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e-CFR data is current as of July 9, 2020

Title 29Subtitle BChapter XVIIPart 1926 → Subpart Z


Title 29: Labor
PART 1926—SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION


Subpart Z—Toxic and Hazardous Substances


Contents
§1926.1100   [Reserved]
§1926.1101   Asbestos.
§1926.1102   Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.
§1926.1103   13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).
§1926.1104   alpha-Naphthylamine.
§1926.1105   [Reserved]
§1926.1106   Methyl chloromethyl ether.
§1926.1107   3,3′-Dichlorobenzidiene (and its salts).
§1926.1108   bis-Chloromethyl ether.
§1926.1109   beta-Naphthylamine.
§1926.1110   Benzidine.
§1926.1111   4-Aminodiphenyl.
§1926.1112   Ethyleneimine.
§1926.1113   beta-Propiolactone.
§1926.1114   2-Acetylaminofluorene.
§1926.1115   4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene.
§1926.1116   N-Nitrosodimethylamine.
§1926.1117   Vinyl chloride.
§1926.1118   Inorganic arsenic.
§1926.1124   Beryllium.
§1926.1126   Chromium (VI).
§1926.1127   Cadmium.
§1926.1128   Benzene.
§1926.1129   [Reserved]
§1926.1144   1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane.
§1926.1145   Acrylonitrile.
§1926.1147   Ethylene oxide.
§1926.1148   Formaldehyde.
§1926.1152   Methylene chloride.
§1926.1153   Respirable crystalline silica.

Authority: 40 U.S.C. 3704; 29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657; and Secretary of Labor's Order No. 12-71 (36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 25059), 9-83 (48 FR 35736), 1-90 (55 FR 9033), 6-96 (62 FR 111), 3-2000 (65 FR 50017), 5-2002 (67 FR 65008), 5-2007 (72 FR 31160), 4-2010 (75 FR 55355), or 1-2012 (77 FR 3912) as applicable; and 29 CFR part 1911.

Section 1926.1102 not issued under 29 U.S.C. 655 or 29 CFR part 1911; also issued under 5 U.S.C. 553.

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§1926.1100   [Reserved]

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§1926.1101   Asbestos.

(a) Scope and application. This section regulates asbestos exposure in all work as defined in 29 CFR 1910.12(b), including but not limited to the following:

(1) Demolition or salvage of structures where asbestos is present;

(2) Removal or encapsulation of materials containing asbestos;

(3) Construction, alteration, repair, maintenance, or renovation of structures, substrates, or portions thereof, that contain asbestos;

(4) Installation of products containing asbestos;

(5) Asbestos spill/emergency cleanup; and

(6) Transportation, disposal, storage, containment of and housekeeping activities involving asbestos or products containing asbestos, on the site or location at which construction activities are performed.

(7) Coverage under this standard shall be based on the nature of the work operation involving asbestos exposure.

(8) This section does not apply to asbestos-containing asphalt roof coatings, cements and mastics.

(b) Definitions.

Aggressive method means removal or disturbance of building material by sanding, abrading, grinding or other method that breaks, crumbles, or disintegrates intact ACM.

Amended water means water to which surfactant (wetting agent) has been added to increase the ability of the liquid to penetrate ACM.

Asbestos includes chrysotile, amosite, crocidolite, tremolite asbestos, anthophyllite asbestos, actinolite asbestos, and any of these minerals that has been chemically treated and/or altered. For purposes of this standard, “asbestos” includes PACM, as defined below.

Asbestos-containing material (ACM), means any material containing more than one percent asbestos.

Assistant Secretary means the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Labor, or designee.

Authorized person means any person authorized by the employer and required by work duties to be present in regulated areas.

Building/facility owner is the legal entity, including a lessee, which exercises control over management and record keeping functions relating to a building and/or facility in which activities covered by this standard take place.

Certified Industrial Hygienist (CIH) means one certified in the practice of industrial hygiene by the American Board of Industrial Hygiene.

Class I asbestos work means activities involving the removal of TSI and surfacing ACM and PACM.

Class II asbestos work means activities involving the removal of ACM which is not thermal system insulation or surfacing material. This includes, but is not limited to, the removal of asbestos-containing wallboard, floor tile and sheeting, roofing and siding shingles, and construction mastics.

Class III asbestos work means repair and maintenance operations, where “ACM”, including TSI and surfacing ACM and PACM, is likely to be disturbed.

Class IV asbestos work means maintenance and custodial activities during which employees contact but do not disturb ACM or PACM and activities to clean up dust, waste and debris resulting from Class I, II, and III activities.

Clean room means an uncontaminated room having facilities for the storage of employees' street clothing and uncontaminated materials and equipment.

Closely resemble means that the major workplace conditions which have contributed to the levels of historic asbestos exposure, are no more protective than conditions of the current workplace.

Competent person means, in addition to the definition in 29 CFR 1926.32 (f), one who is capable of identifying existing asbestos hazards in the workplace and selecting the appropriate control strategy for asbestos exposure, who has the authority to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them, as specified in 29 CFR 1926.32(f): in addition, for Class I and Class II work who is specially trained in a training course which meets the criteria of EPA's Model Accreditation Plan (40 CFR part 763) for supervisor, or its equivalent and, for Class III and Class IV work, who is trained in a manner consistent with EPA requirements for training of local education agency maintenance and custodial staff as set forth at 40 CFR 763.92 (a)(2).

Critical barrier means one or more layers of plastic sealed over all openings into a work area or any other similarly placed physical barrier sufficient to prevent airborne asbestos in a work area from migrating to an adjacent area.

Decontamination area means an enclosed area adjacent and connected to the regulated area and consisting of an equipment room, shower area, and clean room, which is used for the decontamination of workers, materials, and equipment that are contaminated with asbestos.

Demolition means the wrecking or taking out of any load-supporting structural member and any related razing, removing, or stripping of asbestos products.

Director means the Director, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or designee.

Disturbance means activities that disrupt the matrix of ACM or PACM, crumble or pulverize ACM or PACM, or generate visible debris from ACM or PACM. In no event shall the amount of ACM or PACM so disturbed exceed that which can be contained in one glove bag or waste bag which shall not exceed 60 inches in length and width.

Employee exposure means that exposure to airborne asbestos that would occur if the employee were not using respiratory protective equipment.

Equipment room (change room) means a contaminated room located within the decontamination area that is supplied with impermeable bags or containers for the disposal of contaminated protective clothing and equipment.

Fiber means a particulate form of asbestos, 5 micrometers or longer, with a length-to-diameter ratio of at least 3 to 1.

Glovebag means not more than a 60 × 60 inch impervious plastic bag-like enclosure affixed around an asbestos-containing material, with glove-like appendages through which material and tools may be handled.

High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter means a filter capable of trapping and retaining at least 99.97 percent of all mono-dispersed particles of 0.3 micrometers in diameter.

Homogeneous area means an area of surfacing material or thermal system insulation that is uniform in color and texture.

Industrial hygienist means a professional qualified by education, training, and experience to anticipate, recognize, evaluate and develop controls for occupational health hazards.

Intact means that the ACM has not crumbled, been pulverized, or otherwise deteriorated so that the asbestos is no longer likely to be bound with its matrix.

Modification for purposes of paragraph (g)(6)(ii), means a changed or altered procedure, material or component of a control system, which replaces a procedure, material or component of a required system. Omitting a procedure or component, or reducing or diminishing the stringency or strength of a material or component of the control system is not a “modification” for purposes of paragraph (g)(6) of this section.

Negative Initial Exposure Assessment means a demonstration by the employer, which complies with the criteria in paragraph (f)(2)(iii) of this section, that employee exposure during an operation is expected to be consistently below the PELs.

PACM means “presumed asbestos containing material”.

Presumed Asbestos Containing Material means thermal system insulation and surfacing material found in buildings constructed no later than 1980. The designation of a material as “PACM” may be rebutted pursuant to paragraph (k)(5) of this section.

Project Designer means a person who has successfully completed the training requirements for an abatement project designer established by 40 U.S.C. 763.90(g).

Regulated area means: an area established by the employer to demarcate areas where Class I, II, and III asbestos work is conducted, and any adjoining area where debris and waste from such asbestos work accumulate; and a work area within which airborne concentrations of asbestos, exceed or there is a reasonable possibility they may exceed the permissible exposure limit. Requirements for regulated areas are set out in paragraph (e) of this section.

Removal means all operations where ACM and/or PACM is taken out or stripped from structures or substrates, and includes demolition operations.

Renovation means the modifying of any existing structure, or portion thereof.

Repair means overhauling, rebuilding, reconstructing, or reconditioning of structures or substrates, including encapsulation or other repair of ACM or PACM attached to structures or substrates.

Surfacing material means material that is sprayed, troweled-on or otherwise applied to surfaces (such as acoustical plaster on ceilings and fireproofing materials on structural members, or other materials on surfaces for acoustical, fireproofing, and other purposes).

Surfacing ACM means surfacing material which contains more than 1% asbestos.

Thermal system insulation (TSI) means ACM applied to pipes, fittings, boilers, breeching, tanks, ducts or other structural components to prevent heat loss or gain.

Thermal system insulation ACM is thermal system insulation which contains more than 1% asbestos.

(c) Permissible exposure limits (PELS)—(1) Time-weighted average limit (TWA). The employer shall ensure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of asbestos in excess of 0.1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air as an eight (8) hour time-weighted average (TWA), as determined by the method prescribed in appendix A to this section, or by an equivalent method.

(2) Excursion limit. The employer shall ensure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of asbestos in excess of 1.0 fiber per cubic centimeter of air (1 f/cc) as averaged over a sampling period of thirty (30) minutes, as determined by the method prescribed in appendix A to this section, or by an equivalent method.

(d) Multi-employer worksites. (1) On multi-employer worksites, an employer performing work requiring the establishment of a regulated area shall inform other employers on the site of the nature of the employer's work with asbestos and/or PACM, of the existence of and requirements pertaining to regulated areas, and the measures taken to ensure that employees of such other employers are not exposed to asbestos.

(2) Asbestos hazards at a multi-employer work site shall be abated by the contractor who created or controls the source of asbestos contamination. For example, if there is a significant breach of an enclosure containing Class I work, the employer responsible for erecting the enclosure shall repair the breach immediately.

(3) In addition, all employers of employees exposed to asbestos hazards shall comply with applicable protective provisions to protect their employees. For example, if employees working immediately adjacent to a Class I asbestos job are exposed to asbestos due to the inadequate containment of such job, their employer shall either remove the employees from the area until the enclosure breach is repaired; or perform an initial exposure assessment pursuant to (f) of this section.

(4) All employers of employees working adjacent to regulated areas established by another employer on a multi-employer work-site, shall take steps on a daily basis to ascertain the integrity of the enclosure and/or the effectiveness of the control method relied on by the primary asbestos contractor to assure that asbestos fibers do not migrate to such adjacent areas.

(5) All general contractors on a construction project which includes work covered by this standard shall be deemed to exercise general supervisory authority over the work covered by this standard, even though the general contractor is not qualified to serve as the asbestos “competent person” as defined by paragraph (b) of this section. As supervisor of the entire project, the general contractor shall ascertain whether the asbestos contractor is in compliance with this standard, and shall require such contractor to come into compliance with this standard when necessary.

(e) Regulated areas. (1) All Class I, II and III asbestos work shall be conducted within regulated areas. All other operations covered by this standard shall be conducted within a regulated area where airborne concentrations of asbestos exceed, or there is a reasonable possibility they may exceed a PEL. Regulated areas shall comply with the requirements of paragraphs (2), (3),(4) and (5) of this section.

(2) Demarcation. The regulated area shall be demarcated in any manner that minimizes the number of persons within the area and protects persons outside the area from exposure to airborne asbestos. Where critical barriers or negative pressure enclosures are used, they may demarcate the regulated area. Signs shall be provided and displayed pursuant to the requirements of paragraph (k)(7) of this section.

(3) Access. Access to regulated areas shall be limited to authorized persons and to persons authorized by the Act or regulations issued pursuant thereto.

(4) Respirators. All persons entering a regulated area where employees are required pursuant to paragraph (h)(1) of this section to wear respirators shall be supplied with a respirator selected in accordance with paragraph (h)(3) of this section.

(5) Prohibited activities. The employer shall ensure that employees do not eat, drink, smoke, chew tobacco or gum, or apply cosmetics in the regulated area.

(6) Competent Persons. The employer shall ensure that all asbestos work performed within regulated areas is supervised by a competent person, as defined in paragraph (b) of this section. The duties of the competent person are set out in paragraph (o) of this section.

(f) Exposure assessments and monitoring—(1) General monitoring criteria. (i) Each employer who has a workplace or work operation where exposure monitoring is required under this section shall perform monitoring to determine accurately the airborne concentrations of asbestos to which employees may be exposed.

(ii) Determinations of employee exposure shall be made from breathing zone air samples that are representative of the 8-hour TWA and 30-minute short-term exposures of each employee.

(iii) Representative 8-hour TWA employee exposure shall be determined on the basis of one or more samples representing full-shift exposure for employees in each work area. Representative 30-minute short-term employee exposures shall be determined on the basis of one or more samples representing 30 minute exposures associated with operations that are most likely to produce exposures above the excursion limit for employees in each work area.

(2) Initial Exposure Assessment. (i) Each employer who has a workplace or work operation covered by this standard shall ensure that a “competent person” conducts an exposure assessment immediately before or at the initiation of the operation to ascertain expected exposures during that operation or workplace. The assessment must be completed in time to comply with requirements which are triggered by exposure data or the lack of a “negative exposure assessment,” and to provide information necessary to assure that all control systems planned are appropriate for that operation and will work properly.

(ii) Basis of Initial Exposure Assessment: Unless a negative exposure assessment has been made pursuant to paragraph (f)(2)(iii) of this section, the initial exposure assessment shall, if feasible, be based on monitoring conducted pursuant to paragraph (f)(1)(iii) of this section. The assessment shall take into consideration both the monitoring results and all observations, information or calculations which indicate employee exposure to asbestos, including any previous monitoring conducted in the workplace, or of the operations of the employer which indicate the levels of airborne asbestos likely to be encountered on the job. For Class I asbestos work, until the employer conducts exposure monitoring and documents that employees on that job will not be exposed in excess of the PELs, or otherwise makes a negative exposure assessment pursuant to paragraph (f)(2)(iii) of this section, the employer shall presume that employees are exposed in excess of the TWA and excursion limit.

