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e-CFR data is current as of September 18, 2020

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter DPart 144 → Subpart G


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 144—UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM


Subpart G—Requirements for Owners and Operators of Class V Injection Wells


Contents
§144.79   General.

Definition of Class V Injection Wells

§144.80   What is a Class V injection well?
§144.81   Does this subpart apply to me?

Requirements for All Class V Injection Wells

§144.82   What must I do to protect underground sources of drinking water?
§144.83   Do I need to notify anyone about my Class V injection well?
§144.84   Do I need to get a permit?

Additional Requirements for Class V Large-Capacity Cesspools and Motor Vehicle Waste Disposal Wells

§144.85   Do these additional requirements apply to me?
§144.86   What are the definitions I need to know?
§144.87   How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me?
§144.88   What are the additional requirements?
§144.89   How do I close my Class V injection well?

Source: 64 FR 68566, Dec. 7, 1999, unless otherwise noted.

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§144.79   General.

This subpart tells you what requirements apply if you own or operate a Class V injection well. You may also be required to follow additional requirements listed in the rest of this part. Where they may apply, these other requirements are referenced rather than repeated. The requirements described in this subpart and elsewhere in this part are to protect underground sources of drinking water and are part of the Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program established under the Safe Drinking Water Act. This subpart is written in a special format to make it easier to understand the regulatory requirements. Like other EPA regulations, it establishes enforceable legal requirements.

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Definition of Class V Injection Wells

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§144.80   What is a Class V injection well?

As described in §144.6, injection wells are classified as follows:

(a) Class I. (1) Wells used by generators of hazardous waste or owners or operators of hazardous waste management facilities to inject hazardous waste beneath the lowermost formation containing, within one-quarter mile of the well bore, an underground source of drinking water.

(2) Other industrial and municipal disposal wells which inject fluids beneath the lowermost formation containing, within one quarter mile of the well bore, an underground source of drinking water;

(3) Radioactive waste disposal wells which inject fluids below the lowermost formation containing an underground source of drinking water within one quarter mile of the well bore.

(b) Class II. Wells which inject fluids:

(1) Which are brought to the surface in connection with natural gas storage operations, or conventional oil or natural gas production and may be commingled with waste waters from gas plants which are an integral part of production operations, unless those waters are classified as a hazardous waste at the time of injection.

(2) For enhanced recovery of oil or natural gas; and

(3) For storage of hydrocarbons which are liquid at standard temperature and pressure.

(c) Class III. Wells which inject fluids for extraction of minerals including:

(1) Mining of sulfur by the Frasch process;

(2) In situ production of uranium or other metals; this category includes only in situ production from ore bodies which have not been conventionally mined. Solution mining of conventional mines such as stopes leaching is included in Class V.

(3) Solution mining of salts or potash.

(d) Class IV. (1) Wells used by generators of hazardous waste or of radioactive waste, by owners and operators of hazardous waste management facilities, or by owners or operators of radioactive waste disposal sites to dispose of hazardous waste or radioactive waste into a formation which within one quarter ( 14 ) mile of the well contains an underground source of drinking water.

(2) Wells used by generators of hazardous waste or of radioactive waste, by owners and operators of hazardous waste management facilities, or by owners or operators of radioactive waste disposal sites to dispose of hazardous waste or radioactive waste above a formation which within one quarter ( 14 ) mile of the well contains an underground source of drinking water.

(3) Wells used by generators of hazardous waste or owners or operators of hazardous waste management facilities to dispose of hazardous waste, which cannot be classified under paragraph (a)(1) or (d)(1) and (2) of this section (e.g., wells used to dispose of hazardous waste into or above a formation which contains an aquifer which has been exempted pursuant to 40 CFR 146.04).

(e) Class V. Injection wells not included in Class I, II, III, IV or VI. Typically, Class V wells are shallow wells used to place a variety of fluids directly below the land surface. However, if the fluids you place in the ground qualify as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), your well is either a Class I or Class IV well, not a Class V well. Examples of Class V wells are described in §144.81.

(f) Class VI. Wells used for geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide beneath the lowermost formation containing a USDW, except those wells that are experimental in nature; or, wells used for geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide that have been granted a waiver of the injection depth requirements pursuant to requirements at §146.95 of this chapter; or, wells used for geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide that have received an expansion to the areal extent of a existing Class II enhanced oil recovery or enhanced gas recovery aquifer exemption pursuant to §146.4 of this chapter and §144.7(d).

