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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of May 28, 2020

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter CPart 88 → Subpart A


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 88—CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES


Subpart A—Emission Standards for Clean-Fuel Vehicles


Contents
§88.101-94   General applicability.
§88.102-94   Definitions.
§88.103-94   Abbreviations.
§88.104-94   Clean-fuel vehicle tailpipe emission standards for light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks.
§88.105-94   Clean-fuel fleet emission standards for heavy-duty engines.

§88.101-94   General applicability.

The clean-fuel vehicle standards and provisions of this subpart are applicable to vehicles used in subpart B of this part (the Clean Fuel Fleet Program) and subpart C of this part (the California Pilot Test Program).

[59 FR 50074, Sept. 30, 1994]

§88.102-94   Definitions.

Any terms defined in 40 CFR part 86 and not defined in this part shall have the meaning given them in 40 CFR part 86, subpart A.

Adjusted Loaded Vehicle Weight is defined as the numerical average of the vehicle curb weight and the GVWR.

Dual Fuel Vehicle (or Engine) means any motor vehicle (or motor vehicle engine) engineered and designed to be operated on two different fuels, but not on a mixture of the fuels.

Flexible Fuel Vehicle (or Engine) means any motor vehicle (or motor vehicle engine) engineered and designed to be operated on any mixture of two or more different fuels.

Heavy Light-Duty Truck means any light-duty truck rated greater than 6000 lbs. GVWR.

Light Light-Duty Truck means any light-duty truck rated through 6000 lbs GVWR.

Loaded Vehicle Weight is defined as the curb weight plus 300 lbs.

Low-Emission Vehicle means any light-duty vehicle or light-duty truck conforming to the applicable Low-Emission Vehicle standard, or any heavy-duty vehicle with an engine conforming to the applicable Low-Emission Vehicle standard.

Non-methane Hydrocarbon Equivalent means the sum of the carbon mass emissions of non-oxygenated non-methane hydrocarbons plus the carbon mass emissions of alcohols, aldehydes, or other organic compounds which are separately measured in accordance with the applicable test procedures of 40 CFR part 86, expressed as gasoline-fueled vehicle non-methane hydrocarbons. In the case of exhaust emissions, the hydrogen-to-carbon ratio of the equivalent hydrocarbon is 1.85:1. In the case of diurnal and hot soak emissions, the hydrogen-to-carbon ratios of the equivalent hydrocarbons are 2.33:1 and 2.2:1 respectively.

Non-methane Organic Gas is defined as in section 241(3) Clean Air Act as amended (42 U.S.C. 7581(3)).

Test Weight is defined as the average of the curb weight and the GVWR.

Transitional Low-Emission Vehicle means any light-duty vehicle or light-duty truck conforming to the applicable Transitional Low-Emission Vehicle standard.

Ultra Low-Emission Vehicle means any light-duty vehicle or light-duty truck conforming to the applicable Ultra Low-Emission Vehicle standard, or any heavy-duty vehicle with an engine conforming to the applicable Ultra Low-Emission Vehicle standard.

Zero-Emission Vehicle means any light-duty vehicle or light-dutytruck conforming to the applicable Zero-Emission Vehicle standard, or any heavy-duty vehicle conforming to the applicable Zero-Emission Vehicle standard.

[57 FR 60046, Dec. 17, 1992. Redesignated and amended at 59 FR 50074, Sept. 30, 1994]

§88.103-94   Abbreviations.

The abbreviations of part 86 also apply to this subpart. The abbreviations in this section apply to all of part 88.

ALVW—Adjusted Loaded Vehicle Weight

CO—Carbon Monoxide

HCHO—Formaldehyde

HC—Hydrocarbon

HDV—Heavy-Duty Vehicle

LDT—Light-Duty Truck

LDV—Light-Duty Vehicle

NMHC—Non-Methane Hydrocarbon

NMHCE—Non-Methane Hydrocarbon Equivalent

NMOG—Non-Methane Organic Gas

NOx—Nitrogen Oxides

PM—Particulate Matter

GVWR—Gross Vehicle Weight Rating

LVW—Loaded Vehicle Weight

TW—Test Weight

TLEV—Transitional Low-Emission Vehicle

LEV—Low-Emission Vehicle

ULEV—Ultra Low-Emission Vehicle

ZEV—Zero-Emission Vehicle

[57 FR 60046, Dec. 17, 1992. Redesignated and amended at 59 FR 50074, Sept. 30, 1994]

§88.104-94   Clean-fuel vehicle tailpipe emission standards for light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks.