(iii) Negative Exposure Assessment: For any one specific asbestos job which will be performed by employees who have been trained in compliance with the standard, the employer may demonstrate that employee exposures will be below the PELs by data which conform to the following criteria;

(A) Objective data demonstrating that the product or material containing asbestos minerals or the activity involving such product or material cannot release airborne fibers in concentrations exceeding the TWA and excursion limit under those work conditions having the greatest potential for releasing asbestos; or

(B) Where the employer has monitored prior asbestos jobs for the PEL and the excursion limit within 12 months of the current or projected job, the monitoring and analysis were performed in compliance with the asbestos standard in effect; and the data were obtained during work operations conducted under workplace conditions “closely resembling” the processes, type of material, control methods, work practices, and environmental conditions used and prevailing in the employer's current operations, the operations were conducted by employees whose training and experience are no more extensive than that of employees performing the current job, and these data show that under the conditions prevailing and which will prevail in the current workplace there is a high degree of certainty that employee exposures will not exceed the TWA and excursion limit; or

(C) The results of initial exposure monitoring of the current job made from breathing zone air samples that are representative of the 8-hour TWA and 30-minute short-term exposures of each employee covering operations which are most likely during the performance of the entire asbestos job to result in exposures over the PELs.

(3) Periodic monitoring—(i) Class I and II operations. The employer shall conduct daily monitoring that is representative of the exposure of each employee who is assigned to work within a regulated area who is performing Class I or II work, unless the employer pursuant to (f)(2)(iii) of this section, has made a negative exposure assessment for the entire operation.

(ii) All operations under the standard other than Class I and II operations. The employer shall conduct periodic monitoring of all work where exposures are expected to exceed a PEL, at intervals sufficient to document the validity of the exposure prediction.

(iii) Exception: When all employees required to be monitored daily are equipped with supplied-air respirators operated in the pressure demand mode, or other positive pressure mode, the employer may dispense with the daily monitoring required by this paragraph. However, employees performing Class I work using a control method which is not listed in paragraph (g)(4)(i), (ii), or (iii) of this section or using a modification of a listed control method, shall continue to be monitored daily even if they are equipped with supplied-air respirators.

(4) Termination of monitoring. (i) If the periodic monitoring required by paragraph (f)(3) of this section reveals that employee exposures, as indicated by statistically reliable measurements, are below the permissible exposure limit and excursion limit the employer may discontinue monitoring for those employees whose exposures are represented by such monitoring.

(ii) Additional monitoring. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (f) (2) and (3), and (f)(4) of this section, the employer shall institute the exposure monitoring required under paragraph (f)(3) of this section whenever there has been a change in process, control equipment, personnel or work practices that may result in new or additional exposures above the permissible exposure limit and/or excursion limit or when the employer has any reason to suspect that a change may result in new or additional exposures above the permissible exposure limit and/or excursion limit. Such additional monitoring is required regardless of whether a “negative exposure assessment” was previously produced for a specific job.

(5) Employee notification of monitoring results. The employer must, as soon as possible but no later than 5 working days after the receipt of the results of any monitoring performed under this section, notify each affected employee of these results either individually in writing or by posting the results in an appropriate location that is accessible to employees.

(6) Observation of monitoring. (i) The employer shall provide affected employees and their designated representatives an opportunity to observe any monitoring of employee exposure to asbestos conducted in accordance with this section.

(ii) When observation of the monitoring of employee exposure to asbestos requires entry into an area where the use of protective clothing or equipment is required, the observer shall be provided with and be required to use such clothing and equipment and shall comply with all other applicable safety and health procedures.

(g) Methods of compliance. (1) Engineering controls and work practices for all operations covered by this section. The employer shall use the following engineering controls and work practices in all operations covered by this section, regardless of the levels of exposure:

(i) Vacuum cleaners equipped with HEPA filters to collect all debris and dust containing ACM and PACM, except as provided in paragraph (g)(8)(ii) of this section in the case of roofing material.

(ii) Wet methods, or wetting agents, to control employee exposures during asbestos handling, mixing, removal, cutting, application, and cleanup, except where employers demonstrate that the use of wet methods is infeasible due to for example, the creation of electrical hazards, equipment malfunction, and, in roofing, except as provided in paragraph (g)(8)(ii) of this section; and

(iii) Prompt clean-up and disposal of wastes and debris contaminated with asbestos in leak-tight containers except in roofing operations, where the procedures specified in paragraph (g)(8)(ii) of this section apply.

(2) In addition to the requirements of paragraph (g)(1) of this section, the employer shall use the following control methods to achieve compliance with the TWA permissible exposure limit and excursion limit prescribed by paragraph (c) of this section;

(i) Local exhaust ventilation equipped with HEPA filter dust collection systems;

(ii) Enclosure or isolation of processes producing asbestos dust;

(iii) Ventilation of the regulated area to move contaminated air away from the breathing zone of employees and toward a filtration or collection device equipped with a HEPA filter;

(iv) Use of other work practices and engineering controls that the Assistant Secretary can show to be feasible.

(v) Wherever the feasible engineering and work practice controls described above are not sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the permissible exposure limit and/or excursion limit prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section, the employer shall use them to reduce employee exposure to the lowest levels attainable by these controls and shall supplement them by the use of respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of paragraph (h) of this section.

(3) Prohibitions. The following work practices and engineering controls shall not be used for work related to asbestos or for work which disturbs ACM or PACM, regardless of measured levels of asbestos exposure or the results of initial exposure assessments:

(i) High-speed abrasive disc saws that are not equipped with point of cut ventilator or enclosures with HEPA filtered exhaust air.

(ii) Compressed air used to remove asbestos, or materials containing asbestos, unless the compressed air is used in conjunction with an enclosed ventilation system designed to capture the dust cloud created by the compressed air.

(iii) Dry sweeping, shoveling or other dry clean-up of dust and debris containing ACM and PACM.

(iv) Employee rotation as a means of reducing employee exposure to asbestos.

(4) Class I Requirements. In addition to the provisions of paragraphs (g) (1) and (2) of this section, the following engineering controls and work practices and procedures shall be used.

(i) All Class I work, including the installation and operation of the control system shall be supervised by a competent person as defined in paragraph (b) of this section;

(ii) For all Class I jobs involving the removal of more than 25 linear or 10 square feet of thermal system insulation or surfacing material; for all other Class I jobs, where the employer cannot produce a negative exposure assessment pursuant to paragraph (f)(2)(iii) of this section, or where employees are working in areas adjacent to the regulated area, while the Class I work is being performed, the employer shall use one of the following methods to ensure that airborne asbestos does not migrate from the regulated area:

(A) Critical barriers shall be placed over all the openings to the regulated area, except where activities are performed outdoors; or

(B) The employer shall use another barrier or isolation method which prevents the migration of airborne asbestos from the regulated area, as verified by perimeter area surveillance during each work shift at each boundary of the regulated area, showing no visible asbestos dust; and perimeter area monitoring showing that clearance levels contained in 40 CFR part 763, subpt. E, of the EPA Asbestos in Schools Rule are met, or that perimeter area levels, measured by Phase Contrast Microscopy (PCM) are no more than background levels representing the same area before the asbestos work began. The results of such monitoring shall be made known to the employer no later than 24 hours from the end of the work shift represented by such monitoring. Exception: For work completed outdoors where employees are not working in areas adjacent to the regulated areas, this paragraph (g)(4)(ii) is satisfied when the specific control methods in paragraph (g)(5) of this section are used.

(iii) For all Class I jobs, HVAC systems shall be isolated in the regulated area by sealing with a double layer of 6 mil plastic or the equivalent;

(iv) For all Class I jobs, impermeable dropcloths shall be placed on surfaces beneath all removal activity;

(v) For all Class I jobs, all objects within the regulated area shall be covered with impermeable dropcloths or plastic sheeting which is secured by duct tape or an equivalent.

(vi) For all Class I jobs where the employer cannot produce a negative exposure assessment, or where exposure monitoring shows that a PEL is exceeded, the employer shall ventilate the regulated area to move contaminated air away from the breathing zone of employees toward a HEPA filtration or collection device.

(5) Specific control methods for Class I work. In addition, Class I asbestos work shall be performed using one or more of the following control methods pursuant to the limitations stated below:

(i) Negative Pressure Enclosure (NPE) systems: NPE systems may be used where the configuration of the work area does not make the erection of the enclosure infeasible, with the following specifications and work practices.

(A) Specifications:

(1) The negative pressure enclosure (NPE) may be of any configuration,

(2) At least 4 air changes per hour shall be maintained in the NPE,

(3) A minimum of −0.02 column inches of water pressure differential, relative to outside pressure, shall be maintained within the NPE as evidenced by manometric measurements,

(4) The NPE shall be kept under negative pressure throughout the period of its use, and

(5) Air movement shall be directed away from employees performing asbestos work within the enclosure, and toward a HEPA filtration or a collection device.

(B) Work Practices:

(1) Before beginning work within the enclosure and at the beginning of each shift, the NPE shall be inspected for breaches and smoke-tested for leaks, and any leaks sealed.

(2) Electrical circuits in the enclosure shall be deactivated, unless equipped with ground-fault circuit interrupters.

(ii) Glove bag systems may be used to remove PACM and/or ACM from straight runs of piping and elbows and other connections with the following specifications and work practices:

(A) Specifications:

(1) Glovebags shall be made of 6 mil thick plastic and shall be seamless at the bottom.

(2) Glovebags used on elbows and other connections must be designed for that purpose and used without modifications.

(B) Work Practices:

(1) Each glovebag shall be installed so that it completely covers the circumference of pipe or other structure where the work is to be done.

(2) Glovebags shall be smoke-tested for leaks and any leaks sealed prior to use.

(3) Glovebags may be used only once and may not be moved.

(4) Glovebags shall not be used on surfaces whose temperature exceeds 150 °F.

(5) Prior to disposal, glovebags shall be collapsed by removing air within them using a HEPA vacuum.

(6) Before beginning the operation, loose and friable material adjacent to the glovebag/box operation shall be wrapped and sealed in two layers of six mil plastic or otherwise rendered intact,

(7) Where system uses attached waste bag, such bag shall be connected to collection bag using hose or other material which shall withstand pressure of ACM waste and water without losing its integrity:

(8) Sliding valve or other device shall separate waste bag from hose to ensure no exposure when waste bag is disconnected:

(9) At least two persons shall perform Class I glovebag removal operations.

(iii) Negative Pressure Glove Bag Systems. Negative pressure glove bag systems may be used to remove ACM or PACM from piping.

(A) Specifications: In addition to specifications for glove bag systems above, negative pressure glove bag systems shall attach HEPA vacuum systems or other devices to bag to prevent collapse during removal.

(B) Work Practices: (1) The employer shall comply with the work practices for glove bag systems in paragraph (g)(5)(ii)(B)(4) of this section.

(2) The HEPA vacuum cleaner or other device used to prevent collapse of bag during removal shall run continually during the operation until it is completed at which time the bag shall be collapsed prior to removal of the bag from the pipe.

(3) Where a separate waste bag is used along with a collection bag and discarded after one use, the collection bag may be reused if rinsed clean with amended water before reuse.

(iv) Negative Pressure Glove Box Systems: Negative pressure glove boxes may be used to remove ACM or PACM from pipe runs with the following specifications and work practices.

(A) Specifications:

(1) Glove boxes shall be constructed with rigid sides and made from metal or other material which can withstand the weight of the ACM and PACM and water used during removal:

(2) A negative pressure generator shall be used to create negative pressure in the system:

(3) An air filtration unit shall be attached to the box:

(4) The box shall be fitted with gloved apertures:

(5) An aperture at the base of the box shall serve as a bagging outlet for waste ACM and water:

(6) A back-up generator shall be present on site:

(7) Waste bags shall consist of 6 mil thick plastic double-bagged before they are filled or plastic thicker than 6 mil.

(B) Work practices:

(1) At least two persons shall perform the removal:

(2) The box shall be smoke-tested for leaks and any leaks sealed prior to each use.

(3) Loose or damaged ACM adjacent to the box shall be wrapped and sealed in two layers of 6 mil plastic prior to the job, or otherwise made intact prior to the job.

(4) A HEPA filtration system shall be used to maintain pressure barrier in box.

(v) Water Spray Process System. A water spray process system may be used for removal of ACM and PACM from cold line piping if, employees carrying out such process have completed a 40-hour separate training course in its use, in addition to training required for employees performing Class I work. The system shall meet the following specifications and shall be performed by employees using the following work practices.

(A) Specifications:

(1) Piping shall be surrounded on 3 sides by rigid framing,

(2) A 360 degree water spray, delivered through nozzles supplied by a high pressure separate water line, shall be formed around the piping.

(3) The spray shall collide to form a fine aerosol which provides a liquid barrier between workers and the ACM and PACM.

(B) Work Practices:

(1) The system shall be run for at least 10 minutes before removal begins.

(2) All removal shall take place within the water barrier.

(3) The system shall be operated by at least three persons, one of whom shall not perform removal, but shall check equipment, and ensure proper operation of the system.

(4) After removal, the ACM and PACM shall be bagged while still inside the water barrier.

(vi) A small walk-in enclosure which accommodates no more than two persons (mini-enclosure) may be used if the disturbance or removal can be completely contained by the enclosure with the following specifications and work practices.

(A) Specifications:

(1) The fabricated or job-made enclosure shall be constructed of 6 mil plastic or equivalent:

(2) The enclosure shall be placed under negative pressure by means of a HEPA filtered vacuum or similar ventilation unit:

(B) Work practices:

(1) Before use, the mini-enclosure shall be inspected for leaks and smoke-tested to detect breaches, and any breaches sealed.

(2) Before reuse, the interior shall be completely washed with amended water and HEPA-vacuumed.

(3) During use, air movement shall be directed away from the employee's breathing zone within the mini-enclosure.

(6) Alternative control methods for Class I work. Class I work may be performed using a control method which is not referenced in paragraph (g)(5) of this section, or which modifies a control method referenced in paragraph (g)(5)of this section, if the following provisions are complied with:

(i) The control method shall enclose, contain or isolate the processes or source of airborne asbestos dust, or otherwise capture or redirect such dust before it enters the breathing zone of employees.

