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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of November 14, 2019

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter CPart 98 → Subpart CC


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 98—MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING


Subpart CC—Soda Ash Manufacturing


Contents
§98.290   Definition of the source category.
§98.291   Reporting threshold.
§98.292   GHGs to report.
§98.293   Calculating GHG emissions.
§98.294   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.295   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.296   Data reporting requirements.
§98.297   Records that must be retained.
§98.298   Definitions.

§98.290   Definition of the source category.

(a) A soda ash manufacturing facility is any facility with a manufacturing line that produces soda ash by one of the methods in paragraphs (a)(1) through (3) of this section:

(1) Calcining trona.

(2) Calcining sodium sesquicarbonate.

(3) Using a liquid alkaline feedstock process that directly produces CO2.

(b) In the context of the soda ash manufacturing sector, “calcining” means the thermal/chemical conversion of the bicarbonate fraction of the feedstock to sodium carbonate.

§98.291   Reporting threshold.

You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your facility contains a soda ash manufacturing process and the facility meets the requirements of either §98.2(a)(1) or (a)(2).

§98.292   GHGs to report.

You must report:

(a) CO2 process emissions from each soda ash manufacturing line combined.

(b) CO2 combustion emissions from each soda ash manufacturing line.

(c) CH4 and N2O combustion emissions from each soda ash manufacturing line. You must calculate and report these emissions under subpart C of this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources) by following the requirements of subpart C.

(d) CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions from each stationary combustion unit other than soda ash manufacturing lines. You must calculate and report these emissions under subpart C of this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources) by following the requirements of subpart C.

§98.293   Calculating GHG emissions.

You must calculate and report the annual process CO2 emissions from each soda ash manufacturing line using the procedures specified in paragraph (a) or (b) of this section.

(a) For each soda ash manufacturing line that meets the conditions specified in §98.33(b)(4)(ii) or (b)(4)(iii), you must calculate and report under this subpart the combined process and combustion CO2 emissions by operating and maintaining a CEMS to measure CO2 emissions according to the Tier 4 Calculation Methodology specified in §98.33(a)(4) and all associated requirements for Tier 4 in subpart C of this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources).

(b) For each soda ash manufacturing line that is not subject to the requirements in paragraph (a) of this section, calculate and report the process CO2 emissions from the soda ash manufacturing line by using the procedure in either paragraphs (b)(1), (b)(2), or (b)(3) of this section; and the combustion CO2 emissions using the procedure in paragraph (b)(4) of this section.

(1) Calculate and report under this subpart the combined process and combustion CO2 emissions by operating and maintaining a CEMS to measure CO2 emissions according to the Tier 4 Calculation Methodology specified in §98.33(a)(4) and all associated requirements for Tier 4 in subpart C of this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources).

(2) Use either Equation CC-1 or Equation CC-2 of this section to calculate annual CO2 process emissions from each manufacturing line that calcines trona to produce soda ash:

eCFR graphic er30oc09.118.gif

View or download PDF

eCFR graphic er30oc09.119.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

Ek = Annual CO2 process emissions from each manufacturing line, k (metric tons).

(ICT)n = Inorganic carbon content (percent by weight, expressed as a decimal fraction) in trona input, from the carbon analysis results for month n. This represents the ratio of trona to trona ore.

(ICsa)n = Inorganic carbon content (percent by weight, expressed as a decimal fraction) in soda ash output, from the carbon analysis results for month n. This represents the purity of the soda ash produced.

(Tt)n = Mass of trona input in month n (tons).

(Tsa)n = Mass of soda ash output in month n (tons).

2000/2205 = Conversion factor to convert tons to metric tons.

0.097/1 = Ratio of ton of CO2 emitted for each ton of trona.

0.138/1 = Ratio of ton of CO2 emitted for each ton of soda ash produced.