(a) A light-duty vehicle or light-duty truck will be considered as a TLEV, LEV, ULEV, or ZEV if it meets the applicable requirements of this section.

(b) Light-duty vehicles certified to the exhaust emission standards for TLEVs, LEVs, and ULEVs in Tables A104-1 and A104-2 shall be considered as meeting the requirements of this section for that particular vehicle emission category for model years 1994-2000 for the California Pilot Program.

(c) Light-duty vehicles certified to the exhaust emission standards for LEVs and ULEVs in Tables A104-1 and A104-2 shall be considered as meeting the requirements of this section for that particular vehicle emission category for model years 2001 and later for the California Pilot Program, and for model years 1998 and later for the Clean Fuel Fleet Program.

(d) Light light-duty trucks certified to the exhaust emission standards for a specific weight category for TLEVs, LEVs, and ULEVs in Tables A104-3 and A104-4 shall be considered as meeting the requirements of this section for that particular vehicle emission category. For model years 1994-2000 for the California Pilot Program.

(e) Light Light-duty trucks certified to the exhaust emission standards for a specific weight category for LEVs and ULEVs in Tables A104-3 and A104-4 shall be considered as meeting the requirements of this section for that particular vehicle emission category. For model years 2001 and later for the California Pilot Program, and for model years 1998 and later for the Clean Fuel Fleet Program.

(f) Heavy light-duty trucks certified to the exhaust emission standards for a specific weight category of LEVs and ULEVs in Tables A104-5 and A104-6 for model years 1998 and later shall be considered as meeting the requirements of this section for that particular vehicle emission category.

(g) A light-duty vehicle or light-duty truck shall be certified as a ZEV if it is determined by engineering analysis that the vehicle satisfies the following conditions:

(1) The vehicle fuel system(s) must not contain either carbon or nitrogen compounds (including air) which, when burned, form any of the pollutants listed in Table A104-1 as exhaust emissions.

(2) All primary and auxiliary equipment and engines must have no emissions of any of the pollutants listed in Table A104-1.

(3) The vehicle fuel system(s) and any auxiliary engine(s) must have no evaporative emissions in use.

(4) Any auxiliary heater must not operate at ambient temperatures above 40 degrees Fahrenheit.

(h) NMOG standards for flexible- and dual-fueled vehicles when operating on clean alternative fuel—(1) Light-duty vehicles, and light light-duty trucks. Flexible- and dual-fueled LDVs and light LDTs of 1996 model year and later shall meet all standards in Table A104-7 for vehicles of the applicable model year, loaded vehicle weight, and vehicle emission category.

(2) Light-duty trucks above 6,000 lbs GVWR. Flexible- and dual-fueled LDTs above 6,000 lbs. GVWR of 1998 model year and later shall meet all standards in Table A104-8 for vehicles of the applicable test weight and vehicle emission category.

(i) NMOG standards for flexible- and dual-fueled vehicles when operating on conventional fuel—(1) Light-duty vehicles, and light light-duty trucks. Flexible- and dual-fueled LDVs and light LDTs of 1996 model year and later shall meet all standards in Table A104-9 for vehicles of the applicable model year, loaded vehicle weight, and vehicle emission category.

(2) Light-duty trucks above 6,000 lbs GVWR. Flexible- and dual-fueled LDTs of 1998 model year and later shall meet all standards in Table A104-10 for vehicles of the applicable test weight and vehicle emission category.

(j) Other standards for flexible- and dual-fueled vehicles. When operating on clean alternative fuel, flexible- and dual- fueled light-duty vehicles and light light-duty trucks must also meet the appropriate standards for carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, formaldehyde, and particulate matter as designated in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section as well as all other applicable standards and requirements. When operating on conventional fuel, flexible- and dual-fueled vehicles must also meet all other applicable standards and requirements in 40 CFR part 86.

(k) Motor vehicles subject to standards and requirements of this section shall also comply with all applicable standards and requirements of 40 CFR part 86, except that any exhaust emission standards in 40 CFR part 86 pertaining to pollutants for which standards are established in this section shall not apply. For converted vehicles, the applicable standards and requirements of 40 CFR part 86 and this part 88 shall apply based on the model year in which the conversion is performed, regardless of the model year in which the base vehicle was originally manufactured prior to conversion.

(1) Gaseous-fueled, diesel-fueled, and electric clean-fuel vehicles are waived from cold CO test requirements of subpart C of this part if compliance is demonstrated by engineering analysis or test data.

(2) The standards in this section shall be administered and enforced in accordance with the California Regulatory Requirements Applicable to the Clean Fuel Fleet and California Pilot Programs, April 1, 1994, which are incorporated by reference.

