopping processes and operation, collecting and containing released used oil, and removing or isolating containers.

(vi) If the facility stops operation in response to a fire, explosion, or release, the emergency coordinator must monitor for leaks, pressure buildup, gas generation, or ruptures in valves, pipes, or other equipment, wherever this is appropriate.

(vii) Immediately after an emergency, the emergency coordinator must provide for recycling, storing, or disposing of recovered used oil, contaminated soil or surface water, or any other material that results from a release, fire, or explosion at the facility.

(viii) The emergency coordinator must ensure that, in the affected area(s) of the facility:

(A) No waste or used oil that may be incompatible with the released material is recycled, treated, stored, or disposed of until cleanup procedures are completed; and

(B) All emergency equipment listed in the contingency plan is cleaned and fit for its intended use before operations are resumed.

(C) The owner or operator must notify the Regional Administrator, and appropriate State and local authorities that the facility is in compliance with paragraphs (b)(6)(viii)(A) and (B) of this section before operations are resumed in the affected area(s) of the facility.

(ix) The owner or operator must note in the operating record the time, date and details of any incident that requires implementing the contingency plan. Within 15 days after the incident, he must submit a written report on the incident to the Regional Administrator. The report must include:

(A) Name, address, and telephone number of the owner or operator;

(B) Name, address, and telephone number of the facility;

(C) Date, time, and type of incident (e.g., fire, explosion);

(D) Name and quantity of material(s) involved;

(E) The extent of injuries, if any;

(F) An assessment of actual or potential hazards to human health or the environment, where this is applicable;

(G) Estimated quantity and disposition of recovered material that resulted from the incident.

[57 FR 41612, Sept. 10, 1992, as amended at 58 FR 26426, May 3, 1993; 71 FR 40280, July 14, 2006]

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§279.53   Rebuttable presumption for used oil.

(a) To ensure that used oil managed at a processing/re-refining facility is not hazardous waste under the rebuttable presumption of §279.10(b)(1)(ii), the owner or operator of a used oil processing/re-refining facility must determine whether the total halogen content of used oil managed at the facility is above or below 1,000 ppm.

(b) The owner or operator must make this determination by:

(1) Testing the used oil; or

(2) Applying knowledge of the halogen content of the used oil in light of the materials or processes used.

(c) If the used oil contains greater than or equal to 1,000 ppm total halogens, it is presumed to be a hazardous waste because it has been mixed with halogenated hazardous waste listed in subpart D of part 261 of this chapter. The owner or operator may rebut the presumption by demonstrating that the used oil does not contain hazardous waste (for example, by showing that the used oil does not contain significant concentrations of halogenated hazardous constituents listed in appendix VIII of part 261 of this chapter).

(1) The rebuttable presumption does not apply to metalworking oils/fluids containing chlorinated paraffins, if they are processed, through a tolling agreement, to reclaim metalworking oils/fluids. The presumption does apply to metalworking oils/fluids if such oils/fluids are recycled in any other manner, or disposed.

(2) The rebuttable presumption does not apply to used oils contaminated with chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) removed from refrigeration units where the CFCs are destined for reclamation. The rebuttable presumption does apply to used oils contaminated with CFCs that have been mixed with used oil from sources other than refrigeration units.

[57 FR 41612, Sept. 10, 1992, as amended at 59 FR 10560, Mar. 4, 1994; 70 FR 34591, June 14, 2005]

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§279.54   Used oil management.

Used oil processor/re-refiners are subject to all applicable Spill Prevention, Control and Countermeasures (40 CFR part 112) in addition to the requirements of this subpart. Used oil processors/re-refiners are also subject to the Underground Storage Tank (40 CFR part 280) standards for used oil stored in underground tanks whether or not the used oil exhibits any characteristics of hazardous waste, in addition to the requirements of this subpart.

(a) Management units. Used oil processors/re-refiners may not store used oil in units other than tanks, containers, or units subject to regulation under part 264 or 265 of this chapter.

(b) Condition of units. Containers and aboveground tanks used to store or process used oil at processing and re-refining facilities must be:

(1) In good condition (no severe rusting, apparent structural defects or deterioration); and

(2) Not leaking (no visible leaks).

(c) Secondary containment for containers. Containers used to store or process used oil at processing and re-refining facilities must be equipped with a secondary containment system.