(3) Site-specific emission factor method. Use Equations CC-3, CC-4, and CC-5 of this section to determine annual CO2 process emissions from manufacturing lines that use the liquid alkaline feedstock process to produce soda ash. You must conduct an annual performance test and measure CO2 emissions and flow rates at all process vents from the mine water stripper/evaporator for each manufacturing line and calculate CO2 emissions as described in paragraphs (b)(3)(i) through (b)(3)(iv) of this section.

(i) During the performance test, you must measure the process vent flow from each process vent during the test and calculate the average rate for the test period in metric tons per hour.

(ii) Using the test data, you must calculate the hourly CO2 emission rate using Equation CC-3 of this section:

eCFR graphic er30oc09.120.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

ERCO2 = CO2 mass emission rate (metric tons/hour).

CCO2 = Hourly CO2 concentration (percent CO2) as determined by §98.294(c).

10000 = Parts per million per percent

2.59 × 10−9 = Conversion factor (pounds-mole/dscf/ppm).

44 = Pounds per pound-mole of carbon dioxide.

Q = Stack gas volumetric flow rate per minute (dscfm).

60 = Minutes per hour

4.53 × 10−4 = Conversion factor (metric tons/pound)

(iii) Using the test data, you must calculate a CO2 emission factor for the process using Equation CC-4 of this section:

eCFR graphic er30oc09.121.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

EFCO2 = CO2 emission factor (metric tons CO2/metric ton of process vent flow from mine water stripper/evaporator).

ERCO2 = CO2 mass emission rate (metric tons/hour).

Vt = Process vent flow rate from mine water stripper/evaporator during annual performance test (pounds/hour).

4.53 × 10−4 = Conversion factor (metric tons/pound)

(iv) You must calculate annual CO2 process emissions from each manufacturing line using Equation CC-5 of this section:

eCFR graphic er30oc09.122.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

Ek = Annual CO2 process emissions for each manufacturing line, k (metric tons).

EFCO2 = CO2 emission factor (metric tons CO2/metric ton of process vent flow from mine water stripper/evaporator).

Va = Annual process vent flow rate from mine water stripper/evaporator (thousand pounds/hour).

H = Annual operating hours for the each manufacturing line.

0.453 = Conversion factor (metric tons/thousand pounds).

(4) Calculate and report under subpart C of this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources) the combustion CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions in the soda ash manufacturing line according to the applicable requirements in subpart C.

§98.294   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

Section 98.293 provides three different procedures for emission calculations. The appropriate paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section should be used for the procedure chosen.

(a) If you determine your emissions using §98.293(b)(2) (Equation CC-1 of this subpart) you must:

(1) Determine the monthly inorganic carbon content of the trona from a weekly composite analysis for each soda ash manufacturing line, using a modified version of ASTM E359-00 (Reapproved 2005)e1, Standard Test Methods for Analysis of Soda Ash (Sodium Carbonate) (incorporated by reference, see §98.7). ASTM E359-00(Reapproved 2005) e1 is designed to measure the total alkalinity in soda ash not in trona. The modified method referred to above adjusts the regular ASTM method to express the results in terms of trona. Although ASTM E359-00 (Reapproved 2005) e1 uses manual titration, suitable autotitrators may also be used for this determination.

(2) Measure the mass of trona input to each soda ash manufacturing line on a monthly basis using belt scales or methods used for accounting purposes.

(3) Document the procedures used to ensure the accuracy of the monthly measurements of trona consumed.

(b) If you calculate CO2 process emissions based on soda ash production (§98.293(b)(2) Equation CC-2 of this subpart), you must:

(1) Determine the inorganic carbon content of the soda ash (i.e., soda ash purity) using ASTM E359-00 (Reapproved 2005) e1 Standard Test Methods for Analysis of Soda Ash (Sodium Carbonate) (incorporated by reference, see §98.7). Although ASTM E359-00 (Reapproved 2005) e1 uses manual titration, suitable autotitrators may also be used for this determination.

(2) Measure the mass of soda ash produced by each soda ash manufacturing line on a monthly basis using belt scales, by weighing the soda ash at the truck or rail loadout points of your facility, or methods used for accounting purposes.