(i) This incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51.

(ii) Copies may be inspected at U.S. EPA, OAR, 401 M St., SW., Washington, DC 20460, or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal__register/code__of__federal__regulations/ibr__locations.html. Copies of these materials may be obtained from Barclay's Law Publishers, 400 Oyster Point Boulevard, P.O. Box 3066, South San Francisco, CA 94080, phone (415) 244-6611.

Tables to §88.104-94

Table A104-1—Intermediate Useful Life Standards (g/mi) for Light-Duty Vehicles for HCs, CO, NOX. HCHO, and PM

   Vehicle emission categoryNMOG CO NOXHCHO PM1
   TLEV0.1253.40.40.015
   LEV2.07523.4.22.015
   ULEV.0401.72.2.008

1Applies to diesel vehicles only.

2Applies to ILEVs.

Table A104-2—Full Useful Life Standards (g/mi) for Light-Duty Vehicles for HCs, CO, NOX. HCHO, and PM

   Vehicle emission categoryNMOG CO NOXHCHO PM1
   TLEV0.1564.20.60.0180.08
   LEV20.09024.2.32.0182.08
   ULEV.0552.12.3.011.04

1Applies to diesel vehicles only.

2Applies to ILEVs.

Table A104-3—Intermediate Useful Life Standards (g/mi) for Light Light-Duty Trucks for HCs, CO, NOX. HCHO, and PM

LVW (lbs)Vehicle emission categoryNMOG CO NOXHCHO PM1
0-3750TLEV.1253.4.4.015
   LEV2.07523.4.22.015
   ULEV.0401.72.2.008
3751-5750TLEV0.1604.4.7.018
   LEV2.10024.4.42.018
   ULEV.0502.22.4.009

1Applies to diesel vehicles only.

2Applies to ILEVs.

Table A104-4—Full Useful Life Standards (g/mi) for Light Light-Duty Trucks for HCs, CO, NOX. HCHO, and PM

LVW (lbs) Vehicle emission category NMOG CO NOX HCHO PM1
0-3750TLEV0.1564.20.60.0180.08
   LEV20.09024.20.32.0182.08
   ULEV.0552.12.3.011.04
3751-5750TLEV.2005.5.9.023.08
   LEV2.13025.5.52.0232.08
   ULEV.0702.82.5.013.04

1Applies to diesel vehicles only.

2Applies to ILEVs.

Table A104-5—Intermediate Useful Life Standards (g/mi) for Heavy Light-Duty Trucks for HCs, CO, NOX. HCHO, and PM

ALVW (lbs) Vehicle emission category NMOG CO NOX2 HCHO PM1
0-3750LEV30.12533.40.430.015
   ULEV.0751.73.2.008
3751-5750LEV3.16034.4.73.018
   ULEV.1002.23.4.009
5751-LEV3.19535.01.13.022
   ULEV.1172.53.6.011

1Applies to diesel vehicles only.

2Does not apply to diesel vehicles.

3Applies to ILEVs.

Table A104-6—Full Useful Life Standards (g/mi) for Heavy Light-Duty Trucks for HCs, CO, NOX. HCHO, and PM

ALVW (lbs) Vehicle emission category NMOG CO NOX HCHO PM1
0-3750LEV20.18025.00.620.02220.08
   ULEV.1072.52.3.012.04
3751-5750LEV2.23026.41.02.0272.10
   ULEV.1433.22.5.013.05
5751-LEV2.28027.31.52.0322.12
   ULEV.1673.72.8.016.06

1Applies to diesel vehicles only.

2Applies to ILEVs.

Table A104-7—NMOG Standards (g/mi) for Flexible- and Dual-Fueled Vehicles When Operating on Clean Alternative Fuel for Light Light-Duty Trucks and Light-Duty Vehicles

Vehicle type 50,000 mile NMOG standard 100,000 mile NMOG standard
MY 1996 and later:
LDTs (0-3,750 lbs. LVW) and LDVs0.1250.156
LDTs (3,751-5,750 lbs. LVW).160.200
Beginning MY 2001:
LDTs (0-3,750 lbs. LVW) and LDVs.075.090
LDTs (3,751-5,750 lbs. LVW).100.130

Table A104-8—NMOG Standards (g/mi) for Flexible- and Dual-Fueled Vehicles When Operating on Clean Alternative Fuel for Heavy Light-Duty Trucks

Vehicle type 50,000 mile NMOG standard 120,000 mile NMOG standard
Beginning MY 1998:
LDTs (0-3,750 lbs. ALVW)0.1250.180
LDTs (3,751-5,750 lbs. ALVW).160.230
LDTs (5,751-8,500 lbs. ALVW).195.280