(ii) A certified industrial hygienist or licensed professional engineer who is also qualified as a project designer as defined in paragraph (b) of this section, shall evaluate the work area, the projected work practices and the engineering controls and shall certify in writing that the planned control method is adequate to reduce direct and indirect employee exposure to below the PELs under worst-case conditions of use, and that the planned control method will prevent asbestos contamination outside the regulated area, as measured by clearance sampling which meets the requirements of EPA's Asbestos in Schools rule issued under AHERA, or perimeter monitoring which meets the criteria in paragraph (g)(4)(ii)(B) of this section.

(A) Where the TSI or surfacing material to be removed is 25 linear or 10 square feet or less , the evaluation required in paragraph (g)(6) of this section may be performed by a “competent person”, and may omit consideration of perimeter or clearance monitoring otherwise required.

(B) The evaluation of employee exposure required in paragraph (g)(6) of this section, shall include and be based on sampling and analytical data representing employee exposure during the use of such method under worst-case conditions and by employees whose training and experience are equivalent to employees who are to perform the current job.

(7) Work Practices and Engineering Controls for Class II work.

(i) All Class II work shall be supervised by a competent person as defined in paragraph (b) of this section.

(ii) For all indoor Class II jobs, where the employer has not produced a negative exposure assessment pursuant to paragraph (f)(2)(iii) of this section, or where during the job, changed conditions indicate there may be exposure above the PEL or where the employer does not remove the ACM in a substantially intact state, the employer shall use one of the following methods to ensure that airborne asbestos does not migrate from the regulated area;

(A) Critical barriers shall be placed over all openings to the regulated area; or,

(B) The employer shall use another barrier or isolation method which prevents the migration of airborne asbestos from the regulated area, as verified by perimeter area monitoring or clearance monitoring which meets the criteria set out in paragraph (g)(4)(ii)(B) of this section.

(C) Impermeable dropcloths shall be placed on surfaces beneath all removal activity;

(iii) [Reserved]

(iv) All Class II asbestos work shall be performed using the work practices and requirements set out above in paragraph (g)(1) (i) through (g)(1)(iii) of this section.

(8) Additional Controls for Class II work. Class II asbestos work shall also be performed by complying with the work practices and controls designated for each type of asbestos work to be performed, set out in this paragraph. Where more than one control method may be used for a type of asbestos work, the employer may choose one or a combination of designated control methods. Class II work also may be performed using a method allowed for Class I work, except that glove bags and glove boxes are allowed if they fully enclose the Class II material to be removed.

(i) For removing vinyl and asphalt flooring materials which contain ACM or for which in buildings constructed no later than 1980, the employer has not verified the absence of ACM pursuant to paragraph (g)(8)(i)(I) of this section. The employer shall ensure that employees comply with the following work practices and that employees are trained in these practices pursuant to paragraph (k)(9):

(A) Flooring or its backing shall not be sanded.

(B) Vacuums equipped with HEPA filter, disposable dust bag, and metal floor tool (no brush) shall be used to clean floors.

(C) Resilient sheeting shall be removed by cutting with wetting of the snip point and wetting during delamination. Rip-up of resilient sheet floor material is prohibited.

(D) All scraping of residual adhesive and/or backing shall be performed using wet methods.

(E) Dry sweeping is prohibited.

(F) Mechanical chipping is prohibited unless performed in a negative pressure enclosure which meets the requirements of paragraph (g)(5)(i) of this section.

(G) Tiles shall be removed intact, unless the employer demonstrates that intact removal is not possible.

(H) When tiles are heated and can be removed intact, wetting may be omitted.

(I) Resilient flooring material including associated mastic and backing shall be assumed to be asbestos-containing unless an industrial hygienist determines that it is asbestos-free using recognized analytical techniques.

(ii) For removing roofing material which contains ACM the employer shall ensure that the following work practices are followed:

(A) Roofing material shall be removed in an intact state to the extent feasible.

(B) Wet methods shall be used to remove roofing materials that are not intact, or that will be rendered not intact during removal, unless such wet methods are not feasible or will create safety hazards.

(C) Cutting machines shall be continuously misted during use, unless a competent person determines that misting substantially decreases worker safety.

(D) When removing built-up roofs with asbestos-containing roofing felts and an aggregate surface using a power roof cutter, all dust resulting from the cutting operation shall be collected by a HEPA dust collector, or shall be HEPA vacuumed by vacuuming along the cut line. When removing built-up roofs with asbestos-containing roofing felts and a smooth surface using a power roof cutter, the dust resulting from the cutting operation shall be collected either by a HEPA dust collector or HEPA vacuuming along the cut line, or by gently sweeping and then carefully and completely wiping up the still-wet dust and debris left along the cut line. The dust and debris shall be immediately bagged or placed in covered containers.

(E) Asbestos-containing material that has been removed from a roof shall not be dropped or thrown to the ground. Unless the material is carried or passed to the ground by hand, it shall be lowered to the ground via covered, dust-tight chute, crane or hoist:

(1) Any ACM that is not intact shall be lowered to the ground as soon as is practicable, but in any event no later than the end of the work shift. While the material remains on the roof it shall either be kept wet, placed in an impermeable waste bag, or wrapped in plastic sheeting.

(2) Intact ACM shall be lowered to the ground as soon as is practicable, but in any event no later than the end of the work shift.

(F) Upon being lowered, unwrapped material shall be transferred to a closed receptacle in such manner so as to preclude the dispersion of dust.

(G) Roof level heating and ventilation air intake sources shall be isolated or the ventilation system shall be shut down.

(H) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, removal or repair of sections of intact roofing less than 25 square feet in area does not require use of wet methods or HEPA vacuuming as long as manual methods which do not render the material non-intact are used to remove the material and no visible dust is created by the removal method used. In determining whether a job involves less than 25 square feet, the employer shall include all removal and repair work performed on the same roof on the same day.

(iii) When removing cementitious asbestos-containing siding and shingles or transite panels containing ACM on building exteriors (other than roofs, where paragraph (g)(8)(ii) of this section applies) the employer shall ensure that the following work practices are followed:

(A) Cutting, abrading or breaking siding, shingles, or transite panels, shall be prohibited unless the employer can demonstrate that methods less likely to result in asbestos fiber release cannot be used.

(B) Each panel or shingle shall be sprayed with amended water prior to removal.

(C) Unwrapped or unbagged panels or shingles shall be immediately lowered to the ground via covered dust-tight chute, crane or hoist, or placed in an impervious waste bag or wrapped in plastic sheeting and lowered to the ground no later than the end of the work shift.

(D) Nails shall be cut with flat, sharp instruments.

(iv) When removing gaskets containing ACM, the employer shall ensure that the following work practices are followed:

(A) If a gasket is visibly deteriorated and unlikely to be removed intact, removal shall be undertaken within a glovebag as described in paragraph (g)(5)(ii) of this section.

(B) [Reserved]

(C) The gasket shall be immediately placed in a disposal container.

(D) Any scraping to remove residue must be performed wet.

(v) When performing any other Class II removal of asbestos containing material for which specific controls have not been listed in paragraph (g)(8)(i) through (iv) of this section, the employer shall ensure that the following work practices are complied with.

(A) The material shall be thoroughly wetted with amended water prior to and during its removal.

(B) The material shall be removed in an intact state unless the employer demonstrates that intact removal is not possible.

(C) Cutting, abrading or breaking the material shall be prohibited unless the employer can demonstrate that methods less likely to result in asbestos fiber release are not feasible.

(D) Asbestos-containing material removed, shall be immediately bagged or wrapped, or kept wetted until transferred to a closed receptacle, no later than the end of the work shift.

(vi) Alternative Work Practices and Controls. Instead of the work practices and controls listed in paragraph (g)(8) (i) through (v) of this section, the employer may use different or modified engineering and work practice controls if the following provisions are complied with.

(A) The employer shall demonstrate by data representing employee exposure during the use of such method under conditions which closely resemble the conditions under which the method is to be used, that employee exposure will not exceed the PELs under any anticipated circumstances.

(B) A competent person shall evaluate the work area, the projected work practices and the engineering controls, and shall certify in writing, that the different or modified controls are adequate to reduce direct and indirect employee exposure to below the PELs under all expected conditions of use and that the method meets the requirements of this standard. The evaluation shall include and be based on data representing employee exposure during the use of such method under conditions which closely resemble the conditions under which the method is to be used for the current job, and by employees whose training and experience are equivalent to employees who are to perform the current job.

(9) Work Practices and Engineering Controls for Class III asbestos work. Class III asbestos work shall be conducted using engineering and work practice controls which minimize the exposure to employees performing the asbestos work and to bystander employees.

(i) The work shall be performed using wet methods.

(ii) To the extent feasible, the work shall be performed using local exhaust ventilation.

(iii) Where the disturbance involves drilling, cutting, abrading, sanding, chipping, breaking, or sawing of thermal system insulation or surfacing material, the employer shall use impermeable dropcloths, and shall isolate the operation using mini-enclosures or glove bag systems pursuant to paragraph (g)(5) of this section or another isolation method.

(iv) Where the employer does not produce a “negative exposure assessment” for a job, or where monitoring results show the PEL has been exceeded, the employer shall contain the area using impermeable dropcloths and plastic barriers or their equivalent, or shall isolate the operation using a control system listed in and in compliance with paragraph (g)(5) of this section.

(v) Employees performing Class III jobs, which involve the disturbance of thermal system insulation or surfacing material, or where the employer does not produce a “negative exposure assessment” or where monitoring results show a PEL has been exceeded, shall wear respirators which are selected, used and fitted pursuant to provisions of paragraph (h) of this section.

(10) Class IV asbestos work. Class IV asbestos jobs shall be conducted by employees trained pursuant to the asbestos awareness training program set out in paragraph (k)(9) of this section. In addition, all Class IV jobs shall be conducted in conformity with the requirements set out in paragraph (g)(1) of this section, mandating wet methods, HEPA vacuums, and prompt clean up of debris containing ACM or PACM.

(i) Employees cleaning up debris and waste in a regulated area where respirators are required shall wear respirators which are selected, used and fitted pursuant to provisions of paragraph (h) of this section.

(ii) Employers of employees who clean up waste and debris in, and employers in control of, areas where friable thermal system insulation or surfacing material is accessible, shall assume that such waste and debris contain asbestos.

(11) Alternative methods of compliance for installation, removal, repair, and maintenance of certain roofing and pipeline coating materials. Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, an employer who complies with all provisions of this paragraph (g)(11) when installing, removing, repairing, or maintaining intact pipeline asphaltic wrap, or roof flashings which contain asbestos fibers encapsulated or coated by bituminous or resinous compounds shall be deemed to be in compliance with this section. If an employer does not comply with all provisions of this paragraph (g)(11) or if during the course of the job the material does not remain intact, the provisions of paragraph (g)(8) of this section apply instead of this paragraph (g)(11).

(i) Before work begins and as needed during the job, a competent person who is capable of identifying asbestos hazards in the workplace and selecting the appropriate control strategy for asbestos exposure, and who has the authority to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate such hazards, shall conduct an inspection of the worksite and determine that the roofing material is intact and will likely remain intact.

(ii) All employees performing work covered by this paragraph (g)(11) shall be trained in a training program that meets the requirements of paragraph (k)(9)(viii) of this section.

(iii) The material shall not be sanded, abraded, or ground. Manual methods which do not render the material non-intact shall be used.

(iv) Material that has been removed from a roof shall not be dropped or thrown to the ground. Unless the material is carried or passed to the ground by hand, it shall be lowered to the ground via covered, dust-tight chute, crane or hoist. All such material shall be removed from the roof as soon as is practicable, but in any event no later than the end of the work shift.

(v) Where roofing products which have been labeled as containing asbestos pursuant to paragraph (k)(8) of this section are installed on non-residential roofs during operations covered by this paragraph (g)(11), the employer shall notify the building owner of the presence and location of such materials no later than the end of the job.

(vi) All removal or disturbance of pipeline asphaltic wrap shall be performed using wet methods.

(h) Respiratory protection—(1) General. For employees who use respirators required by this section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate respirator that complies with the requirements of this paragraph. Respirators must be used during:

(i) Class I asbestos work.

(ii) Class II asbestos work when ACM is not removed in a substantially intact state.

(iii) Class II and III asbestos work that is not performed using wet methods, except for removal of ACM from sloped roofs when a negative-exposure assessment has been conducted and ACM is removed in an intact state.

(iv) Class II and III asbestos work for which a negative-exposure assessment has not been conducted.

(v) Class III asbestos work when TSI or surfacing ACM or PACM is being disturbed.

(vi) Class IV asbestos work performed within regulated areas where employees who are performing other work are required to use respirators.

(vii) Work operations covered by this section for which employees are exposed above the TWA or excursion limit.

(viii) Emergencies.

(2) Respirator program. (i) The employer must implement a respiratory protection program in accordance with §1910.134 (b) through (d) (except (d)(1)(iii)), and (f) through (m), which covers each employee required by this section to use a respirator.

(ii) No employee shall be assigned to asbestos work that requires respirator use if, based on their most recent medical examination, the examining physician determines that the employee will be unable to function normally while using a respirator, or that the safety or health of the employee or other employees will be impaired by the employee's respirator use. Such employees must be assigned to another job or given the opportunity to transfer to a different position that they can perform. If such a transfer position is available, it must be with the same employer, in the same geographical area, and with the same seniority, status, rate of pay, and other job benefits the employee had just prior to such transfer.

(3) Respirator selection. (i) Employers must:

(A) Select, and provide to employees, the appropriate respirators specified in paragraph (d)(3)(i)(A) of 29 CFR 1910.134; however, employers must not select or use filtering facepiece respirators for use against asbestos fibers.

(B) Provide HEPA filters for powered and non-powered air-purifying respirators.

(ii) Employers must provide an employee with tight-fitting, powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) instead of a negative pressure respirator selected according to paragraph (h)(3)(i)(A) of this standard when the employee chooses to use a PAPR and it provides adequate protection to the employee.

(iii) Employers must provide employees with an air-purifying half mask respirator, other than a filtering facepiece respirator, whenever the employees perform:

(A) Class II or Class III asbestos work for which no negative exposure assessment is available.

(B) Class III asbestos work involving disturbance of TSI or surfacing ACM or PACM.

