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e-CFR data is current as of October 26, 2020

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter IPart 261 → Subpart J


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 261—IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE


Subpart J—Tank Systems


Contents
§261.190   Applicability.
§261.191   Assessment of existing tank system's integrity.
§261.192   [Reserved]
§261.193   Containment and detection of releases.
§261.194   General operating requirements.
§261.195   [Reserved]
§261.196   Response to leaks or spills and disposition of leaking or unfit-for-use tank systems.
§261.197   Termination of remanufacturing exclusion.
§261.198   Special requirements for ignitable or reactive materials.
§261.199   Special requirements for incompatible materials.
§261.200   Air emission standards.

Source: 80 FR 1777, Jan. 13, 2015, unless otherwise noted.

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§261.190   Applicability.

(a) The requirements of this subpart apply to tank systems for storing or treating hazardous secondary material excluded under the remanufacturing exclusion at §261.4(a)(27).

(b) Tank systems, including sumps, as defined in §260.10, that serve as part of a secondary containment system to collect or contain releases of hazardous secondary materials are exempted from the requirements in §261.193(a).

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§261.191   Assessment of existing tank system's integrity.

(a) Tank systems must meet the secondary containment requirements of §261.193, or the remanufacturer or other person that handles the hazardous secondary material must determine that the tank system is not leaking or is unfit for use. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, a written assessment reviewed and certified by a qualified Professional Engineer must be kept on file at the remanufacturer's facility or other facility that stores or treats the hazardous secondary material that attests to the tank system's integrity.

(b) This assessment must determine that the tank system is adequately designed and has sufficient structural strength and compatibility with the material(s) to be stored or treated, to ensure that it will not collapse, rupture, or fail. At a minimum, this assessment must consider the following:

(1) Design standard(s), if available, according to which the tank and ancillary equipment were constructed;

(2) Hazardous characteristics of the material(s) that have been and will be handled;

(3) Existing corrosion protection measures;

(4) Documented age of the tank system, if available (otherwise, an estimate of the age); and

(5) Results of a leak test, internal inspection, or other tank integrity examination such that:

(i) For non-enterable underground tanks, the assessment must include a leak test that is capable of taking into account the effects of temperature variations, tank end deflection, vapor pockets, and high water table effects, and

(ii) For other than non-enterable underground tanks and for ancillary equipment, this assessment must include either a leak test, as described above, or other integrity examination that is certified by a qualified Professional Engineer that addresses cracks, leaks, corrosion, and erosion.

Note to paragraph (b)(5)(ii): The practices described in the American Petroleum Institute (API) Publication, Guide for Inspection of Refinery Equipment, Chapter XIII, “Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Storage Tanks,” 4th edition, 1981, may be used, where applicable, as guidelines in conducting other than a leak test.

(c) If, as a result of the assessment conducted in accordance with paragraph (a) of this section, a tank system is found to be leaking or unfit for use, the remanufacturer or other person that stores or treats the hazardous secondary material must comply with the requirements of §261.196.

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§261.192   [Reserved]

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§261.193   Containment and detection of releases.

(a) Secondary containment systems must be:

(1) Designed, installed, and operated to prevent any migration of materials or accumulated liquid out of the system to the soil, ground water, or surface water at any time during the use of the tank system; and

(2) Capable of detecting and collecting releases and accumulated liquids until the collected material is removed.

Note to paragraph (a): If the collected material is a hazardous waste under part 261 of this chapter, it is subject to management as a hazardous waste in accordance with all applicable requirements of parts 262 through 265, 266, and 268 of this chapter. If the collected material is discharged through a point source to waters of the United States, it is subject to the requirements of sections 301, 304, and 402 of the Clean Water Act, as amended. If discharged to a Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW), it is subject to the requirements of section 307 of the Clean Water Act, as amended. If the collected material is released to the environment, it may be subject to the reporting requirements of 40 CFR part 302.

(b) To meet the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section, secondary containment systems must be at a minimum:

(1) Constructed of or lined with materials that are compatible with the materials(s) to be placed in the tank system and must have sufficient strength and thickness to prevent failure owing to pressure gradients (including static head and external hydrological forces), physical contact with the material to which it is exposed, climatic conditions, and the stress of daily operation (including stresses from nearby vehicular traffic);

(2) Placed on a foundation or base capable of providing support to the secondary containment system, resistance to pressure gradients above and below the system, and capable of preventing failure due to settlement, compression, or uplift;

(3) Provided with a leak-detection system that is designed and operated so that it will detect the failure of either the primary or secondary containment structure or the presence of any release of hazardous secondary material or accumulated liquid in the secondary containment system at the earliest practicable time; and

(4) Sloped or otherwise designed or operated to drain and remove liquids resulting from leaks, spills, or precipitation. Spilled or leaked material and accumulated precipitation must be removed from the secondary containment system within 24 hours, or in as timely a manner as is possible to prevent harm to human health and the environment.

(c) Secondary containment for tanks must include one or more of the following devices:

(1) A liner (external to the tank);

(2) A vault; or

(3) A double-walled tank.

