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e-CFR data is current as of September 23, 2020

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter IPart 258 → Subpart D


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 258—CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS


Subpart D—Design Criteria


Contents
§258.40   Design criteria.
§258.41   Project XL Bioreactor Landfill Projects.
§258.42   Approval of site-specific flexibility requests in Indian country.
§§258.43-258.49   [Reserved]

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§258.40   Design criteria.

(a) New MSWLF units and lateral expansions shall be constructed:

(1) In accordance with a design approved by the Director of an approved State or as specified in §258.40(e) for unapproved States. The design must ensure that the concentration values listed in Table 1 of this section will not be exceeded in the uppermost aquifer at the relevant point of compliance, as specified by the Director of an approved State under paragraph (d) of this section, or

(2) With a composite liner, as defined in paragraph (b) of this section and a leachate collection system that is designed and constructed to maintain less than a 30-cm depth of leachate over the liner.

(b) For purposes of this section, composite liner means a system consisting of two components; the upper component must consist of a minimum 30-mil flexible membrane liner (FML), and the lower component must consist of at least a two-foot layer of compacted soil with a hydraulic conductivity of no more than 1 × 10−7 cm/sec. FML components consisting of high density polyethylene (HDPE) shall be at least 60-mil thick. The FML component must be installed in direct and uniform contact with the compacted soil component.

(c) When approving a design that complies with paragraph (a)(1) of this section, the Director of an approved State shall consider at least the following factors:

(1) The hydrogeologic characteristics of the facility and surrounding land;

(2) The climatic factors of the area; and

(3) The volume and physical and chemical characteristics of the leachate.

(d) The relevant point of compliance specified by the Director of an approved State shall be no more than 150 meters from the waste management unit boundary and shall be located on land owned by the owner of the MSWLF unit. In determining the relevant point of compliance State Director shall consider at least the following factors:

(1) The hydrogeologic characteristics of the facility and surrounding land;

(2) The volume and physical and chemical characteristics of the leachate;

(3) The quantity, quality, and direction, of flow of ground water;

(4) The proximity and withdrawal rate of the ground-water users;

(5) The availability of alternative drinking water supplies;

(6) The existing quality of the ground water, including other sources of contamination and their cumulative impacts on the ground water, and whether the ground water is currently used or reasonably expected to be used for drinking water;

(7) Public health, safety, and welfare effects; and

(8) Practicable capability of the owner or operator.

(e) If EPA does not promulgate a rule establishing the procedures and requirements for State compliance with RCRA section 4005(c)(1)(B) by October 9, 1993, owners and operators in unapproved States may utilize a design meeting the performance standard in §258.40(a)(1) if the following conditions are met:

(1) The State determines the design meets the performance standard in §258.40(a)(1);

(2) The State petitions EPA to review its determination; and

(3) EPA approves the State determination or does not disapprove the determination within 30 days.

Note to subpart D: 40 CFR part 239 is reserved to establish the procedures and requirements for State compliance with RCRA section 4005(c)(1)(B).

Table 1

Chemical MCL (mg/l)
Arsenic0.05
Barium1.0
Benzene0.005
Cadmium0.01
Carbon tetrachloride0.005
Chromium (hexavalent)0.05
2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid0.1
1,4-Dichlorobenzene0.075
1,2-Dichloroethane0.005
1,1-Dichloroethylene0.007
Endrin0.0002
Fluoride4
Lindane0.004
Lead0.05
Mercury0.002
Methoxychlor0.1
Nitrate10
Selenium0.01
Silver0.05
Toxaphene0.005
1,1,1-Trichloromethane0.2
Trichloroethylene0.005
2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxy acetic acid0.01
Vinyl Chloride0.002

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§258.41   Project XL Bioreactor Landfill Projects.