(iv) Employers must provide employees with:

(A) A tight-fitting powered air-purifying respirator or a full facepiece, supplied-air respirator operated in the pressure-demand mode and equipped with either HEPA egress cartridges or an auxiliary positive-pressure, self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) whenever the employees are in a regulated area performing Class I asbestos work for which a negative exposure assessment is not available and the exposure assessment indicates that the exposure level will be at or below 1 f/cc as an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA).

(B) A full facepiece supplied-air respirator operated in the pressure-demand mode and equipped with an auxiliary positive-pressure SCBA whenever the employees are in a regulated area performing Class I asbestos work for which a negative exposure assessment is not available and the exposure assessment indicates that the exposure level will be above 1 f/cc as an 8-hour TWA.

(i) Protective clothing—(1) General. The employer shall provide or require the use of protective clothing, such as coveralls or similar whole-body clothing, head coverings, gloves, and foot coverings for any employee exposed to airborne concentrations of asbestos that exceed the TWA and/or excursion limit prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section, or for which a required negative exposure assessment is not produced, or for any employee performing Class I operations which involve the removal of over 25 linear or 10 square feet of TSI or surfacing ACM and PACM.

(2) Laundering. (i) The employer shall ensure that laundering of contaminated clothing is done so as to prevent the release of airborne asbestos in excess of the TWA or excursion limit prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section.

(ii) Any employer who gives contaminated clothing to another person for laundering shall inform such person of the requirement in paragraph (i)(2)(i) of this section to effectively prevent the release of airborne asbestos in excess of the TWA and excursion limit prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section.

(3) Contaminated clothing. Contaminated clothing shall be transported in sealed impermeable bags, or other closed, impermeable containers, and be labeled in accordance with paragraph (k) of this section.

(4) Inspection of protective clothing. (i) The competent person shall examine worksuits worn by employees at least once per workshift for rips or tears that may occur during performance of work.

(ii) When rips or tears are detected while an employee is working, rips and tears shall be immediately mended, or the worksuit shall be immediately replaced.

(j) Hygiene facilities and practices for employees. (1) Requirements for employees performing Class I asbestos jobs involving over 25 linear or 10 square feet of TSI or surfacing ACM and PACM.

(i) Decontamination areas. The employer shall establish a decontamination area that is adjacent and connected to the regulated area for the decontamination of such employees. The decontamination area shall consist of an equipment room, shower area, and clean room in series. The employer shall ensure that employees enter and exit the regulated area through the decontamination area.

(A) Equipment room. The equipment room shall be supplied with impermeable, labeled bags and containers for the containment and disposal of contaminated protective equipment.

(B) Shower area. Shower facilities shall be provided which comply with 29 CFR 1910.141(d)(3), unless the employer can demonstrate that they are not feasible. The showers shall be adjacent both to the equipment room and the clean room, unless the employer can demonstrate that this location is not feasible. Where the employer can demonstrate that it is not feasible to locate the shower between the equipment room and the clean room, or where the work is performed outdoors, the employers shall ensure that employees:

(1) Remove asbestos contamination from their worksuits in the equipment room using a HEPA vacuum before proceeding to a shower that is not adjacent to the work area; or

(2) Remove their contaminated worksuits in the equipment room, then don clean worksuits, and proceed to a shower that is not adjacent to the work area.

(C) Clean change room. The clean room shall be equipped with a locker or appropriate storage container for each employee's use. When the employer can demonstrate that it is not feasible to provide a clean change area adjacent to the work area or where the work is performed outdoors, the employer may permit employees engaged in Class I asbestos jobs to clean their protective clothing with a portable HEPA-equipped vacuum before such employees leave the regulated area. Following showering, such employees however must then change into street clothing in clean change areas provided by the employer which otherwise meet the requirements of this section.

(ii) Decontamination area entry procedures. The employer shall ensure that employees:

(A) Enter the decontamination area through the clean room;

(B) Remove and deposit street clothing within a locker provided for their use; and

(C) Put on protective clothing and respiratory protection before leaving the clean room.

(D) Before entering the regulated area, the employer shall ensure that employees pass through the equipment room.

(iii) Decontamination area exit procedures. The employer shall ensure that:

(A) Before leaving the regulated area, employees shall remove all gross contamination and debris from their protective clothing.

(B) Employees shall remove their protective clothing in the equipment room and deposit the clothing in labeled impermeable bags or containers.

(C) Employees shall not remove their respirators in the equipment room.

(D) Employees shall shower prior to entering the clean room.

(E) After showering, employees shall enter the clean room before changing into street clothes.

(iv) Lunch Areas. Whenever food or beverages are consumed at the worksite where employees are performing Class I asbestos work, the employer shall provide lunch areas in which the airborne concentrations of asbestos are below the permissible exposure limit and/or excursion limit.

(2) Requirements for Class I work involving less than 25 linear or 10 square feet of TSI or surfacing ACM and PACM, and for Class II and Class III asbestos work operations where exposures exceed a PEL or where there is no negative exposure assessment produced before the operation.

(i) The employer shall establish an equipment room or area that is adjacent to the regulated area for the decontamination of employees and their equipment which is contaminated with asbestos which shall consist of an area covered by an impermeable drop cloth on the floor or horizontal working surface.

(ii) The area must be of sufficient size as to accommodate cleaning of equipment and removing personal protective equipment without spreading contamination beyond the area (as determined by visible accumulations).

(iii) Work clothing must be cleaned with a HEPA vacuum before it is removed.

(iv) All equipment and surfaces of containers filled with ACM must be cleaned prior to removing them from the equipment room or area.

(v) The employer shall ensure that employees enter and exit the regulated area through the equipment room or area.

(3) Requirements for Class IV work. Employers shall ensure that employees performing Class IV work within a regulated area comply with the hygiene practice required of employees performing work which has a higher classification within that regulated area. Otherwise employers of employees cleaning up debris and material which is TSI or surfacing ACM or identified as PACM shall provide decontamination facilities for such employees which are required by paragraph (j)(2) of this section.

(4) Smoking in work areas. The employer shall ensure that employees do not smoke in work areas where they are occupationally exposed to asbestos because of activities in that work area.

(k) Communication of hazards—(1) Hazard communication. (i) This section applies to the communication of information concerning asbestos hazards in construction activities to facilitate compliance with this standard. Most asbestos-related construction activities involve previously installed building materials. Building owners often are the only and/or best sources of information concerning them. Therefore, they, along with employers of potentially exposed employees, are assigned specific information conveying and retention duties under this section. Installed Asbestos Containing Building Material. Employers and building owners shall identify TSI and sprayed or troweled on surfacing materials in buildings as asbestos-containing, unless they determine in compliance with paragraph (k)(5) of this section that the material is not asbestos-containing. Asphalt and vinyl flooring material installed no later than 1980 must also be considered as asbestos containing unless the employer, pursuant to paragraph (g)(8)(i)(I) of this section determines that it is not asbestos-containing. If the employer/building owner has actual knowledge, or should have known through the exercise of due diligence, that other materials are asbestos-containing, they too must be treated as such. When communicating information to employees pursuant to this standard, owners and employers shall identify “PACM” as ACM. Additional requirements relating to communication of asbestos work on multi-employer worksites are set out in paragraph (d) of this section.

(ii) The employer shall include asbestos in the program established to comply with the Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) (§1910.1200). The employer shall ensure that each employee has access to labels on containers of asbestos and safety data sheets, and is trained in accordance with the provisions of HCS and paragraphs (k)(9) and (10) of this section. The employer shall provide information on at least the following hazards: Cancer and lung effects.

(2) Duties of building and facility owners. (i) Before work subject to this standard is begun, building and facility owners shall determine the presence, location, and quantity of ACM and/or PACM at the work site pursuant to paragraph (k)(1)(i) of this section.

(ii) Building and/or facility owners shall notify the following persons of the presence, location and quantity of ACM or PACM, at the work sites in their buildings and facilities. Notification either shall be in writing, or shall consist of a personal communication between the owner and the person to whom notification must be given or their authorized representatives:

(A) Prospective employers applying or bidding for work whose employees reasonably can be expected to work in or adjacent to areas containing such material;

(B) Employees of the owner who will work in or adjacent to areas containing such material:

(C) On multi-employer worksites, all employers of employees who will be performing work within or adjacent to areas containing such materials;

(D) Tenants who will occupy areas containing such material.

(3) Duties of employers whose employees perform work subject to this standard in or adjacent to areas containing ACM and PACM. Building/facility owners whose employees perform such work shall comply with these provisions to the extent applicable.

(i) Before work in areas containing ACM and PACM is begun; employers shall identify the presence, location, and quantity of ACM, and/or PACM therein pursuant to paragraph (k)(1)(i) of this section.

(ii) Before work under this standard is performed employers of employees who will perform such work shall inform the following persons of the location and quantity of ACM and/or PACM present in the area and the precautions to be taken to insure that airborne asbestos is confined to the area.

(A) Owners of the building/facility;

(B) Employees who will perform such work and employers of employees who work and/or will be working in adjacent areas.

(iii) Within 10 days of the completion of such work, the employer whose employees have performed work subject to this standard, shall inform the building/facility owner and employers of employees who will be working in the area of the current location and quantity of PACM and/or ACM remaining in the area and final monitoring results, if any.

(4) In addition to the above requirements, all employers who discover ACM and/or PACM on a worksite shall convey information concerning the presence, location and quantity of such newly discovered ACM and/or PACM to the owner and to other employers of employees working at the work site, within 24 hours of the discovery.

(5) Criteria to rebut the designation of installed material as PACM. (i) At any time, an employer and/or building owner may demonstrate, for purposes of this standard, that PACM does not contain asbestos. Building owners and/or employers are not required to communicate information about the presence of building material for which such a demonstration pursuant to the requirements of paragraph (k)(5)(ii) of this section has been made. However, in all such cases, the information, data and analysis supporting the determination that PACM does not contain asbestos, shall be retained pursuant to paragraph (n) of this section.

(ii) An employer or owner may demonstrate that PACM does not contain more than 1% asbestos by the following: (A) Having a completed inspection conducted pursuant to the requirements of AHERA (40 CFR part 763, subpart E) which demonstrates that the material is not ACM; or

(B) Performing tests of the material containing PACM which demonstrate that no ACM is present in the material. Such tests shall include analysis of bulk samples collected in the manner described in 40 CFR 763.86. The tests, evaluation and sample collection shall be conducted by an accredited inspector or by a CIH. Analysis of samples shall be performed by persons or laboratories with proficiency demonstrated by current successful participation in a nationally recognized testing program such as the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) or the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) or the Round Robin for bulk samples administered by the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) or an equivalent nationally-recognized round robin testing program.

(iii) The employer and/or building owner may demonstrate that flooring material including associated mastic and backing does not contain asbestos, by a determination of an industrial hygienist based upon recognized analytical techniques showing that the material is not ACM.

(6) At the entrance to mechanical rooms/areas in which employees reasonably can be expected to enter and which contain ACM and/or PACM, the building owner shall post signs which identify the material which is present, its location, and appropriate work practices which, if followed, will ensure that ACM and/or PACM will not be disturbed. The employer shall ensure, to the extent feasible, that employees who come in contact with these signs can comprehend them. Means to ensure employee comprehension may include the use of foreign languages, pictographs, graphics, and awareness training.

(7) Signs. (i) Warning signs that demarcate the regulated area shall be provided and displayed at each location where a regulated area is required to be established by paragraph (e) of this section. Signs shall be posted at such a distance from such a location that an employee may read the signs and take necessary protective steps before entering the area marked by the signs.

(ii) (A) The warning signs required by paragraph (k)(7) of this section shall bear the following information.

DANGER

ASBESTOS

MAY CAUSE CANCER

CAUSES DAMAGE TO LUNGS

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(B) In addition, where the use of respirators and protective clothing is required in the regulated area under this section, the warning signs shall include the following:

WEAR RESPIRATORY PROTECTION AND PROTECTIVE CLOTHING IN THIS AREA

(C) Prior to June 1, 2016, employers may use the following legend in lieu of that specified in paragraph (k)(7)(ii)(A) of this section:

DANGER

ASBESTOS

CANCER AND LUNG DISEASE HAZARD

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(D) Prior to June 1, 2016, employers may use the following legend in lieu of that specified in paragraph (k)(7)(ii)(B) of this section:

RESPIRATORS AND PROTECTIVE CLOTHING ARE REQUIRED IN THIS AREA

(iii) The employer shall ensure that employees working in and contiguous to regulated areas comprehend the warning signs required to be posted by paragraph (k)(7)(i) of this section. Means to ensure employee comprehension may include the use of foreign languages, pictographs and graphics.

(8) Labels. (i) Labels shall be affixed to all products containing asbestos and to all containers containing such products, including waste containers. Where feasible, installed asbestos products shall contain a visible label.

(ii) The employer shall ensure that such labels comply with paragraphs (k) of this section.

(iii) The employer shall ensure that labels of bags or containers of protective clothing and equipment, scrap, waste, and debris containing asbestos fibers bear the following information:

DANGER

CONTAINS ASBESTOS FIBERS

MAY CAUSE CANCER

CAUSES DAMAGE TO LUNGS

DO NOT BREATHE DUST

AVOID CREATING DUST

(iv) (A) Prior to June 1, 2015, employers may include the following information on raw materials, mixtures or labels of bags or containers of protective clothing and equipment, scrap, waste, and debris containing asbestos fibers in lieu of the labeling requirements in paragraphs (k)(8)(ii) and (k)(8)(iii) of this section:

DANGER

CONTAINS ASBESTOS FIBERS

AVOID CREATING DUST

CANCER AND LUNG DISEASE HAZARD

(B) Labels shall also contain a warning statement against breathing asbestos fibers.

(v) [Reserved]

(vi) The provisions for labels required by paragraphs (k)(8)(i) through (k)(8)(iii) of this section do not apply where:

(A) Asbestos fibers have been modified by a bonding agent, coating, binder, or other material, provided that the manufacturer can demonstrate that, during any reasonably foreseeable use, handling, storage, disposal, processing, or transportation, no airborne concentrations of asbestos fibers in excess of the permissible exposure limit and/or excursion limit will be released, or

(B) Asbestos is present in a product in concentrations less than 1.0 percent.