(d) In addition to the requirements of paragraphs (a), (b), and (c) of this section, secondary containment systems must satisfy the following requirements:

(1) External liner systems must be:

(i) Designed or operated to contain 100 percent of the capacity of the largest tank within its boundary;

(ii) Designed or operated to prevent run-on or infiltration of precipitation into the secondary containment system unless the collection system has sufficient excess capacity to contain run-on or infiltration. Such additional capacity must be sufficient to contain precipitation from a 25-year, 24-hour rainfall event.

(iii) Free of cracks or gaps; and

(iv) Designed and installed to surround the tank completely and to cover all surrounding earth likely to come into contact with the material if the material is released from the tank(s) (i.e., capable of preventing lateral as well as vertical migration of the material).

(2) Vault systems must be:

(i) Designed or operated to contain 100 percent of the capacity of the largest tank within its boundary;

(ii) Designed or operated to prevent run-on or infiltration of precipitation into the secondary containment system unless the collection system has sufficient excess capacity to contain run-on or infiltration. Such additional capacity must be sufficient to contain precipitation from a 25-year, 24-hour rainfall event;

(iii) Constructed with chemical-resistant water stops in place at all joints (if any);

(iv) Provided with an impermeable interior coating or lining that is compatible with the stored material and that will prevent migration of material into the concrete;

(v) Provided with a means to protect against the formation of and ignition of vapors within the vault, if the material being stored or treated is ignitable or reactive; and

(vi) Provided with an exterior moisture barrier or be otherwise designed or operated to prevent migration of moisture into the vault if the vault is subject to hydraulic pressure.

(3) Double-walled tanks must be:

(i) Designed as an integral structure (i.e., an inner tank completely enveloped within an outer shell) so that any release from the inner tank is contained by the outer shell;

(ii) Protected, if constructed of metal, from both corrosion of the primary tank interior and of the external surface of the outer shell; and

(iii) Provided with a built-in continuous leak detection system capable of detecting a release within 24 hours, or at the earliest practicable time.

Note to paragraph (d)(3): The provisions outlined in the Steel Tank Institute's (STI) “Standard for Dual Wall Underground Steel Storage Tanks” may be used as guidelines for aspects of the design of underground steel double-walled tanks.

(e) [Reserved]

(f) Ancillary equipment must be provided with secondary containment (e.g., trench, jacketing, double-walled piping) that meets the requirements of paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section except for:

(1) Aboveground piping (exclusive of flanges, joints, valves, and other connections) that are visually inspected for leaks on a daily basis;

(2) Welded flanges, welded joints, and welded connections that are visually inspected for leaks on a daily basis;

(3) Sealless or magnetic coupling pumps and sealless valves that are visually inspected for leaks on a daily basis; and

(4) Pressurized aboveground piping systems with automatic shut-off devices (e.g., excess flow check valves, flow metering shutdown devices, loss of pressure actuated shut-off devices) that are visually inspected for leaks on a daily basis.

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§261.194   General operating requirements.

(a) Hazardous secondary materials or treatment reagents must not be placed in a tank system if they could cause the tank, its ancillary equipment, or the containment system to rupture, leak, corrode, or otherwise fail.

(b) The remanufacturer or other person that stores or treats the hazardous secondary material must use appropriate controls and practices to prevent spills and overflows from tank or containment systems. These include at a minimum:

(1) Spill prevention controls (e.g., check valves, dry disconnect couplings);

(2) Overfill prevention controls (e.g., level sensing devices, high level alarms, automatic feed cutoff, or bypass to a standby tank); and

(3) Maintenance of sufficient freeboard in uncovered tanks to prevent overtopping by wave or wind action or by precipitation.

(c) The remanufacturer or other person that stores or treats the hazardous secondary material must comply with the requirements of §261.196 of this subpart if a leak or spill occurs in the tank system.

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§261.195   [Reserved]

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§261.196   Response to leaks or spills and disposition of leaking or unfit-for-use tank systems.

A tank system or secondary containment system from which there has been a leak or spill, or which is unfit for use, must be removed from service immediately, and the remanufacturer or other person that stores or treats the hazardous secondary material must satisfy the following requirements:

(a) Cessation of use; prevent flow or addition of materials. The remanufacturer or other person that stores or treats the hazardous secondary material must immediately stop the flow of hazardous secondary material into the tank system or secondary containment system and inspect the system to determine the cause of the release.

(b) Removal of material from tank system or secondary containment system. (1) If the release was from the tank system, the remanufacturer or other person that stores or treats the hazardous secondary material must, within 24 hours after detection of the leak or, if the remanufacturer or other person that stores or treats the hazardous secondary material demonstrates that it is not possible, at the earliest practicable time, remove as much of the material as is necessary to prevent further release of hazardous secondary material to the environment and to allow inspection and repair of the tank system to be performed.

(2) If the material released was to a secondary containment system, all released materials must be removed within 24 hours or in as timely a manner as is possible to prevent harm to human health and the environment.

