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Title 40Chapter ISubchapter DPart 141 → Subpart Y


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 141—NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS


Subpart Y—Revised Total Coliform Rule


Contents
§141.851   General.
§141.852   Analytical methods and laboratory certification.
§141.853   General monitoring requirements for all public water systems.
§141.854   Routine monitoring requirements for non-community water systems serving 1,000 or fewer people using only ground water.
§141.855   Routine monitoring requirements for community water systems serving 1,000 or fewer people using only ground water.
§141.856   Routine monitoring requirements for subpart H public water systems serving 1,000 or fewer people.
§141.857   Routine monitoring requirements for public water systems serving more than 1,000 people.
§141.858   Repeat monitoring and E. coli requirements.
§141.859   Coliform treatment technique triggers and assessment requirements for protection against potential fecal contamination.
§141.860   Violations.
§141.861   Reporting and recordkeeping.

Source: 78 FR 10354, Feb. 13, 2013, unless otherwise noted.

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§141.851   General.

(a) General. The provisions of this subpart include both maximum contaminant level and treatment technique requirements.

(b) Applicability. The provisions of this subpart apply to all public water systems.

(c) Compliance date. Systems must comply with the provisions of this subpart beginning April 1, 2016, unless otherwise specified in this subpart.

(d) Implementation with EPA as State. Systems falling under direct oversight of EPA, where EPA acts as the State, must comply with decisions made by EPA for implementation of subpart Y. EPA has authority to establish such procedures and criteria as are necessary to implement subpart Y.

(e) Violations of national primary drinking water regulations. Failure to comply with the applicable requirements of §§141.851 through 141.861, including requirements established by the State pursuant to these provisions, is a violation of the national primary drinking water regulations under subpart Y.

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§141.852   Analytical methods and laboratory certification.

(a) Analytical methodology. (1) The standard sample volume required for analysis, regardless of analytical method used, is 100 ml.

(2) Systems need only determine the presence or absence of total coliforms and E. coli; a determination of density is not required.

(3) The time from sample collection to initiation of test medium incubation may not exceed 30 hours. Systems are encouraged but not required to hold samples below 10 deg. C during transit.

(4) If water having residual chlorine (measured as free, combined, or total chlorine) is to be analyzed, sufficient sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) must be added to the sample bottle before sterilization to neutralize any residual chlorine in the water sample. Dechlorination procedures are addressed in Section 9060A.2 of Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (20th and 21st editions).

(5) Systems must conduct total coliform and E. coli analyses in accordance with one of the analytical methods in the following table or one of the alternative methods listed in Appendix A to subpart C of part 141.

OrganismMethodology categoryMethod1Citation1
Total Coliforms
   Lactose Fermentation MethodsStandard Total Coliform Fermentation TechniqueStandard Methods 9221 B.1, B.2 (20th ed.; 21st ed.).2 3
   Standard Methods Online 9221 B.1, B.2-99.2 3
   Presence-Absence (P-A) Coliform TestStandard Methods 9221 D.1, D.2 (20th ed.; 21st ed.).2 7
   Standard Methods Online 9221 D.1, D.2-99.2 7
   Membrane Filtration MethodsStandard Total Coliform Membrane Filter ProcedureStandard Methods 9222 B, C (20th ed.; 21st ed.).2 4
   Standard Methods Online 9222 B-972 4, 9222 C-97.2 4
   Membrane Filtration using MI mediumEPA Method 1604.2
   m-ColiBlue24® Test2 4
   Chromocult2 4
   Enzyme Substrate MethodsColilert®Standard Methods 9223 B (20th ed.; 21st ed.).2 5
   Standard Methods Online 9223 B-97.2 5
   Colisure®Standard Methods 9223 B (20th ed.; 21st ed.).2 5 6
   Standard Methods Online 9223 B-97.2 5 6
   E*Colite® Test2
   Readycult® Test2
   modified Colitag® Test2
Escherichia coli
   Escherichia coli Procedure (following Lactose Fermentation Methods)EC-MUG mediumStandard Methods 9221 F.1 (20th ed.; 21st ed.)2
   Escherichia coli Partition MethodEC broth with MUG (EC-MUG)Standard Methods 9222 G.1c(2) (20th ed.; 21st ed.)2 8
   NA-MUG mediumStandard Methods 9222 G.1c(1) (20th ed.; 21st ed.)2
   Membrane Filtration MethodsMembrane Filtration using MI medium
m-ColiBlue24® Test2 4
EPA Method 16042
   Chromocult2 4
   Enzyme Substrate MethodsColilert®Standard Methods 9223 B (20th ed.; 21st ed.)2 5
   Standard Methods Online 9223 B-972 5 6
   Colisure®Standard Methods 9223 B (20th ed.; 21st ed.)2 5 6
   Standard Methods Online
9223 B-972 5 6
   E*Colite® Test2
   Readycult® Test2
   modified Colitag® Test2

1The procedures must be done in accordance with the documents listed in paragraph (c) of this section. For Standard Methods, either editions, 20th (1998) or 21st (2005), may be used. For the Standard Methods Online, the year in which each method was approved by the Standard Methods Committee is designated by the last two digits following the hyphen in the method number. The methods listed are the only online versions that may be used. For vendor methods, the date of the method listed in paragraph (c) of this section is the date/version of the approved method. The methods listed are the only versions that may be used for compliance with this rule. Laboratories should be careful to use only the approved versions of the methods, as product package inserts may not be the same as the approved versions of the methods.

2Incorporated by reference. See paragraph (c) of this section.

3Lactose broth, as commercially available, may be used in lieu of lauryl tryptose broth, if the system conducts at least 25 parallel tests between lactose broth and lauryl tryptose broth using the water normally tested, and if the findings from this comparison demonstrate that the false-positive rate and false-negative rate for total coliforms, using lactose broth, is less than 10 percent.

4All filtration series must begin with membrane filtration equipment that has been sterilized by autoclaving. Exposure of filtration equipment to UV light is not adequate to ensure sterilization. Subsequent to the initial autoclaving, exposure of the filtration equipment to UV light may be used to sanitize the funnels between filtrations within a filtration series. Alternatively, membrane filtration equipment that is pre-sterilized by the manufacturer (i.e., disposable funnel units) may be used.

5Multiple-tube and multi-well enumerative formats for this method are approved for use in presence-absence determination under this regulation.

6Colisure® results may be read after an incubation time of 24 hours.

7A multiple tube enumerative format, as described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater 9221, is approved for this method for use in presence-absence determination under this regulation.