[64 FR 68566, Dec. 7, 1999, as amended at 75 FR 77290, Dec. 10, 2010]

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§144.81   Does this subpart apply to me?

This subpart applies to you if you own or operate a Class V well, for example:

(1) Air conditioning return flow wells used to return to the supply aquifer the water used for heating or cooling in a heat pump;

(2) Large capacity cesspools including multiple dwelling, community or regional cesspools, or other devices that receive sanitary wastes, containing human excreta, which have an open bottom and sometimes perforated sides. The UIC requirements do not apply to single family residential cesspools nor to non-residential cesspools which receive solely sanitary waste and have the capacity to serve fewer than 20 persons a day.

(3) Cooling water return flow wells used to inject water previously used for cooling;

(4) Drainage wells used to drain surface fluids, primarily storm runoff, into a subsurface formation;

(5) Dry wells used for the injection of wastes into a subsurface formation;

(6) Recharge wells used to replenish the water in an aquifer;

(7) Salt water intrusion barrier wells used to inject water into a fresh aquifer to prevent the intrusion of salt water into the fresh water;

(8) Sand backfill and other backfill wells used to inject a mixture of water and sand, mill tailings or other solids into mined out portions of subsurface mines whether what is injected is a radioactive waste or not.

(9) Septic system wells used to inject the waste or effluent from a multiple dwelling, business establishment, community or regional business establishment septic tank. The UIC requirements do not apply to single family residential septic system wells, nor to non-residential septic system wells which are used solely for the disposal of sanitary waste and have the capacity to serve fewer than 20 persons a day.

(10) Subsidence control wells (not used for the purpose of oil or natural gas production) used to inject fluids into a non-oil or gas producing zone to reduce or eliminate subsidence associated with the overdraft of fresh water;

(11) Injection wells associated with the recovery of geothermal energy for heating, aquaculture and production of electric power;

(12) Wells used for solution mining of conventional mines such as stopes leaching;

(13) Wells used to inject spent brine into the same formation from which it was withdrawn after extraction of halogens or their salts;

(14) Injection wells used in experimental technologies.

(15) Injection wells used for in situ recovery of lignite, coal, tar sands, and oil shale.

(16) Motor vehicle waste disposal wells that receive or have received fluids from vehicular repair or maintenance activities, such as an auto body repair shop, automotive repair shop, new and used car dealership, specialty repair shop (e.g., transmission and muffler repair shop), or any facility that does any vehicular repair work. Fluids disposed in these wells may contain organic and inorganic chemicals in concentrations that exceed the maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) established by the primary drinking water regulations (see 40 CFR part 141). These fluids also may include waste petroleum products and may contain contaminants, such as heavy metals and volatile organic compounds, which pose risks to human health.

[64 FR 68566, Dec. 7, 1999, as amended at 67 FR 39593, June 7, 2002]

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Requirements for All Class V Injection Wells

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§144.82   What must I do to protect underground sources of drinking water?

If you own or operate any type of Class V well, the regulations below require that you cannot allow movement of fluid into USDWs that might cause endangerment, you must comply with other Federal UIC requirements in 40 CFR parts 144 through 147, and you must comply with any other measures required by your State or EPA Regional Office UIC Program to protect USDWs, and you must properly close your well when you are through using it. You also must submit basic information about your well, as described in §144.83.

(a) Prohibition of fluid movement. (1) As described in §144.12(a), your injection activity cannot allow the movement of fluid containing any contaminant into USDWs, if the presence of that contaminant may cause a violation of the primary drinking water standards under 40 CFR part 141, other health based standards, or may otherwise adversely affect the health of persons. This prohibition applies to your well construction, operation, maintenance, conversion, plugging, closure, or any other injection activity.

(2) If the Director of the UIC Program in your State or EPA Region learns that your injection activity may endanger USDWs, he or she may require you to close your well, require you to get a permit, or require other actions listed in §144.12(c), (d), or (e).

(b) Closure requirements. You must close the well in a manner that complies with the above prohibition of fluid movement. Also, you must dispose or otherwise manage any soil, gravel, sludge, liquids, or other materials removed from or adjacent to your well in accordance with all applicable Federal, State, and local regulations and requirements.

