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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of December 4, 2019

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter CPart 51 → Subpart BB


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 51—REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS


Subpart BB—Data Requirements for Characterizing Air Quality for the Primary SO2 NAAQS


Contents
§51.1200   Definitions.
§51.1201   Purpose.
§51.1202   Applicability.
§51.1203   Air agency requirements.
§51.1204   Enforceable emission limits providing for attainment.
§51.1205   Ongoing data requirements.

Source: 80 FR 51087, Aug. 21, 2015, unless otherwise noted.

§51.1200   Definitions.

The following definitions apply for the purposes of this subpart. All terms not defined herein will have the meaning given them in §51.100 or in the Clean Air Act (CAA). Air agency means the agency or organization responsible for air quality management within a state, local governmental jurisdiction, territory or area subject to tribal government. Annual SO2 emissions data means the quality-assured annual SO2 emissions data for a stationary source. Such data may have been required to be reported to the EPA in accordance with an existing regulatory requirement (such as the Air Emissions Reporting Rule or the Acid Rain Program); however, annual SO2 emissions data may be obtained or determined through other reliable means as well.

Applicable source means a stationary source that is:

(1) Not located in a designated nonattainment area, and

(2) Has actual annual SO2 emissions data of 2,000 tons or more, or has been identified by an air agency or by the EPA Regional Administrator as requiring further air quality characterization. 2010 SO2 NAAQS means the primary National Ambient Air Quality Standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide) as codified at 40 CFR 50.17, as effective August 23, 2010.

§51.1201   Purpose.

The purpose of this subpart is to require air agencies to develop and submit air quality data characterizing maximum 1-hour ambient concentrations of SO2 across the United States through either ambient air quality monitoring or air quality modeling analysis at the air agency's election. These monitoring and modeling data may be used in future determinations by the EPA regarding areas' SO2 NAAQS attainment status, or for other actions designed to ensure attainment of the 2010 SO2 NAAQS and provide protection to the public from the short-term health effects associated with exposure to SO2 concentrations that exceed the NAAQS.

§51.1202   Applicability.

This subpart applies to any air agency in whose jurisdiction is located one or more applicable sources of SO2 emissions that have annual actual SO2 emissions of 2,000 tons or more; or in whose jurisdiction is located one or more sources of SO2 emissions that have been identified by the air agency or by the EPA Regional Administrator as requiring further air quality characterization. For the purposes of this subpart, the subject air agency shall identify applicable sources of SO2 based on the most recently available annual SO2 emissions data for such sources.

§51.1203   Air agency requirements.

(a) The air agency shall submit a list of applicable SO2 sources identified pursuant to §51.1202 located in its jurisdiction to the EPA by January 15, 2016. This list may be revised by the Regional Administrator after review based on available SO2 emissions data.

(b) For each source area subject to requirements for air quality characterization, the air agency shall notify the EPA by July 1, 2016, whether it has chosen to characterize peak 1-hour SO2 concentrations in such area through ambient air quality monitoring; characterize peak 1-hour SO2 concentrations in such area through air quality modeling techniques; or provide federally enforceable emission limitations by January 13, 2017 that limit emissions of applicable sources to less than 2,000 tpy, in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section, or provide documentation that the applicable source has permanently shut down. Emission limits in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section may be established in lieu of conducting monitoring or modeling unless, in the judgment of the air agency or the EPA Regional Administrator, the area warrants further air quality characterization even with the establishment of any new emission limit(s). If the air agency has chosen to establish requirements to limit emissions for applicable sources in an area, the notification from the air agency shall describe the requirements and emission limits the air agency intends to apply. For any area with multiple applicable sources, the air agency (or air agencies if a multi-state area) shall use the same technique (monitoring, modeling, or emissions limitation) for all applicable sources in the area. If multiple air agencies have applicable sources in an area, the air agencies must consult with each other to employ a common technique for the area.

(c) Monitoring. For each area identified in the notification submitted pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section as an area for which SO2 concentrations will be characterized through ambient monitoring, the required monitors shall be sited and operated either as SLAMS or in a manner equivalent to SLAMS. In either case, monitors shall meet applicable criteria in 40 CFR part 58, appendices A, C, and E and their data shall be subject to data certification and reporting requirements as prescribed in 40 CFR 58.15 and 58.16. These requirements include quarterly reporting of monitoring data to the Air Quality System, and the annual certification of data by May 1 of the following year.

(1) The air agency shall include relevant information about monitors used to meet the requirements of this paragraph (c) in the air agency's Annual Monitoring Network Plan required by 40 CFR 58.10 due July 1, 2016. The air agency shall consult with the appropriate EPA Regional Office in the development of plans to install, supplement, or maintain an appropriate ambient SO2 monitoring network pursuant to the requirements of 40 CFR part 58 and of this subpart.

(2) All existing, new, or relocated ambient monitors intended to meet the requirements of this paragraph (c) must be operational by January 1, 2017 and must be operated continually until approved for shut down by EPA.