8The following changes must be made to the EC broth with MUG (EC-MUG) formulation: Potassium dihydrogen phosphate, KH2PO4, must be 1.5g, and 4-methylumbelliferyl-Beta-D-glucuronide must be 0.05 g.

(b) Laboratory certification. Systems must have all compliance samples required under this subpart analyzed by a laboratory certified by the EPA or a primacy State to analyze drinking water samples. The laboratory used by the system must be certified for each method (and associated contaminant(s)) used for compliance monitoring analyses under this rule.

(c) Incorporation by reference. The standards required in this section are incorporated by reference into this section with the approval of the Director of the Federal Register under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. To enforce any edition other than that specified in this section, EPA must publish notice of change in the Federal Register and the material must be available to the public. All approved material is available for inspection either electronically at www.regulations.gov, in hard copy at the Water Docket, or from the sources indicated below. The Docket ID is EPA-HQ-OW-2008-0878. Hard copies of these documents may be viewed at the Water Docket in the EPA Docket Center, (EPA/DC) EPA West, Room 3334, 1301 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC. The EPA Docket Center Public Reading Room is open from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Monday through Friday, excluding legal holidays. The telephone number for the Public Reading Room is 1-202-566-1744, and the telephone number for the Water Docket is 1-202-566-2426. Copyrighted materials are only available for viewing in hard copy. These documents are also available for inspection at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 1-202-741-6030 or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal__register/code__of__federal__regulations/ibr__locations.html.

(1) American Public Health Association, 800 I Street, NW., Washington, DC 20001.

(i) “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,” 20th edition (1998):

(A) Standard Methods 9221, “Multiple-Tube Fermentation Technique for Members of the Coliform Group,” B.1, B.2, “Standard Total Coliform Fermentation Technique.”

(B) Standard Methods 9221, “Multiple-Tube Fermentation Technique for Members of the Coliform Group,” D.1, D.2, “Presence-Absence (P-A) Coliform Test.”

(C) Standard Methods 9222, “Membrane Filter Technique for Members of the Coliform Group,” B, “Standard Total Coliform Membrane Filter Procedure.”

(D) Standard Methods 9222, “Membrane Filter Technique for Members of the Coliform Group,” C, “Delayed-Incubation Total Coliform Procedure.”

(E) Standard Methods 9223, “Enzyme Substrate Coliform Test,” B, “Enzyme Substrate Test,” Colilert® and Colisure®.

(F) Standard Methods 9221, “Multiple Tube Fermentation Technique for Members of the Coliform Group,” F.1, “Escherichia coli Procedure: EC-MUG medium.”

(G) Standard Methods 9222, “Membrane Filter Technique for Members of the Coliform Group,” G.1.c(2), “Escherichia coli Partition Method: EC broth with MUG (EC-MUG).”

(H) Standard Methods 9222, “Membrane Filter Technique for Members of the Coliform Group,” G.1.c(1), “Escherichia coli Partition Method: NA-MUG medium.”

(ii) “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,” 21st edition (2005):

(A) Standard Methods 9221, “Multiple-Tube Fermentation Technique for Members of the Coliform Group,” B.1, B.2, “Standard Total Coliform Fermentation Technique.”

(B) Standard Methods 9221, “Multiple-Tube Fermentation Technique for Members of the Coliform Group,” D.1, D.2, “Presence-Absence (P-A) Coliform Test.”

(C) Standard Methods 9222, “Membrane Filter Technique for Members of the Coliform Group,” B, “Standard Total Coliform Membrane Filter Procedure.”

(D) Standard Methods 9222, “Membrane Filter Technique for Members of the Coliform Group,” C, “Delayed-Incubation Total Coliform Procedure.”

(E) Standard Methods 9223, “Enzyme Substrate Coliform Test,” B, “Enzyme Substrate Test,” Colilert® and Colisure®.

(F) Standard Methods 9221, “Multiple Tube Fermentation Technique for Members of the Coliform Group,” F.1, “Escherichia coli Procedure: EC-MUG medium.”

(G) Standard Methods 9222, “Membrane Filter Technique for Members of the Coliform Group,” G.1.c(2), “Escherichia coli Partition Method: EC broth with MUG (EC-MUG).”

(H) Standard Methods 9222, “Membrane Filter Technique for Members of the Coliform Group,” G.1.c(1), “Escherichia coli Partition Method: NA-MUG medium.”

(iii) “Standard Methods Online” available at http://www.standardmethods.org:

(A) Standard Methods Online 9221, “Multiple-Tube Fermentation Technique for Members of the Coliform Group” (1999), B.1, B.2-99, “Standard Total Coliform Fermentation Technique.”

(B) Standard Methods Online 9221, “Multiple-Tube Fermentation Technique for Members of the Coliform Group” (1999), D.1, D.2-99, “Presence-Absence (P-A) Coliform Test.”

(C) Standard Methods Online 9222, “Membrane Filter Technique for Members of the Coliform Group” (1997), B-97, “Standard Total Coliform Membrane Filter Procedure.”

(D) Standard Methods Online 9222, “Membrane Filter Technique for Members of the Coliform Group” (1997), C-97, “Delayed-Incubation Total Coliform Procedure.”

(E) Standard Methods Online 9223, “Enzyme Substrate Coliform Test” (1997), B-97, “Enzyme Substrate Test”, Colilert® and Colisure®.

(2) Charm Sciences, Inc., 659 Andover Street, Lawrence, MA 01843-1032, telephone 1-800-343-2170:

(i) E*Colite®—“Charm E*ColiteTM Presence/Absence Test for Detection and Identification of Coliform Bacteria and Escherichia coli in Drinking Water,” January 9, 1998.

(ii) [Reserved]

(3) CPI International, Inc., 5580 Skylane Blvd., Santa Rosa, CA, 95403, telephone 1-800-878-7654:

(i) modified Colitag®, ATP D05-0035—“Modified ColitagTM Test Method for the Simultaneous Detection of E. coli and other Total Coliforms in Water,” August 28, 2009.

(ii) [Reserved]

(4) EMD Millipore (a division of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt Germany), 290 Concord Road, Billerica, MA 01821, telephone 1-800-645-5476:

(i) Chromocult—“Chromocult® Coliform Agar Presence/Absence Membrane Filter Test Method for Detection and Identification of Coliform Bacteria and Escherichia coli for Finished Waters,” November 2000, Version 1.0.

(ii) Readycult®—“Readycult® Coliforms 100 Presence/Absence Test for Detection and Identification of Coliform Bacteria and Escherichia coli in Finished Waters,” January 2007, Version 1.1.