(3) Document the procedures used to ensure the accuracy of the monthly measurements of soda ash produced.

(c) If you calculate CO2 emissions using the site-specific emission factor method in §98.293(b)(3), you must:

(1) Conduct an annual performance test that is based on representative performance (i.e., performance based on normal operating conditions) of the affected process.

(2) Sample the stack gas and conduct three emissions test runs of 1 hour each.

(3) Conduct the stack test using EPA Method 3A at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-2 to measure the CO2 concentration, Method 2, 2A, 2C, 2D, or 2F at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-1 or Method 26 at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-2 to determine the stack gas volumetric flow rate. All QA/QC procedures specified in the reference test methods and any associated performance specifications apply. For each test, the facility must prepare an emission factor determination report that must include the items in paragraphs (c)(3)(i) through (c)(3)(iii) of this section.

(i) Analysis of samples, determination of emissions, and raw data.

(ii) All information and data used to derive the emissions factor(s).

(iii) You must determine the average process vent flow rate from the mine water stripper/evaporater during each test and document how it was determined.

(4) You must also determine the annual vent flow rate from the mine water stripper/evaporater from monthly information using the same plant instruments or procedures used for accounting purposes (i.e., volumetric flow meter).

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 66469, Oct. 28, 2010; 81 FR 89264, Dec. 9, 2016]

§98.295   Procedures for estimating missing data.

For the emission calculation methodologies in §98.293(b)(2) and (b)(3), a complete record of all measured parameters used in the GHG emissions calculations is required (e.g., inorganic carbon content values, etc.). Therefore, whenever a quality-assured value of a required parameter is unavailable, a substitute data value for the missing parameter shall be used in the calculations as specified in the paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section. You must document and keep records of the procedures used for all such missing value estimates.

(a) For each missing value of the weekly composite of inorganic carbon content of either soda ash or trona, the substitute data value shall be the arithmetic average of the quality-assured values of inorganic carbon contents from the week immediately preceding and the week immediately following the missing data incident. If no quality-assured data on inorganic carbon contents are available prior to the missing data incident, the substitute data value shall be the first quality-assured value for carbon contents obtained after the missing data period.

(b) For each missing value of either the monthly soda ash production or the trona consumption, the substitute data value shall be the best available estimate(s) of the parameter(s), based on all available process data or data used for accounting purposes.

(c) For each missing value collected during the performance test (hourly CO2 concentration, stack gas volumetric flow rate, or average process vent flow from mine water stripper/evaporator during performance test), you must repeat the annual performance test following the calculation and monitoring and QA/QC requirements under §§98.293(b)(3) and 98.294(c).

(d) For each missing value of the monthly process vent flow rate from mine water stripper/evaporator, the subsititute data value shall be the best available estimate(s) of the parameter(s), based on all available process data or the lesser of the maximum capacity of the system or the maximum rate the meter can measure.

§98.296   Data reporting requirements.

In addition to the information required by §98.3(c), each annual report must contain the information specified in paragraphs (a) or (b) of this section, as appropriate for each soda ash manufacturing facility.

(a) If a CEMS is used to measure CO2 emissions, then you must report under this subpart the relevant information required under §98.36 and the following information in this paragraph (a):

(1) Annual consumption of trona or liquid alkaline feedstock for each manufacturing line (tons).

(2) Annual production of soda ash for each manufacturing line (tons).

(3) Annual production capacity of soda ash for each manufacturing line (tons).

(4) Identification number of each manufacturing line.

(b) If a CEMS is not used to measure CO2 emissions, then you must report the information listed in this paragraph (b):

(1) Identification number of each manufacturing line.

(2) Annual process CO2 emissions from each soda ash manufacturing line (metric tons).

(3) Annual production of soda ash for each manufacturing line (tons).

(4) Annual production capacity of soda ash for each manufacturing line (tons).