(a) Buncombe County, North Carolina Project XL Bioreactor Landfill Requirements. Paragraph (a) of this section applies to Cells 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 of the Buncombe County Solid Waste Management Facility located in the County of Buncombe, North Carolina, owned and operated by the Buncombe County Solid Waste Authority, or its successors. This paragraph (a) will also apply to Cells 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10, provided that the EPA Regional Administrator for Region 4 and the State Director determine that the pilot project in Cells 3, 4, and 5 is performing as expected and that the pilot project has not exhibited detrimental environmental results.

(1) The Buncombe County Solid Waste Authority is allowed to place liquid waste in the Buncombe County Solid Waste Management Facility, provided that the provisions of paragraphs (a)(2) through (9) of this section are met.

(2) The only liquid waste allowed under this section is leachate or gas condensate derived from the MSWLF, which may be supplemented with water from the French Broad River. The owner or operator shall control any liquids to the landfill to assure that the average moisture content of the landfill does not exceed 50% by weight. Liquid addition and recirculation is allowed only to the extent that the integrity of the landfill including its liner system is maintained, as determined by the State Director.

(3) The MSWLF unit shall be designed and constructed with a liner and leachate collection system as described in §258.40(a)(2) or paragraphs (a)(4) and (5) of this section. The owner or operator must place documentation of the landfill design in the operating record and notify the State Director that it has been placed in operating record;

(4) Cells 3-10 shall be constructed with a liner system consisting of the components described in paragraphs (a)(4)(i) through (v) of this section, or an equivalent or superior liner system as determined by the State Director:

(i) A lower component consisting of at least 18 inches of compacted soil with a hydraulic conductivity of no more than 1 × 10−5 cm/sec., and

(ii) An upper component consisting of a minimum 30-millimeter (“mil”) flexible membrane liner (FML) or 60-mil if High Density Polyethylene (“HDPE”) is used, and

(iii) A geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) overlaying and in direct contact with the 18 inches of compacted soil in paragraph (a)(4) of this section and having the following properties:

(A) The GCL shall be formulated and manufactured from polypropylene geotextiles and high swelling containment resistant sodium bentonite. The bentonite-geotextile liner shall be manufactured using a minimum of one pound per square foot as determined using the Standard Test Method for Measuring Mass per Unit Area of Geotextiles, ASTM D-5261-92 (reapproved in 1996). The high swelling sodium montmorillonite clay shall be at 12% moisture content as determined by the Standard Test Method for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass, ASTM D2216-98. The Director of the Federal Register approves this incorporation by reference with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. These methods are available from The American Society for Testing and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. These methods may be inspected at EPA's docket office located at Crystal Gateway, 1235 Jefferson Davis Highway, First Floor, Arlington, Virginia, or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal__register/code__of__federal__regulations/ibr__locations.html.\n.

(B) The encapsulating geotextile shall be polypropylene and shall have a minimum weight of 6 oz./square yard.

(iv) The upper component shall be installed in direct and uniform contact with an overlaying soil cushioning component.

(v) Underlying the above liner system, there shall also be installed a leak detection system consisting of a 60-mil HDPE liner placed on a prepared subgrade.

(A) A 4 inch capped pipe will drain liquid collected in the sump out beyond the footprint of the landfill cell.

(B) Water collected on the leak detection liner shall be monitored at least semi-annually as directed by the State Director to determine whether any leachate escaped the liner system.

(5) Cells 3-10 shall be designed and constructed with a leachate collection system to maintain less than 30 centimeters depth of leachate is present at the sump location. The leachate collection system shall include a continuous monitoring system to monitor depth of leachate.

(6) The owner/operator shall keep the Federally Enforceable State Operating Permit (FESOP) issued by the Western North Carolina Air Quality Agency for the Buncombe County Solid Waste Management Facility in effect, and shall comply with the provisions of the FESOP, during the entire period of leachate recirculation and the post closure period. The FESOP was issued on November 13, 2000 and contains the air quality requirements for the Buncombe County Landfill XL project.