(5) EPA's Water Resource Center (MC-4100T), 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20460, telephone 1-202-566-1729:

(i) EPA Method 1604, EPA 821-R-02-024—“EPA Method 1604: Total Coliforms and Escherichia coli in Water by Membrane Filtration Using a Simultaneous Detection Technique (MI Medium),” September 2002, http://www.epa.gov/nerlcwww/1604sp02.pdf.

(ii) [Reserved]

(6) Hach Company, P.O. Box 389, Loveland, CO 80539, telephone 1-800-604-3493:

(i) m-ColiBlue24®—“Membrane Filtration Method m-ColiBlue24® Broth,” Revision 2, August 17, 1999.

(ii) [Reserved]

[78 FR 10354, Feb. 13, 2013, as amended at 79 FR 10669, Feb. 26, 2014]

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§141.853   General monitoring requirements for all public water systems.

(a) Sample siting plans. (1) Systems must develop a written sample siting plan that identifies sampling sites and a sample collection schedule that are representative of water throughout the distribution system not later than March 31, 2016. These plans are subject to State review and revision. Systems must collect total coliform samples according to the written sample siting plan. Monitoring required by §§141.854 through 141.858 may take place at a customer's premise, dedicated sampling station, or other designated compliance sampling location. Routine and repeat sample sites and any sampling points necessary to meet the requirements of subpart S must be reflected in the sampling plan.

(2) Systems must collect samples at regular time intervals throughout the month, except that systems that use only ground water and serve 4,900 or fewer people may collect all required samples on a single day if they are taken from different sites.

(3) Systems must take at least the minimum number of required samples even if the system has had an E. coli MCL violation or has exceeded the coliform treatment technique triggers in §141.859(a).

(4) A system may conduct more compliance monitoring than is required by this subpart to investigate potential problems in the distribution system and use monitoring as a tool to assist in uncovering problems. A system may take more than the minimum number of required routine samples and must include the results in calculating whether the coliform treatment technique trigger in §141.859(a)(1)(i) and (ii) has been exceeded only if the samples are taken in accordance with the existing sample siting plan and are representative of water throughout the distribution system.

(5) Systems must identify repeat monitoring locations in the sample siting plan. Unless the provisions of paragraphs (a)(5)(i) or (a)(5)(ii) of this section are met, the system must collect at least one repeat sample from the sampling tap where the original total coliform-positive sample was taken, and at least one repeat sample at a tap within five service connections upstream and at least one repeat sample at a tap within five service connections downstream of the original sampling site. If a total coliform-positive sample is at the end of the distribution system, or one service connection away from the end of the distribution system, the system must still take all required repeat samples. However, the State may allow an alternative sampling location in lieu of the requirement to collect at least one repeat sample upstream or downstream of the original sampling site. Except as provided for in paragraph (a)(5)(ii) of this section, systems required to conduct triggered source water monitoring under §141.402(a) must take ground water source sample(s) in addition to repeat samples required under this subpart.

(i) Systems may propose repeat monitoring locations to the State that the system believes to be representative of a pathway for contamination of the distribution system. A system may elect to specify either alternative fixed locations or criteria for selecting repeat sampling sites on a situational basis in a standard operating procedure (SOP) in its sample siting plan. The system must design its SOP to focus the repeat samples at locations that best verify and determine the extent of potential contamination of the distribution system area based on specific situations. The State may modify the SOP or require alternative monitoring locations as needed.

(ii) Ground water systems serving 1,000 or fewer people may propose repeat sampling locations to the State that differentiate potential source water and distribution system contamination (e.g., by sampling at entry points to the distribution system). A ground water system with a single well required to conduct triggered source water monitoring may, with written State approval, take one of its repeat samples at the monitoring location required for triggered source water monitoring under §141.402(a) if the system demonstrates to the State's satisfaction that the sample siting plan remains representative of water quality in the distribution system. If approved by the State, the system may use that sample result to meet the monitoring requirements in both §141.402(a) and this section.

(A) If a repeat sample taken at the monitoring location required for triggered source water monitoring is E. coli-positive, the system has violated the E. coli MCL and must also comply with §141.402(a)(3). If a system takes more than one repeat sample at the monitoring location required for triggered source water monitoring, the system may reduce the number of additional source water samples required under §141.402(a)(3) by the number of repeat samples taken at that location that were not E. coli-positive.

(B) If a system takes more than one repeat sample at the monitoring location required for triggered source water monitoring under §141.402(a), and more than one repeat sample is E. coli-positive, the system has violated the E. coli MCL and must also comply with §141.403(a)(1).

(C) If all repeat samples taken at the monitoring location required for triggered source water monitoring are E. coli-negative and a repeat sample taken at a monitoring location other than the one required for triggered source water monitoring is E. coli-positive, the system has violated the E. coli MCL, but is not required to comply with §141.402(a)(3).

(6) States may review, revise, and approve, as appropriate, repeat sampling proposed by systems under paragraphs (a)(5)(i) and (ii) of this section. The system must demonstrate that the sample siting plan remains representative of the water quality in the distribution system. The State may determine that monitoring at the entry point to the distribution system (especially for undisinfected ground water systems) is effective to differentiate between potential source water and distribution system problems.

(b) Special purpose samples. Special purpose samples, such as those taken to determine whether disinfection practices are sufficient following pipe placement, replacement, or repair, must not be used to determine whether the coliform treatment technique trigger has been exceeded. Repeat samples taken pursuant to §141.858 are not considered special purpose samples, and must be used to determine whether the coliform treatment technique trigger has been exceeded.

(c) Invalidation of total coliform samples. A total coliform-positive sample invalidated under this paragraph (c) of this section does not count toward meeting the minimum monitoring requirements of this subpart.

(1) The State may invalidate a total coliform-positive sample only if the conditions of paragraph (c)(1)(i), (ii), or (iii) of this section are met.

(i) The laboratory establishes that improper sample analysis caused the total coliform-positive result.

(ii) The State, on the basis of the results of repeat samples collected as required under §141.858(a), determines that the total coliform-positive sample resulted from a domestic or other non-distribution system plumbing problem. The State cannot invalidate a sample on the basis of repeat sample results unless all repeat sample(s) collected at the same tap as the original total coliform-positive sample are also total coliform-positive, and all repeat samples collected at a location other than the original tap are total coliform-negative (e.g., a State cannot invalidate a total coliform-positive sample on the basis of repeat samples if all the repeat samples are total coliform-negative, or if the system has only one service connection).