(c) Other requirements in Parts 144 through 147. Beyond this subpart, you are subject to other UIC Program requirements in 40 CFR parts 144 through 147. While most of the relevant requirements are repeated or referenced in this subpart for convenience, you need to read these other parts to understand the entire UIC Program.

(d) Other State or EPA requirements. 40 CFR parts 144 through 147 define minimum Federal UIC requirements. EPA Regional Offices administering the UIC Program have the flexibility to establish additional or more stringent requirements based on the authorities in parts 144 through 147, if believed to be necessary to protect USDWs. States can have their own authorities to establish additional or more stringent requirements if needed to protect USDWs. You must comply with these additional requirements, if any exist in your area. Contact the UIC Program Director in your State or EPA Region to learn more.

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§144.83   Do I need to notify anyone about my Class V injection well?

Yes, you need to provide basic “inventory information” about your well to the UIC Director, if you haven't already. You also need to provide any additional information that your UIC Program Director requests in accordance with the provisions of the UIC regulations.

(a) Inventory requirements. Unless you know you have already satisfied the inventory requirements in §144.26 that were in effect prior to the issuance of this Subpart G, you must give your UIC Program Director certain information about yourself and your injection operation.

Note: This information is requested on national form “Inventory of Injection Wells,” OMB No. 2040-0042.

(1) The requirements differ depending on your well status and location, as described in the following table:

If your well is . . .And you're in one of these locations (“Primacy” States, where the State runs the Class V UIC Program): Alabama, Arkansas, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Guam, Idaho, Illinois, Kansas, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Puerto Rico, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, or WyomingOr you're in one of these locations (“Direct Implementation” or DI Programs, where EPA runs the Class V UIC Program): Alaska, American Samoa, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, New York, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Tennessee, Virginia, Virgin Islands, Washington, DC, or any Indian Country
(i) New (prior to construction of your well). . . then you must contact your State UIC Program to determine what you must submit and by when.. . . then you must submit the inventory information described in (a)(2) of this section prior to constructing your well.
(ii) Existing (construction underway or completed). . . then you must contact your State UIC Program to determine what you must submit and by when.. . . then you must cease injection and submit the inventory information. You may resume injection 90 days after you submit the information unless the UIC Program Director notifies you that injection may not resume or may resume sooner.

(2) If your well is in a Primacy State or a DI Program State, here is the information you must submit:

(i) No matter what type of Class V well you own or operate, you must submit at least the following information for each Class V well: facility name and location; name and address of legal contact; ownership of facility; nature and type of injection well(s); and operating status of injection well(s).

(ii) Additional information. If you are in a Direct Implementation State and you own or operate a well listed below you must also provide the information listed in paragraph (a) (2) (iii) as follows:

(A) Sand or other backfill wells (40 CFR 144.81(8) and 146.5(e)(8) of this chapter);

(B) Geothermal energy recovery wells (40 CFR 144.81(11) and 146.5 (e)(12) of this chapter);

(C) Brine return flow wells (40 CFR 144.81(13) and 146.5 (e)(14) of this chapter);

(D) Wells used in experimental technology (40 CFR 144.81(14) and 146.5 (e)(15) of this chapter);

(E) Municipal and industrial disposal wells other than Class I; and

(F) Any other Class V wells at the discretion of the Regional Administrator.

(iii) You must provide a list of all wells owned or operated along with the following information for each well. (A single description of wells at a single facility with substantially the same characteristics is acceptable).

(A) Location of each well or project given by Township, Range, Section, and Quarter-Section, or by latitude and longitude to the nearest second, according to the conventional practice in your State;

(B) Date of completion of each well;

(C) Identification and depth of the underground formation(s) into which each well is injecting;

(D) Total depth of each well;

(E) Construction narrative and schematic (both plan view and cross-sectional drawings);

(F) Nature of the injected fluids;

(G) Average and maximum injection pressure at the wellhead;

(H) Average and maximum injection rate; and

(I) Date of the last inspection.

(3) Regardless of whether your well is in a Primacy State or DI Program you are responsible for knowing about, understanding, and complying with these inventory requirements.

(b) Information in response to requests. If you are in one of the DI Programs listed in the table above, the UIC Program Director may require you to submit other information believed necessary to protect underground sources of drinking water.

