e-CFR banner

Home
gpo.gov
govinfo.gov

e-CFR Navigation Aids

Browse

Simple Search

Advanced Search

 — Boolean

 — Proximity

 

Search History

Search Tips

Corrections

Latest Updates

User Info

FAQs

Agency List

Incorporation By Reference

eCFR logo

Related Resources

 

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of November 14, 2019

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter CPart 98 → Subpart K


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 98—MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING


Subpart K—Ferroalloy Production


Contents
§98.110   Definition of the source category.
§98.111   Reporting threshold.
§98.112   GHGs to report.
§98.113   Calculating GHG emissions.
§98.114   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.115   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.116   Data reporting requirements.
§98.117   Records that must be retained.
§98.118   Definitions.
Table K-1 to Subpart K of Part 98—Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) CH4 Emission Factors

§98.110   Definition of the source category.

The ferroalloy production source category consists of any facility that uses pyrometallurgical techniques to produce any of the following metals: ferrochromium, ferromanganese, ferromolybdenum, ferronickel, ferrosilicon, ferrotitanium, ferrotungsten, ferrovanadium, silicomanganese, or silicon metal.

§98.111   Reporting threshold.

You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your facility contains a ferroalloy production process and the facility meets the requirements of either §98.2(a)(1) or (2).

§98.112   GHGs to report.

You must report:

(a) Process CO2 emissions from each electric arc furnace (EAF) used for the production of any ferroalloy listed in §98.110, and process CH4 emissions from each EAF that is used for the production of any ferroalloy listed in Table K-1 to subpart K.

(b) CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions from each stationary combustion unit following the requirements of subpart C of this part. You must report these emissions under subpart C of this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources).

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 66461, Oct. 28, 2010]

§98.113   Calculating GHG emissions.

You must calculate and report the annual process CO2 emissions from each EAF not subject to paragraph (c) of this section using the procedures in either paragraph (a) or (b) of this section. For each EAF also subject to annual process CH4 emissions reporting, you must also calculate and report the annual process CH4 emissions from the EAF using the procedures in paragraph (d) of this section.

(a) Calculate and report under this subpart the process CO2 emissions by operating and maintaining CEMS according to the Tier 4 Calculation Methodology in §98.33(a)(4) and all associated requirements for Tier 4 in subpart C of this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources).

(b) Calculate and report under this subpart the annual process CO2 emissions using the procedure in either paragraph (b)(1) or (b)(2) of this section.

(1) Calculate and report under this subpart the annual process CO2 emissions from EAFs by operating and maintaining a CEMS according to the Tier 4 Calculation Methodology specified in §98.33(a)(4) and the applicable requirements for Tier 4 in subpart C of this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources).

(2) Calculate and report under this subpart the annual process CO2 emissions from the EAFs using the carbon mass balance procedure specified in paragraphs (b)(2)(i) and (b)(2)(ii) of this section.

(i) For each EAF, determine the annual mass of carbon in each carbon-containing input and output material for the EAF and estimate annual process CO2 emissions from the EAF using Equation K-1 of this section. Carbon-containing input materials include carbon electrodes and carbonaceous reducing agents. If you document that a specific input or output material contributes less than 1 percent of the total carbon into or out of the process, you do not have to include the material in your calculation using Equation K-1 of this section.

eCFR graphic er30oc09.045.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

ECO2 = Annual process CO2 emissions from an individual EAF (metric tons).

44/12 = Ratio of molecular weights, CO2 to carbon.

2000/2205 = Conversion factor to convert tons to metric tons.

Mreducing agenti = Annual mass of reducing agent i fed, charged, or otherwise introduced into the EAF (tons).

Creducing agenti = Carbon content in reducing agent i (percent by weight, expressed as a decimal fraction).

Melectrodem = Annual mass of carbon electrode m consumed in the EAF (tons).

Celectrodem = Carbon content of the carbon electrode m (percent by weight, expressed as a decimal fraction).

Moreh = Annual mass of ore h charged to the EAF (tons).