(iii) The State has substantial grounds to believe that a total coliform-positive result is due to a circumstance or condition that does not reflect water quality in the distribution system. In this case, the system must still collect all repeat samples required under §141.858(a), and use them to determine whether a coliform treatment technique trigger in §141.859 has been exceeded. To invalidate a total coliform-positive sample under this paragraph, the decision and supporting rationale must be documented in writing, and approved and signed by the supervisor of the State official who recommended the decision. The State must make this document available to EPA and the public. The written documentation must state the specific cause of the total coliform-positive sample, and what action the system has taken, or will take, to correct this problem. The State may not invalidate a total coliform-positive sample solely on the grounds that all repeat samples are total coliform-negative.

(2) A laboratory must invalidate a total coliform sample (unless total coliforms are detected) if the sample produces a turbid culture in the absence of gas production using an analytical method where gas formation is examined (e.g., the Multiple-Tube Fermentation Technique), produces a turbid culture in the absence of an acid reaction in the Presence-Absence (P-A) Coliform Test, or exhibits confluent growth or produces colonies too numerous to count with an analytical method using a membrane filter (e.g., Membrane Filter Technique). If a laboratory invalidates a sample because of such interference, the system must collect another sample from the same location as the original sample within 24 hours of being notified of the interference problem, and have it analyzed for the presence of total coliforms. The system must continue to re-sample within 24 hours and have the samples analyzed until it obtains a valid result. The State may waive the 24-hour time limit on a case-by-case basis. Alternatively, the State may implement criteria for waiving the 24-hour sampling time limit to use in lieu of case-by-case extensions.

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§141.854   Routine monitoring requirements for non-community water systems serving 1,000 or fewer people using only ground water.

(a) General. (1) The provisions of this section apply to non-community water systems using only ground water (except ground water under the direct influence of surface water, as defined in §141.2) and serving 1,000 or fewer people.

(2) Following any total coliform-positive sample taken under the provisions of this section, systems must comply with the repeat monitoring requirements and E. coli analytical requirements in §141.858.

(3) Once all monitoring required by this section and §141.858 for a calendar month has been completed, systems must determine whether any coliform treatment technique triggers specified in §141.859 have been exceeded. If any trigger has been exceeded, systems must complete assessments as required by §141.859.

(4) For the purpose of determining eligibility for remaining on or qualifying for quarterly monitoring under the provisions of paragraphs (f)(4) and (g)(2), respectively, of this section for transient non-community water systems, the State may elect to not count monitoring violations under §141.860(c)(1) of this part if the missed sample is collected no later than the end of the monitoring period following the monitoring period in which the sample was missed. The system must collect the make-up sample in a different week than the routine sample for that monitoring period and should collect the sample as soon as possible during the monitoring period. The State may not use this provision under paragraph (h) of this section. This authority does not affect the provisions of §§141.860(c)(1) and 141.861(a)(4) of this part.

(b) Monitoring frequency for total coliforms. Systems must monitor each calendar quarter that the system provides water to the public, except for seasonal systems or as provided under paragraphs (c) through (h) and (j) of this section. Seasonal systems must meet the monitoring requirements of paragraph (i) of this section.

(c) Transition to subpart Y. (1) Systems, including seasonal systems, must continue to monitor according to the total coliform monitoring schedules under §141.21 that were in effect on March 31, 2016, unless any of the conditions for increased monitoring in paragraph (f) of this section are triggered on or after April 1, 2016, or unless otherwise directed by the State.

(2) Beginning April 1, 2016, the State must perform a special monitoring evaluation during each sanitary survey to review the status of the system, including the distribution system, to determine whether the system is on an appropriate monitoring schedule. After the State has performed the special monitoring evaluation during each sanitary survey, the State may modify the system's monitoring schedule, as necessary, or it may allow the system to stay on its existing monitoring schedule, consistent with the provisions of this section. The State may not allow systems to begin less frequent monitoring under the special monitoring evaluation unless the system has already met the applicable criteria for less frequent monitoring in this section. For seasonal systems on quarterly or annual monitoring, this evaluation must include review of the approved sample siting plan, which must designate the time period(s) for monitoring based on site-specific considerations (e.g., during periods of highest demand or highest vulnerability to contamination). The seasonal system must collect compliance samples during these time periods.

(d) Annual site visits. Beginning no later than calendar year 2017, systems on annual monitoring, including seasonal systems, must have an initial and recurring annual site visit by the State that is equivalent to a Level 2 assessment or an annual voluntary Level 2 assessment that meets the criteria in §141.859(b) to remain on annual monitoring. The periodic required sanitary survey may be used to meet the requirement for an annual site visit for the year in which the sanitary survey was completed.

(e) Criteria for annual monitoring. Beginning April 1, 2016, the State may reduce the monitoring frequency for a well-operated ground water system from quarterly routine monitoring to no less than annual monitoring, if the system demonstrates that it meets the criteria for reduced monitoring in paragraphs (e)(1) through (e)(3) of this section, except for a system that has been on increased monitoring under the provisions of paragraph (f) of this section. A system on increased monitoring under paragraph (f) of this section must meet the provisions of paragraph (g) of this section to go to quarterly monitoring and must meet the provisions of paragraph (h) of this section to go to annual monitoring.

(1) The system has a clean compliance history for a minimum of 12 months;

(2) The most recent sanitary survey shows that the system is free of sanitary defects or has corrected all identified sanitary defects, has a protected water source, and meets approved construction standards; and

(3) The State has conducted an annual site visit within the last 12 months and the system has corrected all identified sanitary defects. The system may substitute a Level 2 assessment that meets the criteria in §141.859(b) for the State annual site visit.

(f) Increased monitoring requirements for systems on quarterly or annual monitoring. A system on quarterly or annual monitoring that experiences any of the events identified in paragraphs (f)(1) through (f)(4) of this section must begin monthly monitoring the month following the event. A system on annual monitoring that experiences the event identified in paragraphs (f)(5) of this section must begin quarterly monitoring the quarter following the event. The system must continue monthly or quarterly monitoring until the requirements in paragraph (g) of this section for quarterly monitoring or paragraph (h) of this section for annual monitoring are met. A system on monthly monitoring for reasons other than those identified in paragraphs (f)(1) through (f)(4) of this section is not considered to be on increased monitoring for the purposes of paragraphs (g) and (h) of this section.

(1) The system triggers a Level 2 assessment or two Level 1 assessments under the provisions of §141.859 in a rolling 12-month period.

(2) The system has an E. coli MCL violation.

(3) The system has a coliform treatment technique violation.