Table A104-9—NMOG Standards (g/mi) for Flexible- and Dual-Fueled Vehicles When Operating on Conventional Fuel for Light Light-Duty Trucks and Light-Duty Vehicles

Vehicle type50,000 mile NMOG standard100,000 mile NMOG standard
Beginning MY 1996:
LDTs (0-3,750 lbs. LVW) and LDVs0.250.31
LDTs (3,751-5,750 lbs. LVW).32.40
Beginning MY 2001:
LDTs (0-3,750 lbs. LVW) and LDVs.125.156
LDTs (3,751-5,750 lbs. LVW).160.200

Table A104-10—NMOG Standards (g/mi) for Flexible- and Dual-Fueled Vehicles When Operating on Conventional Fuel for Light Light-Duty Trucks

Vehicle type50,000 mile NMOG standard120,000 mile NMOG standard
Beginning MY 1998:
LDTs (0-3,750 lbs. ALVW)0.250.36
LDTs (3,751-5,750 lbs. ALVW).32.46
LDTs (5,751-8,500 lbs. ALVW).39.56

[59 FR 50074, Sept. 30, 1994, as amended at 61 FR 127, Jan. 3, 1996]

§88.105-94   Clean-fuel fleet emission standards for heavy-duty engines.

(a) Exhaust emissions from engines used in heavy-duty low emission vehicles shall meet one of the following standards:

(1) Combined emissions of oxides of nitrogen and nonmethane hydrocarbons (or nonmethane hydrocarbon equivalent) shall not exceed 3.8 grams per brake horsepower-hour.

(2) Combined emissions of oxides of nitrogen and nonmethane hydrocarbons (or nonmethane hydrocarbon equivalent) shall not exceed 3.5 grams per brake horsepower-hour when tested (certified) on fuel meeting the specifications of California certification fuel.

(b) Exhaust emissions from engines used in heavy-duty low emission vehicles shall meet conventional vehicle standards set forth in Part 86 for total hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, particulate, and organic material hydrocarbon equivalent.

(c) Exhaust emissions from engines used in ultra-low emission heavy-duty vehicles shall meet each of the following standards:

(1) The combined emissions of oxides of nitrogen and nonmethane hydrocarbons (or nonmethane hydrocarbon equivalent) shall not exceed 2.5 grams per brake horsepower-hour.

(2) Carbon monoxide emissions shall not exceed 7.2 grams per brake horsepower-hour.

(3) Particulate emissions shall not exceed 0.05 grams per brake horsepower-hour.

(4) Formaldehyde emissions shall not exceed 0.025 grams per brake horsepower-hour.

(d) Exhaust emissions from engines used in inherently-low emission heavy-duty vehicles shall meet each of the following standards:

(1) The combined emissions of oxides of nitrogen and nonmethane hydrocarbons (or nonmethane hydrocarbon equivalent) shall not exceed 2.5 grams per brake horsepower-hour.

(2) Carbon monoxide emissions shall not exceed 14.4 grams per brake horsepower-hour.

(3) Particulate emissions shall not exceed 0.10 grams per brake horsepower-hour.

(4) Formaldehyde emissions shall not exceed 0.05 grams per brake horsepower-hour.

(e) The standards set forth in paragraphs (a), (b), (c), and (d) of this section refer to the exhaust emitted while the vehicle is being tested in accordance with the applicable test procedures set forth in 40 CFR part 86, subpart N.

(f)(1) A heavy-duty zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) has a standard of zero emissions for nonmethane hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, and particulates.

(2) A heavy-duty vehicle shall be certified as a ZEV if it is determined by engineering analysis that the vehicle satisfies the following conditions:

(i) The vehicle fuel system(s) must not contain either carbon or nitrogen compounds (including air) which, when burned, form nonmethane hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, or particulates as exhaust emissions.

(ii) All primary and auxiliary equipment and engines must have no emissions of nonmethane hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, and particulates.

(iii) The vehicle fuel system(s) and any auxiliary engine(s) must have no evaporative emissions.

(iv) Any auxiliary heater must not operate at ambient temperatures above 40 degrees Fahrenheit.

(g) All heavy-duty engines used in low emission, ultra-low emission, or zero emission vehicles shall also comply with all applicable standards and requirements of 40 CFR part 86, except that any exhaust emission standards in 40 CFR part 86 pertaining to pollutants for which standards are established in this section shall not apply.

[59 FR 50077, Sept. 30, 1994]

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