(1) Such information requirements may include, but are not limited to:

(i) Perform ground water monitoring and periodically submit your monitoring results;

(ii) Analyze the fluids you inject and periodically submit the results of your analyses;

(iii) Describe the geologic layers through which and into which you are injecting; and

(iv) Conduct other analyses and submit other information, if needed to protect underground sources of drinking water.

(2) If the Director requires this other information, he or she will request it from you in writing, along with a brief statement on why the information is required. This written notification also will tell you when to submit the information.

(3) You are prohibited from using your injection well if you fail to comply with the written request within the time frame specified. You can start injecting again only if you receive a permit.

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§144.84   Do I need to get a permit?

No, unless you fall within an exception described below:

(a) General authorization by rule. With certain exceptions listed in paragraph (b) of this section, your Class V injection activity is “authorized by rule,” meaning you have to comply with all the requirements of this subpart and the rest of the UIC Program but you don't have to get an individual permit. Well authorization expires once you have properly closed your well, as described in §144.82(b).

(b) Circumstances in which permits or other actions are required. If you fit into one of the categories listed below, your Class V well is no longer authorized by rule. This means that you have to either get a permit or close your injection well. You can find out by contacting the UIC Program Director in your State or EPA Region if this is the case. Subpart D of this part tells you how to apply for a permit and describes other aspects of the permitting process. Subpart E of this part outlines some of the requirements that apply to you if you get a permit.

(1) You fail to comply with the prohibition of fluid movement standard in §144.12(a) and described in §144.82(a) (in which case, you have to get a permit, close your well, and/or comply with other conditions determined by the UIC Program Director in your State or EPA Region);

(2) You own or operate a Class V large-capacity cesspool (in which case, you must close your well as specified in the additional requirements below) or a Class V motor vehicle waste disposal well in a ground water protection area or sensitive ground water area (in which case, you must either close your well or get a permit as specified in the additional requirements in this subsection). New motor vehicle waste disposal wells and new cesspools are prohibited as of April 5, 2000;

(3) You are specifically required by the UIC Program Director in your State or EPA Region to get a permit (in which case, rule authorization expires upon the effective date of the permit issued, or you are prohibited from injecting into your well upon:

(i) Failure to submit a permit application in a timely manner as specified in a notice from the Director; or

(ii) Upon the effective date of permit denial);

(4) You have failed to submit inventory information to your UIC Program Director, as described in §144.83(a) (in which case, you are prohibited from injecting into your well until you comply with the inventory requirements); or

(5) If you are in a DI State and you received a request from your UIC Program Director for additional information under §144.83(b), and have failed to comply with the request in a timely manner (in which case, you are prohibited from injecting into your well until you get a permit).

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Additional Requirements for Class V Large-Capacity Cesspools and Motor Vehicle Waste Disposal Wells

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§144.85   Do these additional requirements apply to me?

(a) Large-capacity cesspools. The additional requirements apply to all new and existing large-capacity cesspools regardless of their location. If you are using a septic system for these type of wastes you are not subject to the additional requirements in this subpart.

(b) Motor vehicle waste disposal wells existing on April 5, 2000. If you have a Class V motor vehicle waste disposal well these requirements apply to you if your well is located in a ground water protection area or other sensitive ground water area that is identified by your State or EPA Region. If your State or EPA Region fails to identify ground water protection areas and/or other sensitive ground water areas these requirements apply to all Class V motor vehicle wells in the State.

(c) New motor vehicle waste disposal wells. The additional requirements apply to all new motor vehicle waste disposal wells as of April 5, 2000.

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§144.86   What are the definitions I need to know?

(a) State Drinking Water Source Assessment and Protection Program. This is a new approach to protecting drinking water sources, specified in the 1996 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act at Section 1453. States must prepare and submit for EPA approval a program that sets out how States will conduct local assessments, including: delineating the boundaries of areas providing source waters for public water systems; identifying significant potential sources of contaminants in such areas; and determining the susceptibility of public water systems in the delineated areas to the inventoried sources of contamination.

(b) Complete local source water assessment for ground water protection areas. When EPA has approved a State's Drinking Water Source Assessment and Protection Program, States will begin to conduct local assessments for each public water system in their State. For the purposes of this rule, local assessments for community water systems and non-transient non-community systems are complete when four requirements are met: First, a State must delineate the boundaries of the assessment area for community and non-transient non-community water systems. Second, the State must identify significant potential sources of contamination in these delineated areas. Third, the State must “determine the susceptibility of community and non-transient non-community water systems in the delineated area to such contaminants.” Lastly, each State will develop its own plan for making the completed assessments available to the public.