Coreh = Carbon content in ore h (percent by weight, expressed as a decimal fraction).

Mfluxj = Annual mass of flux material j fed, charged, or otherwise introduced into the EAF to facilitate slag formation (tons).

Cfluxj = Carbon content in flux material j (percent by weight, expressed as a decimal fraction).

Mproductk = Annual mass of alloy product k tapped from EAF (tons).

Cproductk = Carbon content in alloy product k. (percent by weight, expressed as a decimal fraction).

Mnon-product outgoingl = Annual mass of non-product outgoing material l removed from EAF (tons).

Cnon-product outgoingl = Carbon content in non-product outgoing material l (percent by weight, expressed as a decimal fraction).

(ii) Determine the combined annual process CO2 emissions from the EAFs at your facility using Equation K-2 of this section.

eCFR graphic er30oc09.046.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

CO2 = Annual process CO2 emissions from EAFs at facility used for the production of any ferroalloy listed in §98.110 (metric tons).

ECO2k = Annual process CO2 emissions calculated from EAF k calculated using Equation K-1 of this section (metric tons).

k = Total number of EAFs at facility used for the production of any ferroalloy listed in §98.110.

(c) If GHG emissions from an EAF are vented through the same stack as any combustion unit or process equipment that reports CO2 emissions using a CEMS that complies with the Tier 4 Calculation Methodology in subpart C of this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources), then the calculation methodology in paragraph (b) of this section shall not be used to calculate process emissions. The owner or operator shall report under this subpart the combined stack emissions according to the Tier 4 Calculation Methodology in §98.33(a)(4) and all associated requirements for Tier 4 in subpart C of this part.

(d) For the EAFs at your facility used for the production of any ferroalloy listed in Table K-1 of this subpart, you must calculate and report the annual CH4 emissions using the procedure specified in paragraphs (d)(1) and (2) of this section.

(1) For each EAF, determine the annual CH4 emissions using Equation K-3 of this section.

eCFR graphic er29no13.014.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

ECH4 = Annual process CH4 emissions from an individual EAF (metric tons).

Mproducti = Annual mass of alloy product i produced in the EAF (tons).

2/2205 = Conversion factor to convert kg CH4/ton of product to metric tons CH4.

EFproducti = CH4 emission factor for alloy product i from Table K-1 in this subpart (kg of CH4 emissions per metric ton of alloy product i).

(2) Determine the combined process CH4 emissions from the EAFs at your facility using Equation K-4 of this section:

eCFR graphic er30oc09.048.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

CH4 = Annual process CH4 emissions from EAFs at facility used for the production of ferroalloys listed in Table K-1 of this subpart (metric tons).

ECH4j = Annual process CH4 emissions from EAF j calculated using Equation K-3 of this section (metric tons).

j = Total number of EAFs at facility used for the production of ferroalloys listed in Table K-1 of this subpart.

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 66461, Oct. 28, 2010; 78 FR 71954, Nov. 29, 2013]

§98.114   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

If you determine annual process CO2 emissions using the carbon mass balance procedure in §98.113(b)(2), you must meet the requirements specified in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section.

(a) Determine the annual mass for each material used for the calculations of annual process CO2 emissions using Equation K-1 of this subpart by summing the monthly mass for the material determined for each month of the calendar year. The monthly mass may be determined using plant instruments used for accounting purposes, including either direct measurement of the quantity of the material placed in the unit or by calculations using process operating information.

(b) For each material identified in paragraph (a) of this section, you must determine the average carbon content of the material consumed, used, or produced in the calendar year using the methods specified in either paragraph (b)(1) or (b)(2) of this section. If you document that a specific process input or output contributes less than one percent of the total mass of carbon into or out of the process, you do not have to determine the monthly mass or annual carbon content of that input or output.

(1) Information provided by your material supplier.

(2) Collecting and analyzing at least three representative samples of the material inputs and outputs each year. The carbon content of the material must be analyzed at least annually using the standard methods (and their QA/QC procedures) specified in paragraphs (b)(2)(i) through (b)(2)(iii) of this section, as applicable.