(7) Monitoring and reporting requirements. The owner or operator of the Buncombe County Solid Waste Management Facility shall monitor for the parameters listed in paragraphs (a)(7)(i) through (xiii) of this section and submit an annual report on the XL project to the EPA Regional Administrator for Region 4 and the State Director. The first report is due coincident with the October 2001 report to the state. The report should state what progress has been made toward the superior environmental performance and other commitments as stated in the Final Project Agreement. The report shall include, at a minimum, the following data:

(i) Amount of landfill gas generated;

(ii) Percent capture of landfill gas, if known;

(iii) Quality of the landfill gas, amount and type of liquids applied to the landfill;

(iv) Method of liquids application to the landfill;

(v) Quantity of waste placed in the landfill;

(vi) Quantity and quality of leachate collected;

(vii) Quantity of leachate recirculated back into the landfill;

(viii) Information on the pretreatment of waste applied to the landfill;

(ix) Data collected on landfill temperature and moisture content;

(x) Data on the leachate pressure (head) on the liner;

(xi) Observations, information, and studies made on the physical stability of the MSWLF units that are developed during the project term, if any.

(xii) The above data may be summarized, and, at a minimum shall contain, the minimum, maximum, median, and average data points as well as the frequency of monitoring as applicable.

(xiii) The method and frequency of monitoring shall be specified by the State Director.

(8) Termination and withdrawal. (i) Paragraph (a) of this section will terminate August 22, 2026, unless a subsequent rulemaking is issued or terminated earlier pursuant to paragraph (a)(8)(ii) of this section.

(ii) In the event of noncompliance with paragraph (a) of this section, EPA may terminate the authority under paragraph (a) of this section and the authority to add liquid wastes to all or part of cells 3-10 under §258.28(a)(3). The EPA Regional Administrator will provide written notice of intent to terminate to the Buncombe County Solid Waste Authority with a copy to the State Director. The notice will state EPA's intent to terminate under the rules and will include a brief statement of EPA's reasons for its action. The termination will take effect 60 days from the date of the notice, unless the EPA Regional Administrator for Region 4 issues a written notice rescinding the termination.

(9) Compliance requirements in the event of termination or withdrawal. The Buncombe County Solid Waste Management Facility will be subject to all regulatory provisions applicable to MSWLFs upon termination of authority under this section. In the event of early termination of this section, the EPA Regional Administrator for Region 4 may provide an interim period of compliance to allow Buncombe County a reasonable period of time for transition following cessation of liquids addition.

(b) This section applies solely to Module D of the Yolo County Central Landfill owned and operated by the County of Yolo, California, or its successors. It allows the Yolo County Central Landfill to add bulk or noncontainerized liquid wastes to Module D under the following conditions:

(1) Module D shall be designed and constructed with a composite liner as defined in §258.40(b) and a leachate collection system that functions and continuously monitors to ensure that less than 30 centimeters depth of leachate is maintained over the liner.

(2) The owner or operator of the Yolo County Central Landfill must ensure that the concentration values listed in Table 1 of §258.40 are not exceeded in the uppermost aquifer at the relevant point of compliance for the landfill as specified by the State Director under §258.40(d).

(3) The owner or operator of the Yolo County Central Landfill shall demonstrate that the addition of any liquids to Module D does not result in an increased leakage rate, and does not result in liner slippage, or otherwise compromise the integrity of the landfill and its liner system, as determined by the State Director.

(4) The owner or operator of the Yolo County Central Landfill must ensure that Module D is operated in such a manner so as to prevent any landfill fires from occurring.

(5) The owner or operator of the Yolo County Central Landfill shall submit an annual report to the EPA Regional Administrator and the State Director. The first report is due within 18 months after August 13, 2001. The report shall state what progress the Project is making towards the superior environmental performance as stated in the Final Project Agreement. The data in paragraphs (b)(5)(i) through (xvi) of this section may be summarized, but, at a minimum, shall contain the minimum, maximum, median, and average data points as well as the frequency of monitoring, as applicable. These reporting provisions shall remain in effect for as long as the owner or operator of the Yolo County Central Landfill continues to add liquid waste to Module D. Additional monitoring, record keeping and reporting requirements related to landfill gas will be contained in a permit executed by the local air quality management district pursuant to the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq. Application of this site-specific rule to the Yolo County Central Landfill is conditioned upon the issuance of such permit. The annual report will include, at a minimum, the following data:

(i) Amount of landfill gas generated;

(ii) Percent capture of landfill gas;

(iii) Quality of the landfill gas;

(iv) Amount and type of liquids applied to the landfill;

(v) Method of liquids application to the landfill;

(vi) Quantity of waste placed in the landfill;

(vii) Quantity and quality of leachate collected, including at least the following parameters, monitored, at a minimum, on an annual basis:

(A) pH;

(B) Conductivity;

(C) Dissolved oxygen;

(D) Dissolved solids;

(E) Biochemical oxygen demand;

(F) Chemical oxygen demand;

(G) Organic carbon;

(H) Nutrients, (including ammonia [“NH3”], total kjeldahl nitrogen [“TKN”], and total phosphorus [“TP”]);

(I) Common ions;

(J) Heavy metals;

(K) Organic priority pollutants; and

(L) Flow rate;

(viii) Quantity of leachate recirculated back into the landfill;

(ix) Information on the pretreatment of solid and liquid waste applied to the landfill;

(x) Landfill temperature;

(xi) Landfill moisture content;

(xii) Data on the leachate pressure (head) on the liner;

(xiii) The amount of aeration of the waste;

(xiv) Data on landfill settlement;

(xv) Any information on the performance of the landfill cover; and

(xvi) Observations, information, or studies made on the physical stability of the landfill.

(6) This section will remain in effect until August 13, 2006. By August 13, 2006, Yolo County Central Landfill shall return to compliance with the regulatory requirements which would have been in effect absent the flexibility provided through this Project XL site-specific rule. This section applies to Phase I of Module D. This section also will apply to any phase of Module D beyond Phase I only if a second Final Project Agreement that describes the additional phase has been signed by representatives of EPA Region 9, Yolo County, and the State of California. Phase I of Module D is defined as the operation of twelve acres of the twenty acre Module D.

(c) Virginia Landfills XL Project Requirements. Paragraph (c) of this section applies solely to two Virginia landfills operated by the Waste Management, Inc. or its successors: The Maplewood Recycling and Waste Disposal Facility, located in Amelia County, Virginia (“Maplewood Landfill”); and the King George County Landfill and Recycling Facility, located in King George County, Virginia (“King George Landfill”) collectively hereinafter, “the VA Project XL Landfills or landfill.” The VA Project XL Landfills are allowed to add non-hazardous bulk or non-containerized liquids including, leachate, storm water and truck wash water, hereinafter, “liquid or liquids”, to Cell 3 of the King George Landfill (hereinafter “Cell 3”) and Phases 1 and 2 of the Maplewood Landfill (hereinafter “Phases 1 and 2”) under the following conditions:

(1) The operator of the landfill shall maintain the liners underlying Cell 3 and Phases 1 and 2, which were designed and constructed with an alternative liner as defined in §258.40(a)(1) in accord with their current installed design in order to maintain the integrity of the liner system and keep it and the leachate collection system in good operating order. The operator of the landfill shall ensure that the addition of any liquids does not result in an increased leakage rate, and does not result in liner slippage, or otherwise compromise the integrity of the landfill and its liner system, as determined by the State Director. In addition, the leachate collection system shall be operated, monitored and maintained to ensure that less than 30 cm depth of leachate is maintained over the liner.

(2) The operator of the landfill shall ensure that the concentration values listed in Table 1 of §258.40 are not exceeded in the uppermost aquifer at the relevant point of compliance for the landfill, as specified by the State Director, under §258.40(d).

(3) The operator of the landfill shall monitor and report whether surface seeps are occurring and determine whether they are attributable to operation of the liquid application system. EPA and VADEQ shall be notified in the semi-annual report of the occurrence of any seeps.