(vii) When a building owner or employer identifies previously installed PACM and/or ACM, labels or signs shall be affixed or posted so that employees will be notified of what materials contain PACM and/or ACM. The employer shall attach such labels in areas where they will clearly be noticed by employees who are likely to be exposed, such as at the entrance to mechanical room/areas. Signs required by paragraph (k)(6) of this section may be posted in lieu of labels so long as they contain information required for labelling. The employer shall ensure, to the extent feasible, that employees who come in contact with these signs or labels can comprehend them. Means to ensure employee comprehension may include the use of foreign languages, pictographs, graphics, and awareness training.

(9) Employee Information and Training. (i) The employer shall train each employee who is likely to be exposed in excess of a PEL, and each employee who performs Class I through IV asbestos operations, in accordance with the requirements of this section. Such training shall be conducted at no cost to the employee. The employer shall institute a training program and ensure employee participation in the program.

(ii) Training shall be provided prior to or at the time of initial assignment and at least annually thereafter.

(iii) Training for Class I operations and for Class II operations that require the use of critical barriers (or equivalent isolation methods) and/or negative pressure enclosures under this section shall be the equivalent in curriculum, training method and length to the EPA Model Accreditation Plan (MAP) asbestos abatement workers training (40 CFR part 763, subpart E, appendix C).

(iv) Training for other Class II work.

(A) For work with asbestos containing roofing materials, flooring materials, siding materials, ceiling tiles, or transite panels, training shall include at a minimum all the elements included in paragraph (k)(9)(viii) of this section and in addition, the specific work practices and engineering controls set forth in paragraph (g) of this section which specifically relate to that category. Such course shall include “hands-on” training and shall take at least 8 hours.

(B) An employee who works with more than one of the categories of material specified in paragraph (k)(9)(iv)(A) of this section shall receive training in the work practices applicable to each category of material that the employee removes and each removal method that the employee uses.

(C) For Class II operations not involving the categories of material specified in paragraph (k)(9)(iv)(A) of this section, training shall be provided which shall include at a minimum all the elements included in paragraph (k)(9)(viii) of this section and in addition, the specific work practices and engineering controls set forth in paragraph (g) of this section which specifically relate to the category of material being removed, and shall include “hands-on” training in the work practices applicable to each category of material that the employee removes and each removal method that the employee uses.

(v) Training for Class III employees shall be consistent with EPA requirements for training of local education agency maintenance and custodial staff as set forth at 40 CFR 763.92(a)(2). Such a course shall also include “hands-on” training and shall take at least 16 hours. Exception: For Class III operations for which the competent person determines that the EPA curriculum does not adequately cover the training needed to perform that activity, training shall include as a minimum all the elements included in paragraph (k)(9)(viii) of this section and in addition, the specific work practices and engineering controls set forth in paragraph (g) of this section which specifically relate to that activity, and shall include “hands-on” training in the work practices applicable to each category of material that the employee disturbs.

(vi) Training for employees performing Class IV operations shall be consistent with EPA requirements for training of local education agency maintenance and custodial staff as set forth at 40 CFR 763.92(a)(1). Such a course shall include available information concerning the locations of thermal system insulation and surfacing ACM/PACM, and asbestos-containing flooring material, or flooring material where the absence of asbestos has not yet been certified; and instruction in recognition of damage, deterioration, and delamination of asbestos containing building materials. Such course shall take at least 2 hours.

(vii) Training for employees who are likely to be exposed in excess of the PEL and who are not otherwise required to be trained under paragraph (k)(9)(iii) through (vi) of this section, shall meet the requirements of paragraph (k)(9)(viii) of this section.

(viii) The training program shall be conducted in a manner that the employee is able to understand. In addition to the content required by provisions in paragraphs (k)(9)(iii) through (vi) of this section, the employer shall ensure that each such employee is informed of the following:

(A) Methods of recognizing asbestos, including the requirement in paragraph (k)(1) of this section to presume that certain building materials contain asbestos;

(B) The health effects associated with asbestos exposure;

(C) The relationship between smoking and asbestos in producing lung cancer;

(D) The nature of operations that could result in exposure to asbestos, the importance of necessary protective controls to minimize exposure including, as applicable, engineering controls, work practices, respirators, housekeeping procedures, hygiene facilities, protective clothing, decontamination procedures, emergency procedures, and waste disposal procedures, and any necessary instruction in the use of these controls and procedures; where Class III and IV work will be or is performed, the contents of EPA 20T-2003, “Managing Asbestos In-Place” July 1990 or its equivalent in content;

(E) The purpose, proper use, fitting instructions, and limitations of respirators as required by 29 CFR 1910.134;

(F) The appropriate work practices for performing the asbestos job;

(G) Medical surveillance program requirements;

(H) The content of this standard including appendices;

(I) The names, addresses and phone numbers of public health organizations which provide information, materials and/or conduct programs concerning smoking cessation. The employer may distribute the list of such organizations contained in appendix J to this section, to comply with this requirement; and

(J) The requirements for posting signs and affixing labels and the meaning of the required legends for such signs and labels.

(10) Access to training materials. (i) The employer shall make readily available to affected employees without cost, written materials relating to the employee training program, including a copy of this regulation.

(ii) The employer shall provide to the Assistant Secretary and the Director, upon request, all information and training materials relating to the employee information and training program.

(iii) The employer shall inform all employees concerning the availability of self-help smoking cessation program material. Upon employee request, the employer shall distribute such material, consisting of NIH Publication No, 89-1647, or equivalent self-help material, which is approved or published by a public health organization listed in appendix J to this section.

(l) Housekeeping—(1) Vacuuming. Where vacuuming methods are selected, HEPA filtered vacuuming equipment must be used. The equipment shall be used and emptied in a manner that minimizes the reentry of asbestos into the workplace.

(2) Waste disposal. Asbestos waste, scrap, debris, bags, containers, equipment, and contaminated clothing consigned for disposal shall be collected and disposed of in sealed, labeled, impermeable bags or other closed, labeled, impermeable containers except in roofing operations, where the procedures specified in paragraph (g)(8)(ii) of this section apply.

(3) Care of asbestos-containing flooring material. (i) All vinyl and asphalt flooring material shall be maintained in accordance with this paragraph unless the building/facility owner demonstrates, pursuant to paragraph (g)(8)(i)(I) of this section that the flooring does not contain asbestos.

(ii) Sanding of flooring material is prohibited.

(iii) Stripping of finishes shall be conducted using low abrasion pads at speeds lower than 300 rpm and wet methods.

(iv) Burnishing or dry buffing may be performed only on flooring which has sufficient finish so that the pad cannot contact the flooring material.

(4) Waste and debris and accompanying dust in an area containing accessible thermal system insulation or surfacing ACM/PACM or visibly deteriorated ACM:

(i) Shall not be dusted or swept dry, or vacuumed without using a HEPA filter;

(ii) Shall be promptly cleaned up and disposed of in leak tight containers.

(m) Medical surveillance— (1) General—(i) Employees covered. (A) The employer shall institute a medical surveillance program for all employees who for a combined total of 30 or more days per year are engaged in Class I, II and III work or are exposed at or above a permissible exposure limit. For purposes of this paragraph, any day in which a worker engages in Class II or Class III operations or a combination thereof on intact material for one hour or less (taking into account the entire time spent on the removal operation, including cleanup) and, while doing so, adheres fully to the work practices specified in this standard, shall not be counted.

(B) For employees otherwise required by this standard to wear a negative pressure respirator, employers shall ensure employees are physically able to perform the work and use the equipment. This determination shall be made under the supervision of a physician.

(ii) Examination. (A) The employer shall ensure that all medical examinations and procedures are performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician, and are provided at no cost to the employee and at a reasonable time and place.

(B) Persons other than such licensed physicians who administer the pulmonary function testing required by this section shall complete a training course in spirometry sponsored by an appropriate academic or professional institution.

(2) Medical examinations and consultations—(i) Frequency. The employer shall make available medical examinations and consultations to each employee covered under paragraph (m)(1)(i) of this section on the following schedules:

(A) Prior to assignment of the employee to an area where negative-pressure respirators are worn;

(B) When the employee is assigned to an area where exposure to asbestos may be at or above the permissible exposure limit for 30 or more days per year, or engage in Class I, II, or III work for a combined total of 30 or more days per year, a medical examination must be given within 10 working days following the thirtieth day of exposure;

(C) And at least annually thereafter.

(D) If the examining physician determines that any of the examinations should be provided more frequently than specified, the employer shall provide such examinations to affected employees at the frequencies specified by the physician.

(E) Exception: No medical examination is required of any employee if adequate records show that the employee has been examined in accordance with this paragraph within the past 1-year period.

(ii) Content. Medical examinations made available pursuant to paragraphs (m)(2)(i)(A) through (m)(2)(i)(C) of this section shall include:

(A) A medical and work history with special emphasis directed to the pulmonary, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal systems.

(B) On initial examination, the standardized questionnaire contained in part 1 of appendix D to this section, and, on annual examination, the abbreviated standardized questionnaire contained in part 2 of appendix D to this section.

(C) A physical examination directed to the pulmonary and gastrointestinal systems, including a 14- by 17-inch or other reasonably-sized standard film or digital posterior-anterior chest X-ray to be administered at the discretion of the physician, and pulmonary function tests of forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1). Classification of all chest X-rays shall be conducted in accordance with appendix E to this section.

(D) Any other examinations or tests deemed necessary by the examining physician.

(3) Information provided to the physician. The employer shall provide the following information to the examining physician:

(i) A copy of this standard and Appendices D, E, and I to this section;

(ii) A description of the affected employee's duties as they relate to the employee's exposure;

(iii) The employee's representative exposure level or anticipated exposure level;

(iv) A description of any personal protective and respiratory equipment used or to be used; and

(v) Information from previous medical examinations of the affected employee that is not otherwise available to the examining physician.

(4) Physician's written opinion. (i) The employer shall obtain a written opinion from the examining physician. This written opinion shall contain the results of the medical examination and shall include:

(A) The physician's opinion as to whether the employee has any detected medical conditions that would place the employee at an increased risk of material health impairment from exposure to asbestos;

(B) Any recommended limitations on the employee or on the use of personal protective equipment such as respirators; and

(C) A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of the results of the medical examination and of any medical conditions that may result from asbestos exposure.

(D) A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of the increased risk of lung cancer attributable to the combined effect of smoking and asbestos exposure.

(ii) The employer shall instruct the physician not to reveal in the written opinion given to the employer specific findings or diagnoses unrelated to occupational exposure to asbestos.

(iii) The employer shall provide a copy of the physician's written opinion to the affected employee within 30 days from its receipt.

(n) Recordkeeping—(1) Objective data relied on pursuant to paragraph (f) to this section. (i) Where the employer has relied on objective data that demonstrates that products made from or containing asbestos or the activity involving such products or material are not capable of releasing fibers of asbestos in concentrations at or above the permissible exposure limit and/or excursion limit under the expected conditions of processing, use, or handling to satisfy the requirements of paragraph (f), the employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record of objective data reasonably relied upon in support of the exemption.

(ii) The record shall include at least the following information:

(A) The product qualifying for exemption;

(B) The source of the objective data;

(C) The testing protocol, results of testing, and/or analysis of the material for the release of asbestos;

(D) A description of the operation exempted and how the data support the exemption; and

(E) Other data relevant to the operations, materials, processing, or employee exposures covered by the exemption.

(iii) The employer shall maintain this record for the duration of the employer's reliance upon such objective data.

(2) Exposure measurements. (i) The employer shall keep an accurate record of all measurements taken to monitor employee exposure to asbestos as prescribed in paragraph (f) of this section. NOTE: The employer may utilize the services of competent organizations such as industry trade associations and employee associations to maintain the records required by this section.

(ii) This record shall include at least the following information:

(A) The date of measurement;

(B) The operation involving exposure to asbestos that is being monitored;

(C) Sampling and analytical methods used and evidence of their accuracy;

(D) Number, duration, and results of samples taken;

(E) Type of protective devices worn, if any; and

(F) Name and exposure of the employees whose exposures are represented.

(iii) The employer shall maintain this record for at least thirty (30) years, in accordance with §1910.1020 of this chapter

(3) Medical surveillance. (i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee subject to medical surveillance by paragraph (m) of this section, in accordance with §1910.1020 of this chapter.

(ii) The record shall include at least the following information:

(A) The name of the employee;

(B) A copy of the employee's medical examination results, including the medical history, questionnaire responses, results of any tests, and physician's recommendations.

(C) Physician's written opinions;

(D) Any employee medical complaints related to exposure to asbestos; and

(E) A copy of the information provided to the physician as required by paragraph (m) of this section.

(iii) The employer shall ensure that this record is maintained for the duration of employment plus thirty (30) years, in accordance with §1910.1020 of this chapter.

(4) Training records. The employer shall maintain all employee training records for one (1) year beyond the last date of employment by that employer.

(5) Data to Rebut PACM. Where the building owner and employer have relied on data to demonstrate that PACM is not asbestos-containing, such data shall be maintained for as long as they are relied upon to rebut the presumption.

(6) Records of required notifications. Where the building owner has communicated and received information concerning the identification, location and quantity of ACM and PACM, written records of such notifications and their content shall be maintained by the building owner for the duration of ownership and shall be transferred to successive owners of such buildings/facilities.

(7) Availability. (i) The employer, upon written request, shall make all records required to be maintained by this section available to the Assistant Secretary and the Director for examination and copying.

(ii) The employer must comply with the requirements concerning availability of records set forth in 29 CFR 1910.1020.

(8) Transfer of records. The employer must comply with the requirements concerning transfer of records set forth in 29 CFR 1910.1020(h).

(o) Competent person—(1) General. On all construction worksites covered by this standard, the employer shall designate a competent person, having the qualifications and authorities for ensuring worker safety and health required by subpart C, General Safety and Health Provisions for Construction (29 CFR 1926.20 through 1926.32).

(2) Required inspections by the competent person. Section 1926.20(b)(2) which requires health and safety prevention programs to provide for frequent and regular inspections of the job sites, materials, and equipment to be made by competent persons, is incorporated.

(3) Additional inspections. In addition, the competent person shall make frequent and regular inspections of the job sites, in order to perform the duties set out below in paragraph (o)(3)(i) of this section. For Class I jobs, on-site inspections shall be made at least once during each work shift, and at any time at employee request. For Class II, III, and IV jobs, on-site inspections shall be made at intervals sufficient to assess whether conditions have changed, and at any reasonable time at employee request.