(i) ASTM E1941-04, Standard Test Method for Determination of Carbon in Refractory and Reactive Metals and Their Alloys (incorporated by reference, see §98.7) for analysis of metal ore and alloy product.

(ii) ASTM D5373-08 Standard Test Methods for Instrumental Determination of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen in Laboratory Samples of Coal (incorporated by reference, see §98.7), for analysis of carbonaceous reducing agents and carbon electrodes.

(iii) ASTM C25-06, Standard Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Limestone, Quicklime, and Hydrated Lime (incorporated by reference, see §98.7) for analysis of flux materials such as limestone or dolomite.

§98.115   Procedures for estimating missing data.

A complete record of all measured parameters used in the GHG emissions calculations in §98.113 is required. Therefore, whenever a quality-assured value of a required parameter is unavailable, a substitute data value for the missing parameter shall be used in the calculations as specified in the paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section. You must document and keep records of the procedures used for all such estimates.

(a) If you determine CO2 emissions for the EAFs at your facility using the carbon mass balance procedure in §98.113(b), 100 percent data availability is required for the carbon content of the input and output materials. You must repeat the test for average carbon contents of inputs according to the procedures in §98.114(b) if data are missing.

(b) For missing records of the monthly mass of carbon-containing inputs and outputs, the substitute data value must be based on the best available estimate of the mass of the inputs and outputs from on all available process data or data used for accounting purposes, such as purchase records.

(c) If you are required to calculate CH4 emissions for an EAF at your facility as specified in §98.113(d), the estimate is based an annual quantity of certain alloy products, so 100 percent data availability is required.

§98.116   Data reporting requirements.

In addition to the information required by §98.3(c), each annual report must contain the information specified in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section, as applicable:

(a) Annual facility ferroalloy product production capacity (tons).

(b) If a CEMS is used to measure CO2 emissions, report the annual production for each ferroalloy product identified in §98.110, from each EAF (tons).

(c) Total number of EAFs at facility used for production of ferroalloy products.

(d) If a CEMS is used to measure CO2 emissions, then you must report under this subpart the relevant information required by §98.36 for the Tier 4 Calculation Methodology and the following information specified in paragraphs (d)(1) through (d)(3) of this section.

(1) Annual process CO2 emissions (in metric tons) from each EAF used for the production of any ferroalloy product identified in §98.110.

(2) Annual process CH4 emissions (in metric tons) from each EAF used for the production of any ferroalloy listed in Table K-1 of this subpart (metric tons).

(3) Identification number of each EAF.

(e) If a CEMS is not used to measure CO2 process emissions, and the carbon mass balance procedure is used to determine CO2 emissions according to the requirements in §98.113(b), then you must report the following information specified in paragraphs (e)(1) through (e)(7) of this section.

(1) Annual process CO2 emissions (in metric tons) from each EAF used for the production of any ferroalloy identified in §98.110 (metric tons).

(2) Annual process CH4 emissions (in metric tons) from each EAF used for the production of any ferroalloy listed in Table K-1 of this subpart.

(3) Identification number for each material.

(4)-(5) [Reserved]

(6) List the method used for the determination of carbon content for each material included for the calculation of annual process CO2 emissions for each EAF (e.g., supplier provided information, analyses of representative samples you collected).

(7) If you use the missing data procedures in §98.115(b), you must report how monthly mass of carbon-containing inputs and outputs with missing data was determined and the number of months the missing data procedures were used.

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 66462, Oct. 28, 2010; 78 FR 71954, Nov. 29, 2013; 79 FR 63785, Oct. 24, 2014]

§98.117   Records that must be retained.

In addition to the records required by §98.3(g), you must retain the records specified in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section for each EAF, as applicable.

(a) If a CEMS is used to measure CO2 emissions according to the requirements in §98.113(a), then you must retain under this subpart the records required for the Tier 4 Calculation Methodology in §98.37 and the information specified in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(3) of this section.