(4) The system has two subpart Y monitoring violations or one subpart Y monitoring violation and one Level 1 assessment under the provisions of §141.859 in a rolling 12-month period for a system on quarterly monitoring.

(5) The system has one subpart Y monitoring violation for a system on annual monitoring.

(g) Requirements for returning to quarterly monitoring. The State may reduce the monitoring frequency for a system on monthly monitoring triggered under paragraph (f) of this section to quarterly monitoring if the system meets the criteria in paragraphs (g)(1) and (g)(2) of this section.

(1) Within the last 12 months, the system must have a completed sanitary survey or a site visit by the State or a voluntary Level 2 assessment by a party approved by the State, be free of sanitary defects, and have a protected water source; and

(2) The system must have a clean compliance history for a minimum of 12 months.

(h) Requirements for systems on increased monitoring to qualify for annual monitoring. The State may reduce the monitoring frequency for a system on increased monitoring under paragraph (f) of this section if the system meets the criteria in paragraph (g) of this section plus the criteria in paragraphs (h)(1) and (h)(2) of this section.

(1) An annual site visit by the State and correction of all identified sanitary defects. The system may substitute a voluntary Level 2 assessment by a party approved by the State for the State annual site visit in any given year.

(2) The system must have in place or adopt one or more additional enhancements to the water system barriers to contamination in paragraphs (h)(2)(i) through (h)(2)(v) of this section.

(i) Cross connection control, as approved by the State.

(ii) An operator certified by an appropriate State certification program or regular visits by a circuit rider certified by an appropriate State certification program.

(iii) Continuous disinfection entering the distribution system and a residual in the distribution system in accordance with criteria specified by the State.

(iv) Demonstration of maintenance of at least a 4-log removal or inactivation of viruses as provided for under §141.403(b)(3).

(v) Other equivalent enhancements to water system barriers as approved by the State.

(i) Seasonal systems. (1) Beginning April 1, 2016, all seasonal systems must demonstrate completion of a State-approved start-up procedure, which may include a requirement for startup sampling prior to serving water to the public.

(2) A seasonal system must monitor every month that it is in operation unless it meets the criteria in paragraphs (i)(2)(i) through (iii) of this section to be eligible for monitoring less frequently than monthly beginning April 1, 2016, except as provided under paragraph (c) of this section.

(i) Seasonal systems monitoring less frequently than monthly must have an approved sample siting plan that designates the time period for monitoring based on site-specific considerations (e.g., during periods of highest demand or highest vulnerability to contamination). Seasonal systems must collect compliance samples during this time period.

(ii) To be eligible for quarterly monitoring, the system must meet the criteria in paragraph (g) of this section.

(iii) To be eligible for annual monitoring, the system must meet the criteria under paragraph (h) of this section.

(3) The State may exempt any seasonal system from some or all of the requirements for seasonal systems if the entire distribution system remains pressurized during the entire period that the system is not operating, except that systems that monitor less frequently than monthly must still monitor during the vulnerable period designated by the State.

(j) Additional routine monitoring the month following a total coliform-positive sample. Systems collecting samples on a quarterly or annual frequency must conduct additional routine monitoring the month following one or more total coliform-positive samples (with or without a Level 1 treatment technique trigger). Systems must collect at least three routine samples during the next month, except that the State may waive this requirement if the conditions of paragraph (j)(1), (2), or (3) of this section are met. Systems may either collect samples at regular time intervals throughout the month or may collect all required routine samples on a single day if samples are taken from different sites. Systems must use the results of additional routine samples in coliform treatment technique trigger calculations under §141.859(a).

(1) The State may waive the requirement to collect three routine samples the next month in which the system provides water to the public if the State, or an agent approved by the State, performs a site visit before the end of the next month in which the system provides water to the public. Although a sanitary survey need not be performed, the site visit must be sufficiently detailed to allow the State to determine whether additional monitoring and/or any corrective action is needed. The State cannot approve an employee of the system to perform this site visit, even if the employee is an agent approved by the State to perform sanitary surveys.

(2) The State may waive the requirement to collect three routine samples the next month in which the system provides water to the public if the State has determined why the sample was total coliform-positive and has established that the system has corrected the problem or will correct the problem before the end of the next month in which the system serves water to the public. In this case, the State must document this decision to waive the following month's additional monitoring requirement in writing, have it approved and signed by the supervisor of the State official who recommends such a decision, and make this document available to the EPA and public. The written documentation must describe the specific cause of the total coliform-positive sample and what action the system has taken and/or will take to correct this problem.

(3) The State may not waive the requirement to collect three additional routine samples the next month in which the system provides water to the public solely on the grounds that all repeat samples are total coliform-negative. If the State determines that the system has corrected the contamination problem before the system takes the set of repeat samples required in §141.858, and all repeat samples were total coliform-negative, the State may waive the requirement for additional routine monitoring the next month.

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§141.855   Routine monitoring requirements for community water systems serving 1,000 or fewer people using only ground water.

(a) General. (1) The provisions of this section apply to community water systems using only ground water (except ground water under the direct influence of surface water, as defined in §141.2) and serving 1,000 or fewer people.

(2) Following any total coliform-positive sample taken under the provisions of this section, systems must comply with the repeat monitoring requirements and E. coli analytical requirements in §141.858.

(3) Once all monitoring required by this section and §141.858 for a calendar month has been completed, systems must determine whether any coliform treatment technique triggers specified in §141.859 have been exceeded. If any trigger has been exceeded, systems must complete assessments as required by §141.859.

(b) Monitoring frequency for total coliforms. The monitoring frequency for total coliforms is one sample/month, except as provided for under paragraphs (c) through (f) of this section.

(c) Transition to subpart Y. (1) All systems must continue to monitor according to the total coliform monitoring schedules under §141.21 that were in effect on March 31, 2016, unless any of the conditions in paragraph (e) of this section are triggered on or after April 1, 2016, or unless otherwise directed by the State.

(2) Beginning April 1, 2016, the State must perform a special monitoring evaluation during each sanitary survey to review the status of the system, including the distribution system, to determine whether the system is on an appropriate monitoring schedule. After the State has performed the special monitoring evaluation during each sanitary survey, the State may modify the system's monitoring schedule, as necessary, or it may allow the system to stay on its existing monitoring schedule, consistent with the provisions of this section. The State may not allow systems to begin less frequent monitoring under the special monitoring evaluation unless the system has already met the applicable criteria for less frequent monitoring in this section.