(i) On all worksites where employees are engaged in Class I or II asbestos work, the competent person designated in accordance with paragraph (e)(6) of this section shall perform or supervise the following duties, as applicable:

(A) Set up the regulated area, enclosure, or other containment;

(B) Ensure (by on-site inspection) the integrity of the enclosure or containment;

(C) Set up procedures to control entry to and exit from the enclosure and/or area;

(D) Supervise all employee exposure monitoring required by this section and ensure that it is conducted as required by paragraph (f) of this section;

(E) Ensure that employees working within the enclosure and/or using glove bags wear respirators and protective clothing as required by paragraphs (h) and (i) of this section;

(F) Ensure through on-site supervision, that employees set up, use, and remove engineering controls, use work practices and personal protective equipment in compliance with all requirements;

(G) Ensure that employees use the hygiene facilities and observe the decontamination procedures specified in paragraph (j) of this section;

(H) Ensure that through on-site inspection, engineering controls are functioning properly and employees are using proper work practices; and,

(I) Ensure that notification requirement in paragraph (k) of this section are met.

(ii) [Reserved]

(4) Training for the competent person. (i) For Class I and II asbestos work the competent person shall be trained in all aspects of asbestos removal and handling, including: abatement, installation, removal and handling; the contents of this standard; the identification of asbestos; removal procedures, where appropriate; and other practices for reducing the hazard. Such training shall be obtained in a comprehensive course for supervisors that meets the criteria of EPA's Model Accreditation Plan (40 CFR part 763, subpart E, appendix C), such as a course conducted by an EPA-approved or state-approved training provider, certified by EPA or a state, or a course equivalent in stringency, content, and length.

(ii) For Class III and IV asbestos work, the competent person shall be trained in aspects of asbestos handling appropriate for the nature of the work, to include procedures for setting up glove bags and mini-enclosures, practices for reducing asbestos exposures, use of wet methods, the contents of this standard, and the identification of asbestos. Such training shall include successful completion of a course that is consistent with EPA requirements for training of local education agency maintenance and custodial staff as set forth at 40 CFR 763.92(a)(2), or its equivalent in stringency, content and length. Competent persons for Class III and IV work, may also be trained pursuant to the requirements of paragraph (o)(4)(i) of this section.

(p) Appendices. (1) Appendices A, D, and E to this section are incorporated as part of this section and the contents of these appendices are mandatory.

(2) Appendices B, F, H, I, J, and K to this section are informational and are not intended to create any additional obligations not otherwise imposed or to detract from any existing obligations.

Appendix A to §1926.1101—OSHA Reference Method—Mandatory

This mandatory appendix specifies the procedure for analyzing air samples for asbestos and specifies quality control procedures that must be implemented by laboratories performing the analysis. The sampling and analytical methods described below represent the elements of the available monitoring methods (such as appendix B of this regulation, the most current version of the OSHA method ID-160, or the most current version of the NIOSH Method 7400). All employers who are required to conduct air monitoring under paragraph (f) of the standard are required to utilize analytical laboratories that use this procedure, or an equivalent method, for collecting and analyzing samples.

Sampling and Analytical Procedure

1. The sampling medium for air samples shall be mixed cellulose ester filter membranes. These shall be designated by the manufacturer as suitable for asbestos counting. See below for rejection of blanks.

2. The preferred collection device shall be the 25-mm diameter cassette with an open-faced 50-mm electrically conductive extension cowl. The 37-mm cassette may be used if necessary but only if written justification for the need to use the 37-mm filter cassette accompanies the sample results in the employee's exposure monitoring record. Do not reuse or reload cassettes for asbestos sample collection.

3. An air flow rate between 0.5 liter/min and 2.5 liters/min shall be selected for the 25/mm cassette. If the 37-mm cassette is used, an air flow rate between 1 liter/min and 2.5 liters/min shall be selected.

4. Where possible, a sufficient air volume for each air sample shall be collected to yield between 100 and 1,300 fibers per square millimeter on the membrane filter. If a filter darkens in appearance or if loose dust is seen on the filter, a second sample shall be started.

5. Ship the samples in a rigid container with sufficient packing material to prevent dislodging the collected fibers. Packing material that has a high electrostatic charge on its surface (e.g., expanded polystyrene) cannot be used because such material can cause loss of fibers to the sides of the cassette.

6. Calibrate each personal sampling pump before and after use with a representative filter cassette installed between the pump and the calibration devices.

7. Personal samples shall be taken in the “breathing zone” of the employee (i.e., attached to or near the collar or lapel near the worker's face).

8. Fiber counts shall be made by positive phase contrast using a microscope with an 8 to 10× eyepiece and a 40 to 45× objective for a total magnification of approximately 400× and a numerical aperture of 0.65 to 0.75. The microscope shall also be fitted with a green or blue filter.

9. The microscope shall be fitted with a Walton-Beckett eyepiece graticule calibrated for a field diameter of 100 micrometers (±2 micrometers).

10. The phase-shift detection limit of the microscope shall be about 3 degrees measured using the HSE phase shift test slide as outlined below.

a. Place the test slide on the microscope stage and center it under the phase objective.

b. Bring the blocks of grooved lines into focus.

Note: The slide consists of seven sets of grooved lines (ca. 20 grooves to each block) in descending order of visibility from sets 1 to 7, seven being the least visible. The requirements for asbestos counting are that the microscope optics must resolve the grooved lines in set 3 completely, although they may appear somewhat faint, and that the grooved lines in sets 6 and 7 must be invisible. Sets 4 and 5 must be at least partially visible but may vary slightly in visibility between microscopes. A microscope that fails to meet these requirements has either too low or too high a resolution to be used for asbestos counting.

c. If the image deteriorates, clean and adjust the microscope optics. If the problem persists, cosult the microscope manufacturer.

11. Each set of samples taken will include 10% field blanks or a minimum of 2 field blanks. These blanks must come from the same lot as the filters used for sample collection. The field blank results shall be averaged and subtracted from the analytical results before reporting. A set consists of any sample or group of samples for which an evaluation for this standard must be made. Any samples represented by a field blank having a fiber count in excess of the detection limit of the method being used shall be rejected.

12. The samples shall be mounted by the acetone/triacetin method or a method with an equivalent index of refraction and similar clarity.

13. Observe the following counting rules.

a. Count only fibers equal to or longer than 5 micrometers. Measure the length of curved fibers along the curve.

b. In the absence of other information, count all particles as asbestos, that have a length-to-width ratio (aspect ratio) of 3:1 or greater.

c. Fibers lying entirely within the boundary of the Walton-Beckett graticule field shall receive a count of 1. Fibers crossing the boundary once, having one end within the circle, shall receive the count of one half ( 12 ). Do not count any fiber that crosses the graticule boundary more than once. Reject and do not count any other fibers even though they may be visible outside the graticule area.

d. Count bundles of fibers as one fiber unless individual fibers can be identified by observing both ends of an individual fiber.

e. Count enough graticule fields to yield 100 fibers. Count a minimum of 20 fields; stop counting at 100 fields regardless of fiber count.

14. Blind recounts shall be conducted at the rate of 10 percent.

Quality Control Procedures

1. Intralaboratory program. Each laboratory and/or each company with more than one microscopist counting slides shall establish a statistically designed quality assurance program involving blind recounts and comparisons between microscopists to monitor the variability of counting by each microscopist and between microscopists. In a company with more than one laboratory, the program shall include all laboratories, and shall also evaluate the laboratory-to-laboratory variability.

2a. Interlaboratory program. Each laboratory analyzing asbestos samples for compliance determination shall implement an interlaboratory quality assurance program that, as a minimum, includes participation of at least two other independent laboratories. Each laboratory shall participate in round robin testing at least once every 6 months with at least all the other laboratories in its interlaboratory quality assurance group. Each laboratory shall submit slides typical of its own workload for use in this program. The round robin shall be designed and results analyzed using appropriate statistical methodology.

b. All laboratories should also participate in a national sample testing scheme such as the Proficiency Analytical Testing Program (PAT), or the Asbestos Registry sponsored by the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA).

3. All individuals performing asbestos analysis must have taken the NIOSH course for sampling and evaluating airborne asbestos dust or an equivalent course.

4. When the use of different microscopes contributes to differences between counters and laboratories, the effect of the different microscope shall be evaluated and the microscope shall be replaced, as necessary.

5. Current results of these quality assurance programs shall be posted in each laboratory to keep the microscopists informed.

Appendix B to §1926.1101—Sampling and Analysis (Non-Mandatory)

Matrix Air:
OSHA Permissible Exposure Limits:
Time Weighted Average0.1 fiber/cc
Excursion Level (30 minutes)1.0 fiber/cc
Collection Procedure:
A known volume of air is drawn through a 25-mm diameter cassette containing a mixed-cellulose ester filter. The cassette must be equipped with an electrically conductive 50-mm extension cowl. The sampling time and rate are chosen to give a fiber density of between 100 to 1,300 fibers/mm2 on the filter.
Recommended Sampling Rate0.5 to 5.0 liters/minute (L/min)
Recommended Air Volumes:
Minimum25 L
Maximum2,400 L

Analytical Procedure:

A portion of the sample filter is cleared and prepared for asbestos fiber counting by Phase Contrast Microscopy (PCM) at 400X.

Commercial manufacturers and products mentioned in this method are for descriptive use only and do not constitute endorsements by USDOL-OSHA. Similar products from other sources can be substituted.

1. Introduction

This method describes the collection of airborne asbestos fibers using calibrated sampling pumps with mixed-cellulose ester (MCE) filters and analysis by phase contrast microscopy (PCM). Some terms used are unique to this method and are defined below: Asbestos: A term for naturally occurring fibrous minerals. Asbestos includes chrysotile, crocidolite, amosite (cummingtonite-grunerite asbestos), tremolite asbestos, actinolite asbestos, anthophyllite asbestos, and any of these minerals that have been chemically treated and/or altered. The precise chemical formulation of each species will vary with the location from which it was mined. Nominal compositions are listed:

ChrysotileMg3 Si2 O5(OH)4
CrocidoliteNa2 Fe32 + Fe23 + Si8 O22(OH)2
Amosite(Mg,Fe)7 Si8 O22(OH)2
Tremolite-actinoliteCa2(Mg,Fe)5 Si8 O22(OH)2
Anthophyllite(Mg,Fe)7 Si8 O22(OH)2

Asbestos Fiber: A fiber of asbestos which meets the criteria specified below for a fiber.

Aspect Ratio: The ratio of the length of a fiber to it's diameter (e.g. 3:1, 5:1 aspect ratios).

Cleavage Fragments: Mineral particles formed by comminution of minerals, especially those characterized by parallel sides and a moderate aspect ratio (usually less than 20:1).

Detection Limit: The number of fibers necessary to be 95% certain that the result is greater than zero.

Differential Counting: The term applied to the practice of excluding certain kinds of fibers from the fiber count because they do not appear to be asbestos.

Fiber: A particle that is 5 µm or longer, with a length-to-width ratio of 3 to 1 or longer.

Field: The area within the graticule circle that is superimposed on the microscope image.

Set: The samples which are taken, submitted to the laboratory, analyzed, and for which, interim or final result reports are generated.

Tremolite, Anthophyllite, and Actinolite: The non-asbestos form of these minerals which meet the definition of a fiber. It includes any of these minerals that have been chemically treated and/or altered.

Walton-Beckett Graticule: An eyepiece graticule specifically designed for asbestos fiber counting. It consists of a circle with a projected diameter of 100 ±2 µm (area of about 0.00785 mm2) with a crosshair having tic-marks at 3-µm intervals in one direction and 5-µm in the orthogonal direction. There are marks around the periphery of the circle to demonstrate the proper sizes and shapes of fibers. This design is reproduced in Figure 1. The disk is placed in one of the microscope eyepieces so that the design is superimposed on the field of view.

1.1. History

Early surveys to determine asbestos exposures were conducted using impinger counts of total dust with the counts expressed as million particles per cubic foot. The British Asbestos Research Council recommended filter membrane counting in 1969. In July 1969, the Bureau of Occupational Safety and Health published a filter membrane method for counting asbestos fibers in the United States. This method was refined by NIOSH and published as P & CAM 239. On May 29, 1971, OSHA specified filter membrane sampling with phase contrast counting for evaluation of asbestos exposures at work sites in the United States. The use of this technique was again required by OSHA in 1986. Phase contrast microscopy has continued to be the method of choice for the measurement of occupational exposure to asbestos.

1.2. Principle

Air is drawn through a MCE filter to capture airborne asbestos fibers. A wedge shaped portion of the filter is removed, placed on a glass microscope slide and made transparent. A measured area (field) is viewed by PCM. All the fibers meeting defined criteria for asbestos are counted and considered a measure of the airborne asbestos concentration.

1.3. Advantages and Disadvantages

There are four main advantages of PCM over other methods:

(1) The technique is specific for fibers. Phase contrast is a fiber counting technique which excludes non-fibrous particles from the analysis.

(2) The technique is inexpensive and does not require specialized knowledge to carry out the analysis for total fiber counts.

(3) The analysis is quick and can be performed on-site for rapid determination of air concentrations of asbestos fibers.

(4) The technique has continuity with historical epidemiological studies so that estimates of expected disease can be inferred from long-term determinations of asbestos exposures.

The main disadvantage of PCM is that it does not positively identify asbestos fibers. Other fibers which are not asbestos may be included in the count unless differential counting is performed. This requires a great deal of experience to adequately differentiate asbestos from non-asbestos fibers. Positive identification of asbestos must be performed by polarized light or electron microscopy techniques. A further disadvantage of PCM is that the smallest visible fibers are about 0.2 µm in diameter while the finest asbestos fibers may be as small as 0.02 µm in diameter. For some exposures, substantially more fibers may be present than are actually counted.

1.4. Workplace Exposure

Asbestos is used by the construction industry in such products as shingles, floor tiles, asbestos cement, roofing felts, insulation and acoustical products. Non-construction uses include brakes, clutch facings, paper, paints, plastics, and fabrics. One of the most significant exposures in the workplace is the removal and encapsulation of asbestos in schools, public buildings, and homes. Many workers have the potential to be exposed to asbestos during these operations.

About 95% of the asbestos in commercial use in the United States is chrysotile. Crocidolite and amosite make up most of the remainder. Anthophyllite and tremolite or actinolite are likely to be encountered as contaminants in various industrial products.