(1) The secondary containment system must consist of, at a minimum:

(i) Dikes, berms or retaining walls; and

(ii) A floor. The floor must cover the entire area within the dike, berm, or retaining wall; or

(iii) An equivalent secondary containment system.

(2) The entire containment system, including walls and floor, must be sufficiently impervious to used oil to prevent any used oil released into the containment system from migrating out of the system to the soil, groundwater, or surface water.

(d) Secondary containment for existing aboveground tanks. Existing aboveground tanks used to store or process used oil at processing and re-refining facilities must be equipped with a secondary containment system.

(1) The secondary containment system must consist of, at a minimum:

(i) Dikes, berms or retaining walls; and

(ii) A floor. The floor must cover the entire area within the dike, berm, or retaining wall except areas where existing portions of the tank meet the ground; or

(iii) An equivalent secondary containment system.

(2) The entire containment system, including walls and floor, must be sufficiently impervious to used oil to prevent any used oil released into the containment system from migrating out of the system to the soil, groundwater, or surface water.

(e) Secondary containment for new aboveground tanks. New aboveground tanks used to store or process used oil at processing and re-refining facilities must be equipped with a secondary containment system.

(1) The secondary containment system must consist of, at a minimum:

(i) Dikes, berms or retaining walls; and

(ii) A floor. The floor must cover the entire area within the dike, berm, or retaining wall; or

(iii) An equivalent secondary containment system.

(2) The entire containment system, including walls and floor, must be sufficiently impervious to used oil to prevent any used oil released into the containment system from migrating out of the system to the soil, groundwater, or surface water.

(f) Labels. (1) Containers and aboveground tanks used to store or process used oil at processing and re-refining facilities must be labeled or marked clearly with the words “Used Oil.”

(2) Fill pipes used to transfer used oil into underground storage tanks at processing and re-refining facilities must be labeled or marked clearly with the words “Used Oil.”

(g) Response to releases. Upon detection of a release of used oil to the environment that is not subject to the requirements of part 280, subpart F of this chapter and which has occurred after the effective date of the recycled used oil management program in effect in the State in which the release is located, an owner/operator must perform the following cleanup steps:

(1) Stop the release;

(2) Contain the released used oil;

(3) Clean up and manage properly the released used oil and other materials; and

(4) If necessary, repair or replace any leaking used oil storage containers or tanks prior to returning them to service.

(h) Closure—(1) Aboveground tanks. Owners and operators who store or process used oil in aboveground tanks must comply with the following requirements:

(i) At closure of a tank system, the owner or operator must remove or decontaminate used oil residues in tanks, contaminated containment system components, contaminated soils, and structures and equipment contaminated with used oil, and manage them as hazardous waste, unless the materials are not hazardous waste under this chapter.

(ii) If the owner or operator demonstrates that not all contaminated soils can be practicably removed or decontaminated as required in paragraph (h)(1)(i) of this section, then the owner or operator must close the tank system and perform post-closure care in accordance with the closure and post-closure care requirements that apply to hazardous waste landfills (§265.310 of this chapter).

(2) Containers. Owners and operators who store used oil in containers must comply with the following requirements:

(i) At closure, containers holding used oils or residues of used oil must be removed from the site;

(ii) The owner or operator must remove or decontaminate used oil residues, contaminated containment system components, contaminated soils, and structures and equipment contaminated with used oil, and manage them as hazardous waste, unless the materials are not hazardous waste under part 261 of this chapter.

[57 FR 41612, Sept. 10, 1992, as amended at 58 FR 26426, May 3, 1993; 63 FR 24969, May 6, 1998]

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§279.55   Analysis plan.

Owners or operators of used oil processing and re-refining facilities must develop and follow a written analysis plan describing the procedures that will be used to comply with the analysis requirements of §279.53 and, if applicable, §279.72. The owner or operator must keep the plan at the facility.

(a) Rebuttable presumption for used oil in §279.53. At a minimum, the plan must specify the following:

(1) Whether sample analyses or knowledge of the halogen content of the used oil will be used to make this determination.