(d) Criteria for reduced monitoring. (1) The State may reduce the monitoring frequency from monthly monitoring to no less than quarterly monitoring if the system is in compliance with State-certified operator provisions and demonstrates that it meets the criteria in paragraphs (d)(1)(i) through (d)(1)(iii) of this section. A system that loses its certified operator must return to monthly monitoring the month following that loss.

(i) The system has a clean compliance history for a minimum of 12 months.

(ii) The most recent sanitary survey shows the system is free of sanitary defects (or has an approved plan and schedule to correct them and is in compliance with the plan and the schedule), has a protected water source and meets approved construction standards.

(iii) The system meets at least one of the following criteria:

(A) An annual site visit by the State that is equivalent to a Level 2 assessment or an annual Level 2 assessment by a party approved by the State and correction of all identified sanitary defects (or an approved plan and schedule to correct them and is in compliance with the plan and schedule).

(B) Cross connection control, as approved by the State.

(C) Continuous disinfection entering the distribution system and a residual in the distribution system in accordance with criteria specified by the State.

(D) Demonstration of maintenance of at least a 4-log removal or inactivation of viruses as provided for under §141.403(b)(3).

(E) Other equivalent enhancements to water system barriers as approved by the State.

(2) [Reserved]

(e) Return to routine monthly monitoring requirements. Systems on quarterly monitoring that experience any of the events in paragraphs (e)(1) through (e)(4) of this section must begin monthly monitoring the month following the event. The system must continue monthly monitoring until it meets the reduced monitoring requirements in paragraph (d) of this section.

(1) The system triggers a Level 2 assessment or two Level 1 assessments in a rolling 12-month period.

(2) The system has an E. coli MCL violation.

(3) The system has a coliform treatment technique violation.

(4) The system has two subpart Y monitoring violations in a rolling 12-month period.

(f) Additional routine monitoring the month following a total coliform-positive sample. Systems collecting samples on a quarterly frequency must conduct additional routine monitoring the month following one or more total coliform-positive samples (with or without a Level 1 treatment technique trigger). Systems must collect at least three routine samples during the next month, except that the State may waive this requirement if the conditions of paragraph (f)(1), (2), or (3) of this section are met. Systems may either collect samples at regular time intervals throughout the month or may collect all required routine samples on a single day if samples are taken from different sites. Systems must use the results of additional routine samples in coliform treatment technique trigger calculations.

(1) The State may waive the requirement to collect three routine samples the next month in which the system provides water to the public if the State, or an agent approved by the State, performs a site visit before the end of the next month in which the system provides water to the public. Although a sanitary survey need not be performed, the site visit must be sufficiently detailed to allow the State to determine whether additional monitoring and/or any corrective action is needed. The State cannot approve an employee of the system to perform this site visit, even if the employee is an agent approved by the State to perform sanitary surveys.

(2) The State may waive the requirement to collect three routine samples the next month in which the system provides water to the public if the State has determined why the sample was total coliform-positive and has established that the system has corrected the problem or will correct the problem before the end of the next month in which the system serves water to the public. In this case, the State must document this decision to waive the following month's additional monitoring requirement in writing, have it approved and signed by the supervisor of the State official who recommends such a decision, and make this document available to the EPA and the public. The written documentation must describe the specific cause of the total coliform-positive sample and what action the system has taken and/or will take to correct this problem.

(3) The State may not waive the requirement to collect three additional routine samples the next month in which the system provides water to the public solely on the grounds that all repeat samples are total coliform-negative. If the State determines that the system has corrected the contamination problem before the system takes the set of repeat samples required in §141.858, and all repeat samples were total coliform-negative, the State may waive the requirement for additional routine monitoring the next month.

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§141.856   Routine monitoring requirements for subpart H public water systems serving 1,000 or fewer people.

(a) General. (1) The provisions of this section apply to subpart H public water systems of this part serving 1,000 or fewer people.

(2) Following any total coliform-positive sample taken under the provisions of this section, systems must comply with the repeat monitoring requirements and E. coli analytical requirements in §141.858.

(3) Once all monitoring required by this section and §141.858 for a calendar month has been completed, systems must determine whether any coliform treatment technique triggers specified in §141.859 have been exceeded. If any trigger has been exceeded, systems must complete assessments as required by §141.859.

(4) Seasonal systems. (i) Beginning April 1, 2016, all seasonal systems must demonstrate completion of a State-approved start-up procedure, which may include a requirement for start-up sampling prior to serving water to the public.

(ii) The State may exempt any seasonal system from some or all of the requirements for seasonal systems if the entire distribution system remains pressurized during the entire period that the system is not operating.

(b) Routine monitoring frequency for total coliforms. Subpart H systems of this part (including consecutive systems) must monitor monthly. Systems may not reduce monitoring.

(c) Unfiltered subpart H systems. A subpart H system of this part that does not practice filtration in compliance with subparts H, P, T, and W must collect at least one total coliform sample near the first service connection each day the turbidity level of the source water, measured as specified in §141.74(b)(2), exceeds 1 NTU. When one or more turbidity measurements in any day exceed 1 NTU, the system must collect this coliform sample within 24 hours of the first exceedance, unless the State determines that the system, for logistical reasons outside the system's control, cannot have the sample analyzed within 30 hours of collection and identifies an alternative sample collection schedule. Sample results from this coliform monitoring must be included in determining whether the coliform treatment technique trigger in §141.859 has been exceeded.

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§141.857   Routine monitoring requirements for public water systems serving more than 1,000 people.

(a) General. (1) The provisions of this section apply to public water systems serving more than 1,000 persons.

(2) Following any total coliform-positive sample taken under the provisions of this section, systems must comply with the repeat monitoring requirements and E. coli analytical requirements in §141.858.

(3) Once all monitoring required by this section and §141.858 for a calendar month has been completed, systems must determine whether any coliform treatment technique triggers specified in §141.859 have been exceeded. If any trigger has been exceeded, systems must complete assessments as required by §141.859.

(4) Seasonal systems. (i) Beginning April 1, 2016, all seasonal systems must demonstrate completion of a State-approved start-up procedure, which may include a requirement for start-up sampling prior to serving water to the public.

(ii) The State may exempt any seasonal system from some or all of the requirements for seasonal systems if the entire distribution system remains pressurized during the entire period that the system is not operating.