(5)-(7) [Reserved]

(8) Whether CO2 emissions for each manufacturing line were calculated using a trona input method as described in Equation CC-1 of this subpart, a soda ash output method as described in Equation CC-2 of this subpart, or a site-specific emission factor method as described in Equations CC-3 through CC-5 of this subpart.

(9) Number of manufacturing lines located used to produce soda ash.

(10) If you produce soda ash using the liquid alkaline feedstock process and use the site-specific emission factor method (§98.293(b)(3)) to estimate emissions then you must report the following relevant information for each manufacturing line or stack:

(i) Stack gas volumetric flow rate during performance test (dscfm).

(ii) Hourly CO2 concentration during performance test (percent CO2).

(iii) CO2 emission factor (metric tons CO2/metric tons of process vent flow from mine water stripper/evaporator).

(iv) CO2 mass emission rate during performance test (metric tons/hour).

(v) Average process vent flow from mine water stripper/evaporator during performance test (pounds/hour).

(vi) Annual process vent flow rate from mine water stripper/evaporator (thousand pounds/hour).

(11) Number of times missing data procedures were used and for which parameter as specified in this paragraph (b)(11):

(i) Trona or soda ash (number of months).

(ii) Inorganic carbon contents of trona or soda ash (weeks).

(iii) Process vent flow rate from mine water stripper/evaporator (number of months).

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 66469, Oct. 28, 2010; 79 FR 63798, Oct. 24, 2014]

§98.297   Records that must be retained.

In addition to the records required by §98.3(g), you must retain the records specified in paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section for each soda ash manufacturing line.

(a) If a CEMS is used to measure CO2 emissions, then you must retain under this subpart the records required for the Tier 4 Calculation Methodology specified in subpart C of this part and the information listed in this paragraph (a):

(1) Monthly production of soda ash (tons)

(2) Monthly consumption of trona or liquid alkaline feedstock (tons)

(3) Annual operating hours (hours).

(b) If a CEMS is not used to measure emissions, then you must retain records for the information listed in this paragraph (b):

(1) Records of all analyses and calculations conducted for determining all reported data as listed in §98.296(b).

(2) If using Equation CC-1 or CC-2 of this subpart, weekly inorganic carbon content factor of trona or soda ash, depending on method chosen, as measured by the applicable method in §98.294(b) (percent by weight expressed as a decimal fraction).

(3) Annual operating hours for each manufacturing line used to produce soda ash (hours).

(4) You must document the procedures used to ensure the accuracy of the monthly trona consumption or soda ash production measurements including, but not limited to, calibration of weighing equipment and other measurement devices. The estimated accuracy of measurements made with these devices must also be recorded, and the technical basis for these estimates must be provided.

(5) If you produce soda ash using the liquid alkaline feedstock process and use the site-specific emission factor method to estimate emissions (§98.293(b)(3)) then you must also retain the following relevant information:

(i) Records of performance test results.

(ii) You must document the procedures used to ensure the accuracy of the annual average vent flow measurements including, but not limited to, calibration of flow rate meters and other measurement devices. The estimated accuracy of measurements made with these devices must also be recorded, and the technical basis for these estimates must be provided.

(c) Verification software records. You must keep a record of the file generated by the verification software specified in §98.5(b) for the applicable data specified in paragraphs (c)(1) through (4) of this section. Retention of this file satisfies the recordkeeping requirement for the data in paragraphs (c)(1) through (4) of this section

(1) Inorganic carbon content in trona input, from the carbon analysis results for month (percent by weight, expressed as a decimal fraction) (Equation CC-1 of §98.293).

(2) Mass of trona input in month (tons) (Equation CC-1).

(3) Inorganic carbon content in soda ash output, from the carbon analysis results for month (percent by weight, expressed as a decimal fraction) (Equation CC-2 of §98.293).

(4) Mass of soda ash output in month (tons) (Equation CC-2).

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 79 FR 63798, Oct. 24, 2014]

§98.298   Definitions.

All terms used in this subpart have the same meaning given in the Clean Air Act and subpart A of this part.

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