(c) Ground water protection area. A ground water protection area is a geographic area near and/or surrounding community and non-transient non-community water systems that use ground water as a source of drinking water. These areas receive priority for the protection of drinking water supplies and States are required to delineate and assess these areas under section 1453 of the Safe Drinking Water Act. The additional requirements in §144.88 apply to you if your Class V motor vehicle waste disposal well is in a ground water protection area for either a community water system or a non-transient non-community water system, in many States, these areas will be the same as Wellhead Protection Areas that have been or will be delineated as defined in section 1428 of the SDWA.

(d) Community water system. A community water system is a public water system that serves at least 15 service connections used by year-round residents or regularly serves at least 25 year-round residents.

(e) Non-transient non-community water system. A public water system that is not a community water system and that regularly serves at least 25 of the same people over six months a year. These may include systems that provide water to schools, day care centers, government/military installations, manufacturers, hospitals or nursing homes, office buildings, and other facilities.

(f) Delineation. Once a State's Drinking Water Source Assessment and Protection Program is approved, the States will begin delineating their local assessment areas. Delineation is the first step in the assessment process in which the boundaries of ground water protection areas are identified.

(g) Other sensitive ground water areas. States may also identify other areas in the State in addition to ground water protection areas that are critical to protecting underground sources of drinking water from contamination. These other sensitive ground water areas may include areas such as areas overlying sole-source aquifers; highly productive aquifers supplying private wells; continuous and highly productive aquifers at points distant from public water supply wells; areas where water supply aquifers are recharged; karst aquifers that discharge to surface reservoirs serving as public water supplies; vulnerable or sensitive hydrogeologic settings, such as glacial outwash deposits, eolian sands, and fractured volcanic rock; and areas of special concern selected based on a combination of factors, such as hydrogeologic sensitivity, depth to ground water, significance as a drinking water source, and prevailing land-use practices.

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§144.87   How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me?

(a) You are subject to these new requirements if you own or operate an existing motor vehicle well and you are located in a ground water protection area or an other sensitive ground water area. If your State or EPA Region fails to identify these areas within the specified time frames these requirements apply to all existing motor vehicle waste disposal wells within your State.

(b) Ground water protection areas. (1) For the purpose of this subpart, States are required to complete all local source water assessments for ground water protection areas by January 1, 2004. Once a local assessment for a ground water protection area is complete every existing motor vehicle waste disposal well owner in that ground water protection area has one year to close the well or receive a permit. If a State fails to complete all local assessments for ground water protection areas by January 1, 2004, the following may occur:

(i) The new requirements in this subpart will apply to all existing motor vehicle waste disposal wells in the State and owners and operators of motor vehicle waste disposal wells located outside of completed assessments for ground water protection areas must close their well or receive a permit by January 1, 2005.

(ii) EPA may grant a State an extension for up to one year from the January 1, 2004 deadline if the State is making reasonable progress in completing the source water assessments for ground water protection areas. States must apply for the extension by June 1, 2003. If a State fails to complete the assessments for the remaining ground water protection areas by the extended date the rule requirements will apply to all motor vehicle waste disposal wells in the State and owners and operators of motor vehicle waste disposal wells located outside of ground water protection areas with completed assessments must close their well or receive a permit by January 1, 2006.

(2) The UIC Program Director may extend the compliance deadline for specific motor vehicle waste disposal wells for up to one year if the most efficient compliance option for the well is connection to a sanitary sewer or installation of new treatment technology.

(c) Other sensitive ground water areas. States may also delineate other sensitive ground water areas by January 1, 2004. Existing motor vehicle waste disposal well owners and operators within other sensitive ground water areas have until January 1, 2007 to receive a permit or close the well. If a State or EPA Region fails to identify these additional sensitive ground water areas by January 1, 2004, the new requirements of this rule will apply to all motor vehicle waste disposal wells in the State effective January 1, 2007 unless they are subject to a different compliance date pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section. Again, EPA may extend the January 1, 2004 deadline for up to one year for States to delineate other sensitive ground water areas if the State is making reasonable progress in identifying the sensitive areas. States must apply for this extension by June 1, 2003. If a State has been granted an extension, existing motor vehicle waste disposal well owners and operators within the sensitive ground water areas have until January 1, 2008 to close the well or receive a permit, unless they are subject to a different compliance date pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section. If a State has been granted an extension and fails to delineate sensitive areas by the extended date, the rule requirements will apply to all motor vehicle waste disposal wells in the State and owners and operators have until January 1, 2008 to close the well or receive a permit, unless they are subject to a different compliance date pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section.