(b) Monitoring frequency for total coliforms. The monitoring frequency for total coliforms is based on the population served by the system, as follows:

Total Coliform Monitoring Frequency for Public Water Systems Serving More Than 1,000 People

Population servedMinimum number of samples per month
1,001 to 2,5002
2,501 to 3,3003
3,301 to 4,1004
4,101 to 4,9005
4,901 to 5,8006
5,801 to 6,7007
6,701 to 7,6008
7,601 to 8,5009
8,501 to 12,90010
12,901 to 17,20015
17,201 to 21,50020
21,501 to 25,00025
25,001 to 33,00030
33,001 to 41,00040
41,001 to 50,00050
50,001 to 59,00060
59,001 to 70,00070
70,001 to 83,00080
83,001 to 96,00090
96,001 to 130,000100
130,001 to 220,000120
220,001 to 320,000150
320,001 to 450,000180
450,001 to 600,000210
600,001 to 780,000240
780,001 to 970,000270
970,001 to 1,230,000300
1,230,001 to 1,520,000330
1,520,001 to 1,850,000360
1,850,001 to 2,270,000390
2,270,001 to 3,020,000420
3,020,001 to 3,960,000450
3,960,001 or more480

(c) Unfiltered subpart H systems. A subpart H system of this part that does not practice filtration in compliance with subparts H, P, T, and W must collect at least one total coliform sample near the first service connection each day the turbidity level of the source water, measured as specified in §141.74(b)(2), exceeds 1 NTU. When one or more turbidity measurements in any day exceed 1 NTU, the system must collect this coliform sample within 24 hours of the first exceedance, unless the State determines that the system, for logistical reasons outside the system's control, cannot have the sample analyzed within 30 hours of collection and identifies an alternative sample collection schedule. Sample results from this coliform monitoring must be included in determining whether the coliform treatment technique trigger in §141.859 has been exceeded.

(d) Reduced monitoring. Systems may not reduce monitoring, except for non-community water systems using only ground water (and not ground water under the direct influence of surface water) serving 1,000 or fewer people in some months and more than 1,000 persons in other months. In months when more than 1,000 persons are served, the systems must monitor at the frequency specified in paragraph (a) of this section. In months when 1,000 or fewer people are served, the State may reduce the monitoring frequency, in writing, to a frequency allowed under §141.854 for a similarly situated system that always serves 1,000 or fewer people, taking into account the provisions in §141.854(e) through (g).

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§141.858   Repeat monitoring and E. coli requirements.

(a) Repeat monitoring. (1) If a sample taken under §§141.854 though 141.857 is total coliform-positive, the system must collect a set of repeat samples within 24 hours of being notified of the positive result. The system must collect no fewer than three repeat samples for each total coliform-positive sample found. The State may extend the 24-hour limit on a case-by-case basis if the system has a logistical problem in collecting the repeat samples within 24 hours that is beyond its control. Alternatively, the State may implement criteria for the system to use in lieu of case-by-case extensions. In the case of an extension, the State must specify how much time the system has to collect the repeat samples. The State cannot waive the requirement for a system to collect repeat samples in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(3) of this section.

(2) The system must collect all repeat samples on the same day, except that the State may allow a system with a single service connection to collect the required set of repeat samples over a three-day period or to collect a larger volume repeat sample(s) in one or more sample containers of any size, as long as the total volume collected is at least 300 ml.

(3) The system must collect an additional set of repeat samples in the manner specified in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(3) of this section if one or more repeat samples in the current set of repeat samples is total coliform-positive. The system must collect the additional set of repeat samples within 24 hours of being notified of the positive result, unless the State extends the limit as provided in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. The system must continue to collect additional sets of repeat samples until either total coliforms are not detected in one complete set of repeat samples or the system determines that a coliform treatment technique trigger specified in §141.859(a) has been exceeded as a result of a repeat sample being total coliform-positive and notifies the State. If a trigger identified in §141.859 is exceeded as a result of a routine sample being total coliform-positive, systems are required to conduct only one round of repeat monitoring for each total coliform-positive routine sample.

(4) After a system collects a routine sample and before it learns the results of the analysis of that sample, if it collects another routine sample(s) from within five adjacent service connections of the initial sample, and the initial sample, after analysis, is found to contain total coliforms, then the system may count the subsequent sample(s) as a repeat sample instead of as a routine sample.

(5) Results of all routine and repeat samples taken under §§141.854 through 141.858 not invalidated by the State must be used to determine whether a coliform treatment technique trigger specified in §141.859 has been exceeded.

(b) Escherichia coli (E. coli) testing. (1) If any routine or repeat sample is total coliform-positive, the system must analyze that total coliform-positive culture medium to determine if E. coli are present. If E. coli are present, the system must notify the State by the end of the day when the system is notified of the test result, unless the system is notified of the result after the State office is closed and the State does not have either an after-hours phone line or an alternative notification procedure, in which case the system must notify the State before the end of the next business day.

(2) The State has the discretion to allow a system, on a case-by-case basis, to forgo E. coli testing on a total coliform-positive sample if that system assumes that the total coliform-positive sample is E. coli-positive. Accordingly, the system must notify the State as specified in paragraph (b)(1) of this section and the provisions of §141.63(c) apply.

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§141.859   Coliform treatment technique triggers and assessment requirements for protection against potential fecal contamination.

(a) Treatment technique triggers. Systems must conduct assessments in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section after exceeding treatment technique triggers in paragraphs (a)(1) and (a)(2) of this section.

(1) Level 1 treatment technique triggers.

(i) For systems taking 40 or more samples per month, the system exceeds 5.0% total coliform-positive samples for the month.

(ii) For systems taking fewer than 40 samples per month, the system has two or more total coliform-positive samples in the same month.

(iii) The system fails to take every required repeat sample after any single total coliform-positive sample.

(2) Level 2 treatment technique triggers.

(i) An E. coli MCL violation, as specified in §141.860(a).

(ii) A second Level 1 trigger as defined in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, within a rolling 12-month period, unless the State has determined a likely reason that the samples that caused the first Level 1 treatment technique trigger were total coliform-positive and has established that the system has corrected the problem.

(iii) For systems with approved annual monitoring, a Level 1 trigger in two consecutive years.

(b) Requirements for assessments. (1) Systems must ensure that Level 1 and 2 assessments are conducted in order to identify the possible presence of sanitary defects and defects in distribution system coliform monitoring practices. Level 2 assessments must be conducted by parties approved by the State.

(2) When conducting assessments, systems must ensure that the assessor evaluates minimum elements that include review and identification of inadequacies in sample sites; sampling protocol; sample processing; atypical events that could affect distributed water quality or indicate that distributed water quality was impaired; changes in distribution system maintenance and operation that could affect distributed water quality (including water storage); source and treatment considerations that bear on distributed water quality, where appropriate (e.g., small ground water systems); and existing water quality monitoring data. The system must conduct the assessment consistent with any State directives that tailor specific assessment elements with respect to the size and type of the system and the size, type, and characteristics of the distribution system.