1.5. Physical Properties

Asbestos fiber possesses a high tensile strength along its axis, is chemically inert, non-combustible, and heat resistant. It has a high electrical resistance and good sound absorbing properties. It can be weaved into cables, fabrics or other textiles, and also matted into asbestos papers, felts, or mats.

2. Range and Detection Limit

2.1. The ideal counting range on the filter is 100 to 1,300 fibers/mm2. With a Walton-Beckett graticule this range is equivalent to 0.8 to 10 fibers/field. Using NIOSH counting statistics, a count of 0.8 fibers/field would give an approximate coefficient of variation (CV) of 0.13.

2.2. The detection limit for this method is 4.0 fibers per 100 fields or 5.5 fibers/mm2. This was determined using an equation to estimate the maximum CV possible at a specific concentration (95% confidence) and a Lower Control Limit of zero. The CV value was then used to determine a corresponding concentration from historical CV vs fiber relationships. As an example:

Lower Control Limit (95% Confidence) = AC—1.645(CV)(AC)

Where:

AC = Estimate of the airborne fiber concentration (fibers/cc) Setting the Lower Control Limit = 0 and solving for CV:

0 = AC—1.645(CV)(AC)

CV = 0.61

This value was compared with CV vs. count curves. The count at which CV = 0.61 for Leidel-Busch counting statistics or for an OSHA Salt Lake Technical Center (OSHA-SLTC) CV curve (see appendix A for further information) was 4.4 fibers or 3.9 fibers per 100 fields, respectively. Although a lower detection limit of 4 fibers per 100 fields is supported by the OSHA-SLTC data, both data sets support the 4.5 fibers per 100 fields value.

3. Method Performance—Precision and Accuracy

Precision is dependent upon the total number of fibers counted and the uniformity of the fiber distribution on the filter. A general rule is to count at least 20 and not more than 100 fields. The count is discontinued when 100 fibers are counted, provided that 20 fields have already been counted. Counting more than 100 fibers results in only a small gain in precision. As the total count drops below 10 fibers, an accelerated loss of precision is noted.

At this time, there is no known method to determine the absolute accuracy of the asbestos analysis. Results of samples prepared through the Proficiency Analytical Testing (PAT) Program and analyzed by the OSHA-SLTC showed no significant bias when compared to PAT reference values. The PAT samples were analyzed from 1987 to 1989 (N = 36) and the concentration range was from 120 to 1,300 fibers/mm2.

4. Interferences

Fibrous substances, if present, may interfere with asbestos analysis.

Some common fibers are:

fiberglass

anhydrite

plant fibers

perlite veins

gypsum

some synthetic fibers

membrane structures

sponge spicules

diatoms

microorganisms

wollastonite

The use of electron microscopy or optical tests such as polarized light, and dispersion staining may be used to differentiate these materials from asbestos when necessary.

5. Sampling

5.1. Equipment

5.1.1. Sample assembly (The assembly is shown in Figure 3). Conductive filter holder consisting of a 25-mm diameter, 3-piece cassette having a 50-mm long electrically conductive extension cowl. Backup pad, 25-mm, cellulose. Membrane filter, mixed-cellulose ester (MCE), 25-mm, plain, white, 0.4 to 1.2-µm pore size.

Notes: (a) DO NOT RE-USE CASSETTES.

(b) Fully conductive cassettes are required to reduce fiber loss to the sides of the cassette due to electrostatic attraction.

(c) Purchase filters which have been selected by the manufacturer for asbestos counting or analyze representative filters for fiber background before use. Discard the filter lot if more than 4 fibers/100 fields are found.

(d) To decrease the possibility of contamination, the sampling system (filter-backup pad-cassette) for asbestos is usually preassembled by the manufacturer.

(e) Other cassettes, such as the Bell-mouth, may be used within the limits of their validation.

5.1.2. Gel bands for sealing cassettes.

5.1.3. Sampling pump.

Each pump must be a battery operated, self-contained unit small enough to be placed on the monitored employee and not interfere with the work being performed. The pump must be capable of sampling at the collection rate for the required sampling time.

5.1.4. Flexible tubing, 6-mm bore.

5.1.5. Pump calibration.

Stopwatch and bubble tube/burette or electronic meter.

5.2. Sampling Procedure

5.2.1. Seal the point where the base and cowl of each cassette meet with a gel band or tape.

5.2.2. Charge the pumps completely before beginning.

5.2.3. Connect each pump to a calibration cassette with an appropriate length of 6-mm bore plastic tubing. Do not use luer connectors—the type of cassette specified above has built-in adapters.

5.2.4. Select an appropriate flow rate for the situation being monitored. The sampling flow rate must be between 0.5 and 5.0 L/min for personal sampling and is commonly set between 1 and 2 L/min. Always choose a flow rate that will not produce overloaded filters.

5.2.5. Calibrate each sampling pump before and after sampling with a calibration cassette in-line (Note: This calibration cassette should be from the same lot of cassettes used for sampling). Use a primary standard (e.g. bubble burette) to calibrate each pump. If possible, calibrate at the sampling site.

Note: If sampling site calibration is not possible, environmental influences may affect the flow rate. The extent is dependent on the type of pump used. Consult with the pump manufacturer to determine dependence on environmental influences. If the pump is affected by temperature and pressure changes, correct the flow rate using the formula shown in the section “Sampling Pump Flow Rate Corrections” at the end of this appendix.

5.2.6. Connect each pump to the base of each sampling cassette with flexible tubing. Remove the end cap of each cassette and take each air sample open face. Assure that each sample cassette is held open side down in the employee's breathing zone during sampling. The distance from the nose/mouth of the employee to the cassette should be about 10 cm. Secure the cassette on the collar or lapel of the employee using spring clips or other similar devices.

5.2.7. A suggested minimum air volume when sampling to determine TWA compliance is 25 L. For Excursion Limit (30 min sampling time) evaluations, a minimum air volume of 48 L is recommended.

5.2.8. The most significant problem when sampling for asbestos is overloading the filter with non-asbestos dust. Suggested maximum air sample volumes for specific environments are:

EnvironmentAir Vol. (L)
Asbestos removal operations (visible dust)100.
Asbestos removal operations (little dust)240.
Office environments400 to 2,400.

CAUTION: Do not overload the filter with dust. High levels of non-fibrous dust particles may obscure fibers on the filter and lower the count or make counting impossible. If more than about 25 to 30% of the field area is obscured with dust, the result may be biased low. Smaller air volumes may be necessary when there is excessive non-asbestos dust in the air.

While sampling, observe the filter with a small flashlight. If there is a visible layer of dust on the filter, stop sampling, remove and seal the cassette, and replace with a new sampling assembly. The total dust loading should not exceed 1 mg.

5.2.9. Blank samples are used to determine if any contamination has occurred during sample handling. Prepare two blanks for the first 1 to 20 samples. For sets containing greater than 20 samples, prepare blanks as 10% of the samples. Handle blank samples in the same manner as air samples with one exception: Do not draw any air through the blank samples. Open the blank cassette in the place where the sample cassettes are mounted on the employee. Hold it open for about 30 seconds. Close and seal the cassette appropriately. Store blanks for shipment with the sample cassettes.

5.2.10. Immediately after sampling, close and seal each cassette with the base and plastic plugs. Do not touch or puncture the filter membrane as this will invalidate the analysis.

5.2.11   Attach and secure a sample seal around each sample cassette in such a way as to assure that the end cap and base plugs cannot be removed without destroying the seal. Tape the ends of the seal together since the seal is not long enough to be wrapped end-to-end. Also wrap tape around the cassette at each joint to keep the seal secure.

5.3.1. Send the samples to the laboratory with paperwork requesting asbestos analysis. List any known fibrous interferences present during sampling on the paperwork. Also, note the workplace operation(s) sampled.

5.3.2. Secure and handle the samples in such that they will not rattle during shipment nor be exposed to static electricity. Do not ship samples in expanded polystyrene peanuts, vermiculite, paper shreds, or excelsior. Tape sample cassettes to sheet bubbles and place in a container that will cushion the samples in such a manner that they will not rattle.

5.3.3. To avoid the possibility of sample contamination, always ship bulk samples in separate mailing containers.

6. Analysis

6.1. Safety Precautions

6.1.1. Acetone is extremely flammable and precautions must be taken not to ignite it. Avoid using large containers or quantities of acetone. Transfer the solvent in a ventilated laboratory hood. Do not use acetone near any open flame. For generation of acetone vapor, use a spark free heat source.

6.1.2. Any asbestos spills should be cleaned up immediately to prevent dispersal of fibers. Prudence should be exercised to avoid contamination of laboratory facilities or exposure of personnel to asbestos. Asbestos spills should be cleaned up with wet methods and/or a High Efficiency Particulate-Air (HEPA) filtered vacuum.

CAUTION: Do not use a vacuum without a HEPA filter—It will disperse fine asbestos fibers in the air.

6.2. Equipment

6.2.1. Phase contrast microscope with binocular or trinocular head.

6.2.2. Widefield or Huygenian 10X eyepieces (NOTE: The eyepiece containing the graticule must be a focusing eyepiece. Use a 40X phase objective with a numerical aperture of 0.65 to 0.75).

6.2.3. Kohler illumination (if possible) with green or blue filter.

6.2.4. Walton-Beckett Graticule, type G-22 with 100 ±2 µm projected diameter.

6.2.5. Mechanical stage. A rotating mechanical stage is convenient for use with polarized light.

6.2.6. Phase telescope.

6.2.7. Stage micrometer with 0.01-mm subdivisions.

6.2.8. Phase-shift test slide, mark II (Available from PTR optics Ltd., and also McCrone).

6.2.9. Precleaned glass slides, 25 mm × 75 mm. One end can be frosted for convenience in writing sample numbers, etc., or paste-on labels can be used.

6.2.10. Cover glass #112 .

6.2.11. Scalpel (#10, curved blade).

6.2.12. Fine tipped forceps.

6.2.13. Aluminum block for clearing filter (see appendix D and Figure 4).

6.2.14. Automatic adjustable pipette, 100- to 500-µL.

6.2.15. Micropipette, 5 µL.

6.3. Reagents

6.3.1. Acetone (HPLC grade).

6.3.2. Triacetin (glycerol triacetate).

6.3.3. Lacquer or nail polish.

6.4. Standard Preparation

A way to prepare standard asbestos samples of known concentration has not been developed. It is possible to prepare replicate samples of nearly equal concentration. This has been performed through the PAT program. These asbestos samples are distributed by the AIHA to participating laboratories.

Since only about one-fourth of a 25-mm sample membrane is required for an asbestos count, any PAT sample can serve as a “standard” for replicate counting.

6.5. Sample Mounting

Note: See Safety Precautions in Section 6.1. before proceeding. The objective is to produce samples with a smooth (non-grainy) background in a medium with a refractive index of approximately 1.46. The technique below collapses the filter for easier focusing and produces permanent mounts which are useful for quality control and interlaboratory comparison.

An aluminum block or similar device is required for sample preparation.

6.5.1. Heat the aluminum block to about 70 °C. The hot block should not be used on any surface that can be damaged by either the heat or from exposure to acetone.

6.5.2. Ensure that the glass slides and cover glasses are free of dust and fibers.

6.5.3. Remove the top plug to prevent a vacuum when the cassette is opened. Clean the outside of the cassette if necessary. Cut the seal and/or tape on the cassette with a razor blade. Very carefully separate the base from the extension cowl, leaving the filter and backup pad in the base.

6.5.4. With a rocking motion cut a triangular wedge from the filter using the scalpel. This wedge should be one-sixth to one-fourth of the filter. Grasp the filter wedge with the forceps on the perimeter of the filter which was clamped between the cassette pieces. DO NOT TOUCH the filter with your finger. Place the filter on the glass slide sample side up. Static electricity will usually keep the filter on the slide until it is cleared.

6.5.5. Place the tip of the micropipette containing about 200 µL acetone into the aluminum block. Insert the glass slide into the receiving slot in the aluminum block. Inject the acetone into the block with slow, steady pressure on the plunger while holding the pipette firmly in place. Wait 3 to 5 seconds for the filter to clear, then remove the pipette and slide from the aluminum block.

6.5.6. Immediately (less than 30 seconds) place 2.5 to 3.5 µL of triacetin on the filter (NOTE: Waiting longer than 30 seconds will result in increased index of refraction and decreased contrast between the fibers and the preparation. This may also lead to separation of the cover slip from the slide).

6.5.7. Lower a cover slip gently onto the filter at a slight angle to reduce the possibility of forming air bubbles. If more than 30 seconds have elapsed between acetone exposure and triacetin application, glue the edges of the cover slip to the slide with lacquer or nail polish.

6.5.8. If clearing is slow, warm the slide for 15 min on a hot plate having a surface temperature of about 50 °C to hasten clearing. The top of the hot block can be used if the slide is not heated too long.

6.5.9. Counting may proceed immediately after clearing and mounting are completed.

6.6. Sample Analysis

Completely align the microscope according to the manufacturer's instructions. Then, align the microscope using the following general alignment routine at the beginning of every counting session and more often if necessary.

6.6.1. Alignment

(1) Clean all optical surfaces. Even a small amount of dirt can significantly degrade the image.

(2) Rough focus the objective on a sample.

(3) Close down the field iris so that it is visible in the field of view. Focus the image of the iris with the condenser focus. Center the image of the iris in the field of view.

(4) Install the phase telescope and focus on the phase rings. Critically center the rings. Misalignment of the rings results in astigmatism which will degrade the image.

(5) Place the phase-shift test slide on the microscope stage and focus on the lines. The analyst must see line set 3 and should see at least parts of 4 and 5 but, not see line set 6 or 6. A microscope/microscopist combination which does not pass this test may not be used.

6.6.2. Counting Fibers

(1) Place the prepared sample slide on the mechanical stage of the microscope. Position the center of the wedge under the objective lens and focus upon the sample.

(2) Start counting from one end of the wedge and progress along a radial line to the other end (count in either direction from perimeter to wedge tip). Select fields randomly, without looking into the eyepieces, by slightly advancing the slide in one direction with the mechanical stage control.

(3) Continually scan over a range of focal planes (generally the upper 10 to 15 µm of the filter surface) with the fine focus control during each field count. Spend at least 5 to 15 seconds per field.

(4) Most samples will contain asbestos fibers with fiber diameters less than 1 µm. Look carefully for faint fiber images. The small diameter fibers will be very hard to see. However, they are an important contribution to the total count.