(2) If sample analyses are used to make this determination:

(i) The sampling method used to obtain representative samples to be analyzed. A representative sample may be obtained using either:

(A) One of the sampling methods in appendix I of part 261 of this chapter; or

(B) A method shown to be equivalent under §§260.20 and 260.21 of this chapter;

(ii) The frequency of sampling to be performed, and whether the analysis will be performed on-site or off-site; and

(iii) The methods used to analyze used oil for the parameters specified in §279.53; and

(3) The type of information that will be used to determine the halogen content of the used oil.

(b) On-specification used oil fuel in §279.72. At a minimum, the plan must specify the following if §279.72 is applicable:

(1) Whether sample analyses or other information will be used to make this determination;

(2) If sample analyses are used to make this determination:

(i) The sampling method used to obtain representative samples to be analyzed. A representative sample may be obtained using either:

(A) One of the sampling methods in appendix I of part 261 of this chapter; or

(B) A method shown to be equivalent under §§260.20 and 260.21 of this chapter;

(ii) Whether used oil will be sampled and analyzed prior to or after any processing/re-refining;

(iii) The frequency of sampling to be performed, and whether the analysis will be performed on-site or off-site; and

(iv) The methods used to analyze used oil for the parameters specified in §279.72; and

(3) The type of information that will be used to make the on-specification used oil fuel determination.

[57 FR 41612, Sept. 10, 1992, as amended at 71 FR 40280, July 14, 2006]

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§279.56   Tracking.

(a) Acceptance. Used oil processors/re-refiners must keep a record of each used oil shipment accepted for processing/re-refining. These records may take the form of a log, invoice, manifest, bill of lading or other shipping documents. Records for each shipment must include the following information:

(1) The name and address of the transporter who delivered the used oil to the processor/re-refiner;

(2) The name and address of the generator or processor/re-refiner from whom the used oil was sent for processing/re-refining;

(3) The EPA identification number of the transporter who delivered the used oil to the processor/re-refiner;

(4) The EPA identification number (if applicable) of the generator or processor/re-refiner from whom the used oil was sent for processing/re-refining;

(5) The quantity of used oil accepted; and

(6) The date of acceptance.

(b) Delivery. Used oil processor/re-refiners must keep a record of each shipment of used oil that is shipped to a used oil burner, processor/ re-refiner, or disposal facility. These records may take the form of a log, invoice, manifest, bill of lading or other shipping documents. Records for each shipment must include the following information:

(1) The name and address of the transporter who delivers the used oil to the burner, processor/re-refiner or disposal facility;

(2) The name and address of the burner, processor/re-refiner or disposal facility who will receive the used oil;

(3) The EPA identification number of the transporter who delivers the used oil to the burner, processor/re-refiner or disposal facility;

(4) The EPA identification number of the burner, processor/re-refiner, or disposal facility who will receive the used oil;

(5) The quantity of used oil shipped; and

(6) The date of shipment.

(c) Record retention. The records described in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section must be maintained for at least three years.

[57 FR 41612, Sept. 10, 1992, as amended at 71 FR 40280, July 14, 2006]

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§279.57   Operating record and reporting.

(a) Operating record. (1) The owner or operator must keep a written operating record at the facility.

(2) The following information must be recorded, as it becomes available, and maintained in the operating record until closure of the facility;

(i) Records and results of used oil analyses performed as described in the analysis plan required under §279.55; and

(ii) Summary reports and details of all incidents that require implementation of the contingency plan as specified in §279.52(b).

(b) Reporting. A used oil processor/re-refiner must report to the Regional Administrator, in the form of a letter, on a biennial basis (by March 1 of each even numbered year), the following information concerning used oil activities during the previous calendar year;

(1) The EPA identification number, name, and address of the processor/re-refiner;

(2) The calendar year covered by the report; and

(3) The quantities of used oil accepted for processing/re-refining and the manner in which the used oil is processed/re-refined, including the specific processes employed.

[57 FR 41612, Sept. 10, 1992, as amended at 71 FR 40280, July 14, 2006]

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§279.58   Off-site shipments of used oil.

Used oil processors/re-refiners who initiate shipments of used oil off-site must ship the used oil using a used oil transporter who has obtained an EPA identification number.

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§279.59   Management of residues.

Owners and operators who generate residues from the storage, processing, or re-refining of used oil must manage the residues as specified in §279.10(e).

[57 FR 41612, Sept. 10, 1992, as amended at 71 FR 40280, July 14, 2006]

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