(4) The operator of the landfill shall determine on a monthly basis the leachate quality in test and control areas with and without liquid addition. The operator of the landfill shall collect monthly samples of the landfill leachate and analyze them for the following parameters: pH, Conductivity, Dissolved Oxygen, Dissolved Solids, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Organic Carbon, Nutrients (ammonia, total kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorus), Common Ions, Heavy Metals and Organic Priority Pollutants.

(5) The operator of the landfill shall determine on a semi-annual basis the total quantity of leachate collected in test and control areas; the total quantity of liquids applied in the test areas and determination of any changes in this quantity over time; the total quantity of leachate in on-site storage structures and any leachate taken for offsite disposal.

(6) Prior to the addition of any liquid to the landfill, the operator of the landfill shall perform an initial characterization of the liquid and notify EPA and VADEQ of the liquid proposed to be added. The parameters for the initial characterization of liquids shall be the same as the monthly parameters for the landfill leachate specified in paragraph (c)(4) of this section. The operator shall annually test all liquids added to the landfill and compare these results to the initial characterization.

(7) The operator of the landfill shall ensure that Cell 3 and Phases 1 and 2 are operated in such a manner so as to prevent any landfill fires from occurring. The operator of the landfill shall monitor the gas temperature at well heads, at a minimum, on a monthly basis.

(8) The operator of the landfill shall perform an annual surface topographic survey to determine the rate of the settlement of the waste in the test and control areas.

(9) The operator of the landfill shall monitor and record the frequency of odor complaints during and after liquid application events. EPA and VADEQ shall be notified of the occurrence of any odor complaints in the semi-annual report.

(10) The operator of the landfill shall collect representative samples of the landfill waste in the test areas on an annual basis and analyze the samples for the following solid waste stabilization and decomposition parameters: Moisture Content, Biochemical Methane Potential, Cellulose, Lignin, Hemi-cellulose, Volatile Solids and pH.

(11) The operator of the landfill shall report to the EPA Regional Administrator and the State Director on the information described in paragraphs (c)(1) through (10) of this section on a semi-annual basis. The first report is due within 6 months after the effective date of this section. These reporting provisions shall remain in effect for the duration of the project term.

(12) Additional monitoring, record keeping and reporting requirements related to landfill gas will be contained in a Federally Enforceable State Operating Permit (“FESOP”) for the VA Project XL Landfills issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq. Application of this site-specific rule to the VA Project XL Landfills is conditioned upon the issuance of such a FESOP.

(13) This section applies until July 18, 2012. By July 18, 2012, the VA Project XL Landfills must return to compliance with the regulatory requirements which would have been in effect absent the flexibility provided through this section. If EPA Region 3's Regional Administrator, the Commonwealth of Virginia and Waste Management agree to an amendment of the project term, the parties must enter into an amended or new Final Project Agreement for any such amendment.

(14) The authority provided by this section may be terminated before the end of the 10 year period in the event of noncompliance with the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section, the determination by the EPA Region 3's Regional Administrator that the project has failed to achieve the expected level of environmental performance, or the promulgation of generally applicable requirements that would apply to all landfills that meet or exceed the performance standard set forth in §258.40(a)(1). In the event of early termination EPA in consultation with the Commonwealth of Virginia will determine an interim compliance period to provide sufficient time for the operator to return the landfills to compliance with the regulatory requirements which would have been in effect absent the authority provided by this section. The interim compliance period shall not exceed six months.

[66 FR 42449, Aug. 13, 2001, as amended at 66 FR 44069, Aug. 22, 2001; 67 FR 47319, July 18, 2002; 69 FR 18803, Apr. 9, 2004]

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§258.42   Approval of site-specific flexibility requests in Indian country.