(d) How to find out if your well is in a ground water protection area or sensitive ground water area. States are required to make their local source water assessments widely available to the public through a variety of methods after the assessments are complete. You can find out if your Class V well is in a ground water protection area by contacting the State agency responsible for the State Drinking Water Source Assessment and Protection Program in your area. You may call the Safe Drinking Water Hotline at 1-800-426-4791 to find out who to call in your State for this information. The State office responsible for implementing the Drinking Water Source Assessment and Protection Program makes the final and official determination of boundaries for ground water protection areas. Because States that choose to delineate other sensitive ground water areas are also required to make the information on these areas accessible to the public, they may do so in a manner similar to the process used by the States in publicizing the EPA approved Drinking Water Source Assessment and Protection Program. You can find out if your Class V well is in an other sensitive ground water area by contacting the State or Federal agency responsible for the Underground Injection Control Program. You may call the Safe Drinking Water Hotline at 1-800-426-4791 to find out who to call for information.

(e) Changes in the status of the EPA approved state drinking water source assessment and protection program. After January 1, 2004 your State may assess a ground water protection area for ground water supplying a new community water system or a new non-transient non-community water system that includes your Class V injection well. Also, your State may officially re-delineate the boundaries of a previously delineated ground water protection area to include additional areas that includes your motor vehicle waste disposal well. This would make the additional regulations apply to you if your motor vehicle waste disposal well is in such an area. The additional regulations start applying to you one year after the State completes the local assessment for the ground water protection area for the new drinking water system or the new re-delineated area. The UIC Program Director responsible for your area may extend this deadline for up to one year if the most efficient compliance option for the well is connection to a sanitary sewer or installation of new treatment technology.

(f) What happens if my state doesn't designate other sensitive ground water areas? If your State or EPA Region elects not to delineate the additional sensitive ground water areas, the additional regulations apply to you regardless of the location of your well by January 1, 2007, or January 2008 if an extension has been granted as explained in paragraph (c) of this section, except for wells in ground water protection areas which are subject to different compliance deadlines explained in paragraph (b) of this section.

(g) [Reserved]

(h) Application of requirements outside of ground water protection areas and sensitive ground water areas. EPA expects and strongly encourages States to use existing authorities in the UIC program to take whatever measures are needed to ensure Class V wells are not endangering USDWs in any other areas outside of delineated ground water protection areas and sensitive ground water areas. Such measures could include, if believed to be necessary by a UIC Program Director, applying the additional requirements below to other areas and/or other types of Class V wells. Therefore, the Director may apply the additional requirements to you, even if you are not located in the areas listed in paragraph (a) of this section.

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§144.88   What are the additional requirements?

The additional requirements are specified in the following tables:

(a) Table 1—Additional Requirements for Large-Capacity Cesspools Statewide

[See §144.85 to determine if these additional requirements apply to you]

Well StatusRequirementDeadline
If your cesspool is. . .Then you. . .By. . .
(1) Existing (operational or under construction by April 5, 2000)(i) Must close the wellApril 5, 2005.
   (ii) Must notify the UIC Program Director (both Primacy States and Direct Implementation States) of your intent to close the well.
Note: This information is requested on national form “Preclosure Notification for Closure of Injection Wells,”
At least 30 days prior to closure.
(2) New or converted (construction not started before April 5, 2000)Are prohibitedApril 5, 2000.