(3) Level 1 assessments. A system must conduct a Level 1 assessment consistent with State requirements if the system exceeds one of the treatment technique triggers in paragraph (a)(1) of this section.

(i) The system must complete a Level 1 assessment as soon as practical after any trigger in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. In the completed assessment form, the system must describe sanitary defects detected, corrective actions completed, and a proposed timetable for any corrective actions not already completed. The assessment form may also note that no sanitary defects were identified. The system must submit the completed Level 1 assessment form to the State within 30 days after the system learns that it has exceeded a trigger.

(ii) If the State reviews the completed Level 1 assessment and determines that the assessment is not sufficient (including any proposed timetable for any corrective actions not already completed), the State must consult with the system. If the State requires revisions after consultation, the system must submit a revised assessment form to the State on an agreed-upon schedule not to exceed 30 days from the date of the consultation.

(iii) Upon completion and submission of the assessment form by the system, the State must determine if the system has identified a likely cause for the Level 1 trigger and, if so, establish that the system has corrected the problem, or has included a schedule acceptable to the State for correcting the problem.

(4) Level 2 assessments. A system must ensure that a Level 2 assessment consistent with State requirements is conducted if the system exceeds one of the treatment technique triggers in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. The system must comply with any expedited actions or additional actions required by the State in the case of an E. coli MCL violation.

(i) The system must ensure that a Level 2 assessment is completed by the State or by a party approved by the State as soon as practical after any trigger in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. The system must submit a completed Level 2 assessment form to the State within 30 days after the system learns that it has exceeded a trigger. The assessment form must describe sanitary defects detected, corrective actions completed, and a proposed timetable for any corrective actions not already completed. The assessment form may also note that no sanitary defects were identified.

(ii) The system may conduct Level 2 assessments if the system has staff or management with the certification or qualifications specified by the State unless otherwise directed by the State.

(iii) If the State reviews the completed Level 2 assessment and determines that the assessment is not sufficient (including any proposed timetable for any corrective actions not already completed), the State must consult with the system. If the State requires revisions after consultation, the system must submit a revised assessment form to the State on an agreed-upon schedule not to exceed 30 days.

(iv) Upon completion and submission of the assessment form by the system, the State must determine if the system has identified a likely cause for the Level 2 trigger and determine whether the system has corrected the problem, or has included a schedule acceptable to the State for correcting the problem.

(c) Corrective action. Systems must correct sanitary defects found through either Level 1 or 2 assessments conducted under paragraph (b) of this section. For corrections not completed by the time of submission of the assessment form, the system must complete the corrective action(s) in compliance with a timetable approved by the State in consultation with the system. The system must notify the State when each scheduled corrective action is completed.

(d) Consultation. At any time during the assessment or corrective action phase, either the water system or the State may request a consultation with the other party to determine the appropriate actions to be taken. The system may consult with the State on all relevant information that may impact on its ability to comply with a requirement of this subpart, including the method of accomplishment, an appropriate timeframe, and other relevant information.

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§141.860   Violations.

(a) E. coli MCL Violation. A system is in violation of the MCL for E. coli when any of the conditions identified in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(4) of this section occur.

(1) The system has an E. coli-positive repeat sample following a total coliform-positive routine sample.

(2) The system has a total coliform-positive repeat sample following an E. coli-positive routine sample.

(3) The system fails to take all required repeat samples following an E. coli-positive routine sample.

(4) The system fails to test for E. coli when any repeat sample tests positive for total coliform.

(b) Treatment technique violation. (1) A treatment technique violation occurs when a system exceeds a treatment technique trigger specified in §141.859(a) and then fails to conduct the required assessment or corrective actions within the timeframe specified in §141.859(b) and (c).

(2) A treatment technique violation occurs when a seasonal system fails to complete a State-approved start-up procedure prior to serving water to the public.

(c) Monitoring violations. (1) Failure to take every required routine or additional routine sample in a compliance period is a monitoring violation.

(2) Failure to analyze for E. coli following a total coliform-positive routine sample is a monitoring violation.

(d) Reporting violations. (1) Failure to submit a monitoring report or completed assessment form after a system properly conducts monitoring or assessment in a timely manner is a reporting violation.

(2) Failure to notify the State following an E. coli-positive sample as required by §141.858(b)(1) in a timely manner is a reporting violation.

(3) Failure to submit certification of completion of State-approved start-up procedure by a seasonal system is a reporting violation.

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§141.861   Reporting and recordkeeping.

(a) Reporting—(1) E. coli. (i) A system must notify the State by the end of the day when the system learns of an E. coli MCL violation, unless the system learns of the violation after the State office is closed and the State does not have either an after-hours phone line or an alternative notification procedure, in which case the system must notify the State before the end of the next business day, and notify the public in accordance with subpart Q of this part.

(ii) A system must notify the State by the end of the day when the system is notified of an E. coli-positive routine sample, unless the system is notified of the result after the State office is closed and the State does not have either an after-hours phone line or an alternative notification procedure, in which case the system must notify the State before the end of the next business day.

(2) A system that has violated the treatment technique for coliforms in §141.859 must report the violation to the State no later than the end of the next business day after it learns of the violation, and notify the public in accordance with subpart Q of this part.

(3) A system required to conduct an assessment under the provisions of §141.859 of this part must submit the assessment report within 30 days. The system must notify the State in accordance with §141.859(c) when each scheduled corrective action is completed for corrections not completed by the time of submission of the assessment form.

(4) A system that has failed to comply with a coliform monitoring requirement must report the monitoring violation to the State within 10 days after the system discovers the violation, and notify the public in accordance with subpart Q of this part.

(5) A seasonal system must certify, prior to serving water to the public, that it has complied with the State-approved start-up procedure.

(b) Recordkeeping. (1) The system must maintain any assessment form, regardless of who conducts the assessment, and documentation of corrective actions completed as a result of those assessments, or other available summary documentation of the sanitary defects and corrective actions taken under §141.859 for State review. This record must be maintained by the system for a period not less than five years after completion of the assessment or corrective action.

(2) The system must maintain a record of any repeat sample taken that meets State criteria for an extension of the 24-hour period for collecting repeat samples as provided for under §141.858(a)(1) of this part.

[78 FR 10354, Feb. 13, 2013, as amended at 79 FR 10670, Feb. 26, 2014]

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