(a) Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community (SRPMIC), Salt River Landfill Research, Development, and Demonstration Project Requirements. Paragraph (a) of this section applies to the Salt River Landfill, a municipal solid waste landfill owned and operated by the SPRMIC on the SRPMIC's reservation in Arizona, which includes waste disposal areas identified as “Phases I-VI.” The application submitted by SRPMIC, “Research, Development, and Demonstration Permit Application Salt River Landfill,” dated September 24, 2007 and amended on April 8, 2008 is hereby incorporated by reference. The Director of the Federal Register approves this incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may inspect or obtain a copy at the Environmental Protection Agency Region IX, 75 Hawthorne Street, San Francisco, CA, or by calling the Docket Facility at (415) 947-4406, or go to http://www.regulations.gov, Docket ID No. EPA-R09-RCRA-2008-0354. You may also inspect a copy at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability at NARA, call (202) 741-6030 or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal__register/code__of__federal__regulations/ibr__locations.html.\n. The facility owner and/or operator may operate the facility in accordance with this application, including the following activities more generally described as follows:

(1) The owner and/or operator may install a geosynthetic clay liner as an alternative bottom liner system in Phase VI.

(2) The owner and/or operator may operate Phase VI as a bioreactor by recirculating leachate and landfill gas condensate, and by adding storm water and groundwater, to the below grade portions of Phase VI.

(3) The owner and/or operator may increase the moisture content of the waste mass in Phases IIIB and IVA by recirculating leachate and landfill gas condensate, and by adding storm water and groundwater, to the below grade portions of Phases IIIB and IVA.

(4) The owner and/or operator shall maintain less than a 30-cm depth of leachate on the liner.

(5) The owner and/or operator shall submit reports to the Director of the Waste Management Division at EPA Region 9 as specified in “Research, Development, and Demonstration Permit Application Salt River Landfill,” dated September 24, 2007 and amended on April 8, 2008 including an annual report showing whether and to what extent the site is progressing in attaining project goals. The annual report will also include a summary of all monitoring and testing results, as specified in the application.

(6) The owner and/or operator may not operate the facility pursuant to the authority granted by this section if there is any deviation from the terms, conditions, and requirements of this section unless the operation of the facility will continue to conform to the standards set forth in §258.4 of this chapter and the owner and/or operator has obtained the prior written approval of the Director of the Waste Management Division at EPA Region 9 or his or her designee to implement corrective measures or otherwise operate the facility subject to such deviation. The Director of the Waste Management Division or designee shall provide an opportunity for the public to comment on any significant deviation prior to providing his or her written approval of the deviation.

(7) Paragraphs (a)(2), (3), (5), (6) and (9) of this section will terminate 36 months after date of publication in the Federal Register unless the Director of the Waste Management Division at EPA Region 9 or his or her designee renews this authority in writing. Any such renewal may extend the authority granted under paragraphs (a)(2), (3), (5), (6) and (9) of this section for up to an additional three years, and multiple renewals (up to a total of 12 years) may be provided. The Director of the Waste Management Division or designee shall provide an opportunity for the public to comment on any renewal request prior to providing his or her written approval or disapproval of such request.

(8) In no event will the provisions of paragraphs (a)(2), (3), (5), (6) or (9) of this section remain in effect after 12 years after date of publication in the Federal Register. Upon termination of paragraphs (a)(2), (3), (5), (6) and (9) of this section, and except with respect to paragraphs (a)(1) and (4) of this section, the owner and/or operator shall return to compliance with the regulatory requirements which would have been in effect absent the flexibility provided through this site-specific rule.

(9) In seeking any renewal of the authority granted under or other requirements of paragraphs (a)(2), (3), (5) and (6) of this section, the owner and/or operator shall provide a detailed assessment of the project showing the status with respect to achieving project goals, a list of problems and status with respect to problem resolutions, and any other requirements that the Director of the Waste Management Division at EPA Region 9 or his or her designee has determined are necessary for the approval of any renewal and has communicated in writing to the owner and operator.

(10) The owner and/or operator's authority to operate the landfill in accordance with paragraphs (a)(2), (3), (5), (6) and (9) of this section shall terminate if the Director of the Waste Management Division at EPA Region 9 or his or her designee determines that the overall goals of the project are not being attained, including protection of human health or the environment. Any such determination shall be communicated in writing to the owner and operator.

(b) [Reserved]

[74 FR 11680, Mar. 19, 2009]

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§§258.43-258.49   [Reserved]

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