(c) Containment of visible releases to the environment. The remanufacturer or other person that stores or treats the hazardous secondary material must immediately conduct a visual inspection of the release and, based upon that inspection:

(1) Prevent further migration of the leak or spill to soils or surface water; and

(2) Remove, and properly dispose of, any visible contamination of the soil or surface water.

(d) Notifications, reports. (1) Any release to the environment, except as provided in paragraph (d)(2) of this section, must be reported to the Regional Administrator within 24 hours of its detection. If the release has been reported pursuant to 40 CFR part 302, that report will satisfy this requirement.

(2) A leak or spill of hazardous secondary material is exempted from the requirements of this paragraph if it is:

(i) Less than or equal to a quantity of 1 pound, and

(ii) Immediately contained and cleaned up.

(3) Within 30 days of detection of a release to the environment, a report containing the following information must be submitted to the Regional Administrator:

(i) Likely route of migration of the release;

(ii) Characteristics of the surrounding soil (soil composition, geology, hydrogeology, climate);

(iii) Results of any monitoring or sampling conducted in connection with the release (if available). If sampling or monitoring data relating to the release are not available within 30 days, these data must be submitted to the Regional Administrator as soon as they become available.

(iv) Proximity to downgradient drinking water, surface water, and populated areas; and

(v) Description of response actions taken or planned.

(e) Provision of secondary containment, repair, or closure. (1) Unless the remanufacturer or other person that stores or treats the hazardous secondary material satisfies the requirements of paragraphs (e)(2) through (4) of this section, the tank system must cease to operate under the remanufacturing exclusion at 40 CFR 261.4(a)(27).

(2) If the cause of the release was a spill that has not damaged the integrity of the system, the remanufacturer or other person that stores or treats the hazardous secondary material may return the system to service as soon as the released material is removed and repairs, if necessary, are made.

(3) If the cause of the release was a leak from the primary tank system into the secondary containment system, the system must be repaired prior to returning the tank system to service.

(4) If the source of the release was a leak to the environment from a component of a tank system without secondary containment, the remanufacturer or other person that stores or treats the hazardous secondary material must provide the component of the system from which the leak occurred with secondary containment that satisfies the requirements of §261.193 before it can be returned to service, unless the source of the leak is an aboveground portion of a tank system that can be inspected visually. If the source is an aboveground component that can be inspected visually, the component must be repaired and may be returned to service without secondary containment as long as the requirements of paragraph (f) of this section are satisfied. Additionally, if a leak has occurred in any portion of a tank system component that is not readily accessible for visual inspection (e.g., the bottom of an inground or onground tank), the entire component must be provided with secondary containment in accordance with §261.193 of this subpart prior to being returned to use.

(f) Certification of major repairs. If the remanufacturer or other person that stores or treats the hazardous secondary material has repaired a tank system in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section, and the repair has been extensive (e.g., installation of an internal liner; repair of a ruptured primary containment or secondary containment vessel), the tank system must not be returned to service unless the remanufacturer or other person that stores or treats the hazardous secondary material has obtained a certification by a qualified Professional Engineer that the repaired system is capable of handling hazardous secondary materials without release for the intended life of the system. This certification must be kept on file at the facility and maintained until closure of the facility.

Note 1 to §261.196: The Regional Administrator may, on the basis of any information received that there is or has been a release of hazardous secondary material or hazardous constituents into the environment, issue an order under RCRA section 7003(a) requiring corrective action or such other response as deemed necessary to protect human health or the environment.

Note 2 to §261.196: 40 CFR part 302 may require the owner or operator to notify the National Response Center of certain releases.

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§261.197   Termination of remanufacturing exclusion.

Hazardous secondary material stored in units more than 90 days after the unit ceases to operate under the remanufacturing exclusion at 40 CFR 261.4(a)(27) or otherwise ceases to be operated for manufacturing, or for storage of a product or a raw material, then becomes subject to regulation as hazardous waste under parts 261 through 266, 268, 270, 271, and 124 of this chapter, as applicable.

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§261.198   Special requirements for ignitable or reactive materials.

(a) Ignitable or reactive material must not be placed in tank systems, unless the material is stored or treated in such a way that it is protected from any material or conditions that may cause the material to ignite or react.

(b) The remanufacturer or other person that stores or treats hazardous secondary material which is ignitable or reactive must store or treat the hazardous secondary material in a tank that is in compliance with the requirements for the maintenance of protective distances between the material management area and any public ways, streets, alleys, or an adjoining property line that can be built upon as required in Tables 2-1 through 2-6 of the National Fire Protection Association's “Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code,” (1977 or 1981), (incorporated by reference, see §260.11).

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§261.199   Special requirements for incompatible materials.

(a) Incompatible materials must not be placed in the same tank system.

(b) Hazardous secondary material must not be placed in a tank system that has not been decontaminated and that previously held an incompatible material.

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§261.200   Air emission standards.

The remanufacturer or other person that stores or treats the hazardous secondary material shall manage all hazardous secondary material placed in a tank in accordance with the applicable requirements of subparts AA, BB, and CC of this part.

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