(b) Table 2—Additional Requirements for Motor Vehicle Waste Disposal Wells

[See §144.85 to determine if these additional requirements apply to you]

Well statusRequirementDeadline
If your motor vehicle waste disposal well isThen. . .By. . .
(1) Existing (operational or under construction by April 5, 2000)(i) If your well is in a ground water protection area, you must close the well or obtain a permitWithin 1 year of the completion of your local source water assessment; your UIC Program Director may extend the closure deadline, but not the permit application deadline, for up to one year if the most efficient compliance option is connection to a sanitary sewer or installation of new treatment technology.
   (ii) If your well is in an other sensitive ground water area, you must close the well or obtain a permitBy January 1, 2007; your UIC Program Director may extend the closure deadline, but not the permit application deadline, for up to one year if the most efficient compliance option is connection to a sanitary sewer or installation of new treatment technology.
   (iii) If you plan to seek a waiver from the ban and apply for a permit, you must meet MCLs at the point of injection while your permit application is under review, if you choose to keep operating your wellThe date you submit your permit application.
   (iv) If you receive a permit, you must comply with all permit conditions, if you choose to keep operating your well, including requirements to meet MCLs and other health based standards at the point of injection, follow best management practices, and monitor your injectate and sludge qualityThe date(s) specified in your permit.
   (v) If your well is in a State which has not completed all their local assessments by January 1, 2004 or by the extended date if your State has obtained an extension as described in 144.87, and you are outside an area with a completed assessment you must close the well or obtain a permitJanuary 1, 2005 unless your State obtains an extension as described in 144.87 (b) in which case your deadline is January 1, 2006; your UIC Program Director may extend the closure deadline, but not the permit application deadline, for up to one year if the most efficient compliance option is connection to a sanitary sewer or installation of new treatment technology.
   (vi) If your well is in a State that has not delineated other sensitive ground water areas by January 1, 2004 and you are outside of an area with a completed assessment you must close the well or obtain a permit regardless of your locationJanuary 1, 2007 unless your State obtains an extension as described in 144.87(c) in which case your deadline is January 2008.
   (vii) If you plan to close your well, you must notify the UIC Program Director of your intent to close the well (this includes closing your well prior to conversion)
Note: This information is requested on national form “Preclosure Notification for Closure of Injection Wells”.
At least 30 days prior to closure.
(2) New or converted (construction not started before April 5, 2000)Are prohibitedApril 5, 2000.

[64 FR 68566, Dec. 7, 1999; 64 FR 70316, Dec. 16, 1999]

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§144.89   How do I close my Class V injection well?

The following describes the requirements for closing your Class V injection well.

(a) Closure. (1) Prior to closing a Class V large-capacity cesspool or motor vehicle waste disposal well, you must plug or otherwise close the well in a manner that complies with the prohibition of fluid movement standard in §144.12 and summarized in §144.82(a). If the UIC Program Director in your State or EPA Region has any additional or more specific closure standards, you have to meet those standards too. You also must dispose or otherwise manage any soil, gravel, sludge, liquids, or other materials removed from or adjacent to your well in accordance with all applicable Federal, State, and local regulations and requirements, as in §144.82(b).

(2) Closure does not mean that you need to cease operations at your facility, only that you need to close your well. A number of alternatives are available for disposing of waste fluids. Examples of alternatives that may be available to motor vehicle stations include: recycling and reusing wastewater as much as possible; collecting and recycling petroleum-based fluids, coolants, and battery acids drained from vehicles; washing parts in a self-contained, recirculating solvent sink, with spent solvents being recovered and replaced by the supplier; using absorbents to clean up minor leaks and spills, and placing the used materials in approved waste containers and disposing of them properly; using a wet vacuum or mop to pick up accumulated rain or snow melt, and if allowed, connecting floor drains to a municipal sewer system or holding tank, and if allowed, disposing of the holding tank contents through a publicly owned treatment works. You should check with the publicly owned treatment works you might use to see if they would accept your wastes. Alternatives that may be available to owners and operators of a large-capacity cesspool include: conversion to a septic system; connection to sewer; and installation of an on-site treatment unit.

(b) Conversions. In limited cases, the UIC Director may authorize the conversion (reclassification) of a motor vehicle waste disposal well to another type of Class V well. Motor vehicle wells may only be converted if: all motor vehicle fluids are segregated by physical barriers and are not allowed to enter the well; and, injection of motor vehicle waste is unlikely based on a facility's compliance history and records showing proper waste disposal. The use of a semi-permanent plug as the means to segregate waste is not sufficient to convert a motor vehicle waste disposal well to another type of Class V well.

[64 FR 68566, Dec. 7, 1999; 65 FR 5024, Feb. 2, 2000]

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