(3) Any SO2 monitor identified by an air agency in its approved Annual Monitoring Network Plan as having the purpose of meeting the requirements of this paragraph (c) that: Is not located in an area designated as nonattainment as the 2010 SO2 NAAQS is not also being used to satisfy other ambient SO2 minimum monitoring requirements listed in 40 CFR part 58, appendix D, section 4.4; and is not otherwise required as part of a SIP, permit, attainment plan or maintenance plan, may be eligible for shut down upon EPA approval if it produces a design value no greater than 50 percent of the 2010 SO2 NAAQS from data collected in either its first or second 3-year period of operation. The air agency must receive EPA Regional Administrator approval of a request to cease operation of the monitor as part of the EPA's action on the Annual Monitoring Network Plan under 40 CFR 58.10 prior to shutting down any qualifying monitor under this paragraph (c).

(d) Modeling. For each area identified in the notification submitted pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section as an area for which SO2 concentrations will be characterized through air quality modeling, the air agency shall submit by July 1, 2016, a technical protocol for conducting such modeling to the Regional Administrator for review. The air agency shall consult with the appropriate EPA Regional Office in developing these modeling protocols.

(1) The modeling protocol shall include information about the modeling approach to be followed, including but not limited to the model to be used, modeling domain, receptor grid, emissions dataset, meteorological dataset and how the air agency will account for background SO2 concentrations.

(2) Modeling analyses shall characterize air quality based on either actual SO2 emissions from the most recent 3 years, or on any federally enforceable allowable emission limit or limits established by the air agency or the EPA and that are effective and require compliance by January 13, 2017.

(3) Except as provided by §51.1204, the air agency shall conduct the modeling analysis for any applicable source identified by the air agency pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section, and for its associated area and any nearby area, as applicable, and submit the modeling analysis to the EPA Regional Office by January 13, 2017.

(e) Federally enforceable requirement to limit SO2 emissions to under 2,000 tons per year. For each area identified in the notification submitted pursuant to paragraph (b) of this sectionas an area for which the air agency will adopt federally enforceable requirements in lieu of characterizing air quality through monitoring or modeling, the air agency shall submit documentation to the EPA by January 13, 2017, showing that such requirements have been adopted, are in effect, and been made federally enforceable by January 13, 2017, through an appropriate legal mechanism, and the provisions either:

(1) Require the applicable sources in the area to emit less than 2,000 tons of SO2 per year for calendar year 2017 and thereafter; or

(2) Document that the applicable sources in the area have permanently shut down by January 13, 2017.

§51.1204   Enforceable emission limits providing for attainment.

At any time prior to January 13, 2017, the air agency may submit to the EPA federally enforceable SO2 emissions limits (effective no later than January 13, 2017) for one or more applicable sources that provide for attainment of the 2010 SO2 NAAQS in the area affected by such emissions. The submittal shall include associated air quality modeling and other analyses that demonstrate that all modeling receptors in the area will not violate the 2010 SO2 NAAQS, taking into account the updated allowable emission limits on applicable sources as well as emissions limits that may apply to any other sources in the area. The air agency shall not be subject to the ongoing data requirements of §51.1205 for such area if the air quality modeling and other analyses demonstrate that the area will not violate the 2010 SO2 NAAQS.

§51.1205   Ongoing data requirements.

(a) Monitored areas. For any area where SO2 monitoring was conducted to characterize air quality pursuant to §51.1203, the air agency shall continue to operate the monitor(s) used to meet those requirements and shall continue to report ambient data pursuant to existing ambient monitoring regulations, unless the monitor(s) have been approved for shut down by the EPA Regional Administrator pursuant to §51.1203(c)(3) or pursuant to 40 CFR 58.14.

(b) Modeled areas. For any area where modeling of actual SO2 emissions serve as the basis for designating such area as attainment for the 2010 SO2 NAAQS, the air agency shall submit an annual report to the EPA Regional Administrator by July 1 of each year, either as a stand-alone document made available for public inspection, or as an appendix to its Annual Monitoring Network Plan (also due on July 1 each year under 40 CFR 58.10), that documents the annual SO2 emissions of each applicable source in each such area and provides an assessment of the cause of any emissions increase from the previous year. The first report for each such area is due by July 1 of the calendar year after the effective date of the area's initial designation.

(1) The air agency shall include in such report a recommendation regarding whether additional modeling is needed to characterize air quality in any area to determine whether the area meets or does not meet the 2010 SO2 NAAQS. The EPA Regional Administrator will consider the emissions report and air agency recommendation, and may require that the air agency conduct updated air quality modeling for the area and submit it to the EPA within 12 months.

(2) An air agency will no longer be subject to the requirements of this paragraph (b) for a particular area if it provides air quality modeling demonstrating that air quality values at all receptors in the analysis are no greater than 50 percent of the 1-hour SO2 NAAQS, and such demonstration is approved by the EPA Regional Administrator.

(c) Any air agency that demonstrates that an area would meet the 2010 SO2 NAAQS with allowable emissions is not required pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section to submit future annual reports for the area.

(d) If modeling or monitoring information required to be submitted by the air agency to the EPA pursuant to this subpart indicates that an area is not attaining the 2010 SO2 NAAQS, the EPA may take appropriate action, including but not limited to requiring adoption of enforceable emission limits to ensure continued attainment of the 2010 SO2 NAAQS, designation or redesignation of the area to nonattainment, or issuance of a SIP Call.

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