(1) Monthly EAF production quantity for each ferroalloy product (tons).

(2) Number of EAF operating hours each month.

(3) Number of EAF operating hours in a calendar year.

(b) If the carbon mass balance procedure is used to determine CO2 emissions according to the requirements in §98.113(b)(2), then you must retain records for the information specified in paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(5) of this section.

(1) Monthly EAF production quantity for each ferroalloy product (tons).

(2) Number of EAF operating hours each month.

(3) Number of EAF operating hours in a calendar year.

(4) Monthly material quantity consumed, used, or produced for each material included for the calculations of annual process CO2 emissions (tons).

(5) Average carbon content determined and records of the supplier provided information or analyses used for the determination for each material included for the calculations of annual process CO2 emissions.

(c) You must keep records that include a detailed explanation of how company records of measurements are used to estimate the carbon input and output to each EAF, including documentation of specific input or output materials excluded from Equation K-1 of this subpart that contribute less than 1 percent of the total carbon into or out of the process. You also must document the procedures used to ensure the accuracy of the measurements of materials fed, charged, or placed in an EAF including, but not limited to, calibration of weighing equipment and other measurement devices. The estimated accuracy of measurements made with these devices must also be recorded, and the technical basis for these estimates must be provided.

(d) If you are required to calculate CH4 emissions for the EAF as specified in §98.113(d), you must maintain records of the total amount of each alloy product produced for the specified reporting period, and the appropriate alloy-product specific emission factor used to calculate the CH4 emissions.

(e) Verification software records. You must keep a record of the file generated by the verification software specified in §98.5(b) for the applicable data specified in paragraphs (e)(1) through (13) of this section. Retention of this file satisfies the recordkeeping requirement for the data in paragraphs (e)(1) through (13) of this section.

(1) Carbon content in reducing agent (percent by weight, expressed as a decimal fraction) (Equation K-1 of §98.113).

(2) Annual mass of reducing agent fed, charged, or otherwise introduced into the EAF (tons) (Equation K-1).

(3) Carbon content of carbon electrode (percent by weight, expressed as a decimal fraction) (Equation K-1).

(4) Annual mass of carbon electrode consumed in the EAF (tons) (Equation K-1).

(5) Carbon content in ore (percent by weight, expressed as a decimal fraction) (Equation K-1).

(6) Annual mass of ore charged to the EAF (tons) (Equation K-1).

(7) Carbon content in flux material (percent by weight, expressed as a decimal fraction) (Equation K-1).

(8) Annual mass of flux material fed, charged, or otherwise introduced into the EAF to facilitate slag formation (tons) (Equation K-1).

(9) Carbon content in alloy product (percent by weight, expressed as a decimal fraction) (Equation K-1).

(10) Annual mass of alloy product produced/tapped in the EAF (tons) (Equation K-1).

(11) Carbon content in non-product outgoing material (percent by weight, expressed as a decimal fraction) (Equation K-1).

(12) Annual mass of non-product outgoing material removed from EAF (tons) (Equation K-1).

(13) CH4 emission factor selected from Table K-1 of this subpart for each product (kg of CH4 emissions/metric ton of alloy product) (Equation K-3 of §98.113).

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 79 FR 63785, Oct. 24, 2014]

§98.118   Definitions.

All terms used of this subpart have the same meaning given in the Clean Air Act and subpart A of this part.

Table K-1 to Subpart K of Part 98—Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) CH4 Emission Factors

Alloy product produced in EAFCH4 emission factor
(kg CH4 per metric ton product)
EAF Operation
Batch-chargingSprinkle-chargingaSprinkle-charging and
>750 °Cb
Silicon metal1.51.20.7
Ferrosilicon 90%1.41.10.6
Ferrosilicon 75%1.31.00.5
Ferrosilicon 65%1.31.00.5

aSprinkle-charging is charging intermittently every minute.

bTemperature measured in off-gas channel downstream of the furnace hood.

Need assistance?