(5) Count only fibers equal to or longer than 5 µm. Measure the length of curved fibers along the curve.

(6) Count fibers which have a length to width ratio of 3:1 or greater.

(7) Count all the fibers in at least 20 fields. Continue counting until either 100 fibers are counted or 100 fields have been viewed; whichever occurs first. Count all the fibers in the final field.

(8) Fibers lying entirely within the boundary of the Walton-Beckett graticule field shall receive a count of 1. Fibers crossing the boundary once, having one end within the circle shall receive a count of 12 . Do not count any fiber that crosses the graticule boundary more than once. Reject and do not count any other fibers even though they may be visible outside the graticule area. If a fiber touches the circle, it is considered to cross the line.

(9) Count bundles of fibers as one fiber unless individual fibers can be clearly identified and each individual fiber is clearly not connected to another counted fiber. See Figure 1 for counting conventions.

(10) Record the number of fibers in each field in a consistent way such that filter non-uniformity can be assessed.

(11) Regularly check phase ring alignment.

(12) When an agglomerate (mass of material) covers more than 25% of the field of view, reject the field and select another. Do not include it in the number of fields counted.

(13) Perform a “blind recount” of 1 in every 10 filter wedges (slides). Re-label the slides using a person other than the original counter.

6.7. Fiber Identification

As previously mentioned in Section 1.3., PCM does not provide positive confirmation of asbestos fibers. Alternate differential counting techniques should be used if discrimination is desirable. Differential counting may include primary discrimination based on morphology, polarized light analysis of fibers, or modification of PCM data by Scanning Electron or Transmission Electron Microscopy.

A great deal of experience is required to routinely and correctly perform differential counting. It is discouraged unless it is legally necessary. Then, only if a fiber is obviously not asbestos should it be excluded from the count. Further discussion of this technique can be found in reference 8.10.

If there is a question whether a fiber is asbestos or not, follow the rule:

“WHEN IN DOUBT, COUNT.”

6.8. Analytical Recommendations—Quality Control System

6.8.1. All individuals performing asbestos analysis must have taken the NIOSH course for sampling and evaluating airborne asbestos or an equivalent course.

6.8.2. Each laboratory engaged in asbestos counting shall set up a slide trading arrangement with at least two other laboratories in order to compare performance and eliminate inbreeding of error. The slide exchange occurs at least semiannually. The round robin results shall be posted where all analysts can view individual analyst's results.

6.8.3. Each laboratory engaged in asbestos counting shall participate in the Proficiency Analytical Testing Program, the Asbestos Analyst Registry or equivalent.

6.8.4. Each analyst shall select and count prepared slides from a “slide bank”. These are quality assurance counts. The slide bank shall be prepared using uniformly distributed samples taken from the workload. Fiber densities should cover the entire range routinely analyzed by the laboratory. These slides are counted blind by all counters to establish an original standard deviation. This historical distribution is compared with the quality assurance counts. A counter must have 95% of all quality control samples counted within three standard deviations of the historical mean. This count is then integrated into a new historical mean and standard deviation for the slide.

The analyses done by the counters to establish the slide bank may be used for an interim quality control program if the data are treated in a proper statistical fashion.

7. Calculations

7.1. Calculate the estimated airborne asbestos fiber concentration on the filter sample using the following formula:

eCFR graphic er10au94.033.gif

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where:

AC = Airborne fiber concentration

FB = Total number of fibers greater than 5 µm counted

FL = Total number of fields counted on the filter

BFB = Total number of fibers greater than 5 µm counted in the blank

BFL = Total number of fields counted on the blank

ECA = Effective collecting area of filter (385 mm2 nominal for a 25-mm filter.)

FR = Pump flow rate (L/min)

MFA = Microscope count field area (mm2). This is 0.00785 mm2 for a Walton-Beckett Graticule.

T = Sample collection time (min)

1,000 = Conversion of L to cc

Note: The collection area of a filter is seldom equal to 385 mm2. It is appropriate for laboratories to routinely monitor the exact diameter using an inside micrometer. The collection area is calculated according to the formula:

Area = (d/2)2

7.2. Short-Cut Calculation

Since a given analyst always has the same interpupillary distance, the number of fields per filter for a particular analyst will remain constant for a given size filter. The field size for that analyst is constant (i.e. the analyst is using an assigned microscope and is not changing the reticle).

For example, if the exposed area of the filter is always 385 mm2 and the size of the field is always 0.00785 mm2 the number of fields per filter will always be 49,000. In addition it is necessary to convert liters of air to cc. These three constants can then be combined such that ECA/(1,000 × MFA) = 49. The previous equation simplifies to:

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7.3. Recount Calculations

As mentioned in step 13 of Section 6.6.2., a “blind recount” of 10% of the slides is performed. In all cases, differences will be observed between the first and second counts of the same filter wedge. Most of these differences will be due to chance alone, that is, due to the random variability (precision) of the count method. Statistical recount criteria enables one to decide whether observed differences can be explained due to chance alone or are probably due to systematic differences between analysts, microscopes, or other biasing factors.

The following recount criterion is for a pair of counts that estimate AC in fibers/cc. The criterion is given at the type-I error level. That is, there is 5% maximum risk that we will reject a pair of counts for the reason that one might be biased, when the large observed difference is really due to chance.

Reject a pair of counts if:

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Where:

AC1 = lower estimated airborne fiber concentration

AC2 = higher estimated airborne fiber concentration

ACavg = average of the two concentration estimates

CVFB = CV for the average of the two concentration estimates

If a pair of counts are rejected by this criterion then, recount the rest of the filters in the submitted set. Apply the test and reject any other pairs failing the test. Rejection shall include a memo to the industrial hygienist stating that the sample failed a statistical test for homogeneity and the true air concentration may be significantly different than the reported value.

7.4. Reporting Results

Report results to the industrial hygienist as fibers/cc. Use two significant figures. If multiple analyses are performed on a sample, an average of the results is to be reported unless any of the results can be rejected for cause.

8. References

8.1. Dreesen, W.C., et al., U.S. Public Health Service: A Study of Asbestosis in the Asbestos Textile Industry (Public Health Bulletin No. 241), U.S. Treasury Dept., Washington, DC, 1938.

8.2. Asbestos Research Council: The Measurement of Airborne Asbestos Dust by the Membrane Filter Method (Technical Note), Asbestos Research Council, Rockdale, Lancashire, Great Britain, 1969.

8.3. Bayer, S.G., Zumwalde, R.D., Brown, T.A., Equipment and Procedure for Mounting Millipore Filters and Counting Asbestos Fibers by Phase Contrast Microscopy, Bureau of Occupational Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare, Cincinnati, OH, 1969.

8.4. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods, 2nd ed., Vol. 1 (DHEW/NIOSH Pub. No. 77-157-A). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH, 1977. pp. 239-1—239-21.

8.5. Asbestos, Code of Federal Regulations 29 CFR 1910.1001. 1971.

8.6. Occupational Exposure to Asbestos, Tremolite, Anthophyllite, and Actinolite. Final Rule, Federal Register 51:119 (20 June 1986). pp. 22612-22790.

8.7. Asbestos, Tremolite, Anthophyllite, and Actinolite, Code of Federal Regulations 1910.1001. 1988. pp. 711-752.

8.8. Criteria for a Recommended Standard—Occupational Exposure to Asbestos (DHEW/NIOSH Pub. No. HSM 72-10267), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, NIOSH, Cincinnati, OH, 1972. pp. III-1—III-24.

8.9. Leidel, N.A., Bayer, S.G., Zumwalde, R.D., Busch, K.A., USPHS/NIOSH Membrane Filter Method for Evaluating Airborne Asbestos Fibers (DHEW/NIOSH Pub. No. 79-127). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH, 1979.

8.10. Dixon, W.C., Applications of Optical Microscopy in Analysis of Asbestos and Quartz, Analytical Techniques in Occupational Health Chemistry, edited by D.D. Dollberg and A.W. Verstuyft. Wash. DC: American Chemical Society, (ACS Symposium Series 120) 1980. pp. 13-41.

Quality Control

The OSHA asbestos regulations require each laboratory to establish a quality control program. The following is presented as an example of how the OSHA-SLTC constructed its internal CV curve as part of meeting this requirement. Data is from 395 samples collected during OSHA compliance inspections and analyzed from October 1980 through April 1986.

Each sample was counted by 2 to 5 different counters independently of one another. The standard deviation and the CV statistic was calculated for each sample. This data was then plotted on a graph of CV vs. fibers/mm2. A least squares regression was performed using the following equation:

CV = antilog10[A(log10(x))2 + B(log10(x)) + C]

where:

x = the number of fibers/mm2

Application of least squares gave:

A = 0.182205

B = 0.973343

C = 0.327499

Using these values, the equation becomes:

CV = antilog10[0.182205(log10(x))2

   −0.973343(log10(x)) + 0.327499]

Sampling Pump Flow Rate Corrections

This correction is used if a difference greater than 5% in ambient temperature and/or pressure is noted between calibration and sampling sites and the pump does not compensate for the differences.

eCFR graphic er10au94.036.gif

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Where:

Qact = actual flow rate

Qcal = calibrated flow rate (if a rotameter was used, the rotameter value)

Pcal = uncorrected air pressure at calibration

Pact = uncorrected air pressure at sampling site

Tact = temperature at sampling site (K)

Tcal = temperature at calibration (K)

Walton-Beckett Graticule

When ordering the Graticule for asbestos counting, specify the exact disc diameter needed to fit the ocular of the microscope and the diameter (mm) of the circular counting area. Instructions for measuring the dimensions necessary are listed:

(1) Insert any available graticule into the focusing eyepiece and focus so that the graticule lines are sharp and clear.

(2) Align the microscope.

(3) Place a stage micrometer on the microscope object stage and focus the microscope on the graduated lines.

(4) Measure the magnified grid length, PL (µm), using the stage micrometer.

(5) Remove the graticule from the microscope and measure its actual grid length, AL (mm). This can be accomplished by using a mechanical stage fitted with verniers, or a jeweler's loupe with a direct reading scale.

(6) Let D = 100 µm. Calculate the circle diameter, dc (mm), for the Walton-Beckett graticule and specify the diameter when making a purchase:

eCFR graphic er10au94.037.gif

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Example: If PL = 108 µm, AL = 2.93 mm and D = 100 µm, then,

eCFR graphic er10au94.038.gif

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(7) Each eyepiece-objective-reticle combination on the microscope must be calibrated. Should any of the three be changed (by zoom adjustment, disassembly, replacement, etc.), the combination must be recalibrated. Calibration may change if interpupillary distance is changed.

Measure the field diameter, D (acceptable range: 100 ±2 µm) with a stage micrometer upon receipt of the graticule from the manufacturer. Determine the field area (mm2).

Field Area = (D/2)2

If D = 100 µm = 0.1 mm, then

Field Area = (0.1 mm/2)2 = 0.00785 mm2

The Graticule is available from: Graticules Ltd., Morley Road, Tonbridge TN9 IRN, Kent, England (Telephone 011-44-732-359061). Also available from PTR Optics Ltd., 145 Newton Street, Waltham, MA 02154 [telephone (617) 891-6000] or McCrone Accessories and Components, 2506 S. Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL 60616 [phone (312)-842-7100]. The graticule is custom made for each microscope.

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Counts for the Fibers in the Figure

Structure No.CountExplanation
1 to 61Single fibers all contained within the Circle.
7 12 Fiber crosses circle once.
80Fiber too short.
92Two crossing fibers.
100Fiber outside graticule.
110Fiber crosses graticule twice.
12 12 Although split, fiber only crosses once.

Appendix C to §1926.1101 [Reserved]

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Appendix E to §1926.1101—Classification of Chest X-Rays—Mandatory

(a) Chest X-rays shall be classified in accordance with the Guidelines for the use of the ILO International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses (revised edition 2011) (incorporated by reference, see §1926.6), and recorded on a classification form following the format of the CDC/NIOSH (M) 2.8 form. As a minimum, the content within the bold lines of this form (items 1 through 4) shall be included. This form is not to be submitted to NIOSH.

(b) All X-rays shall be classified only by a B-Reader, a board eligible/certified radiologist, or an experienced physician with known expertise in pneumoconioses.

(c) Whenever classifying chest X-ray film, the physician shall have immediately available for reference a complete set of the ILO standard format radiographs provided for use with the Guidelines for the use of the ILO International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses (revised edition 2011).

(d) Whenever classifying digitally-acquired chest X-rays, the physician shall have immediately available for reference a complete set of ILO standard digital chest radiographic images provided for use with the Guidelines for the Use of the ILO International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses (revised edition 2011). Classification of digitally-acquired chest X-rays shall be based on the viewing of images displayed as electronic copies and shall not be based on the viewing of hard copy printed transparencies of images.

Appendix F to §1926.1101—Work Practices and Engineering Controls for Class I Asbestos Operations (Non-Mandatory)

This is a non-mandatory appendix to the asbestos standards for construction and for shipyards. It describes criteria and procedures for erecting and using negative pressure enclosures for Class I Asbestos Work, when NPEs are used as an allowable control method to comply with paragraph (g)(5)(i) of this section. Many small and variable details are involved in the erection of a negative pressure enclosure. OSHA and most participants in the rulemaking agreed that only the major, more performance oriented criteria should be made mandatory. These criteria are set out in paragraph (g) of this section. In addition, this appendix includes these mandatory specifications and procedures in its guidelines in order to make this appendix coherent and helpful. The mandatory nature of the criteria which appear in the regulatory text is not changed because they are included in this “non-mandatory” appendix. Similarly, the additional criteria and procedures included as guidelines in the appendix, do not become mandatory because mandatory criteria are also included in these comprehensive guidelines.

In addition, none of the criteria, both mandatory and recommended, are meant to specify or imply the need for use of patented or licensed methods or equipment. Recommended specifications included in this attachment should not discourage the use of creative alternatives which can be shown to reliably achieve the objectives of negative-pressure enclosures.

Requirements included in this appendix, cover general provisions to be followed in all asbestos jobs, provisions which must be followed for all Class I asbestos jobs, and provisions governing the construction and testing of negative pressure enclosures. The first category includes the requirement for use of wet methods, HEPA vacuums, and immediate bagging of waste; Class I work must conform to the following provisions:

  oversight by competent person

  use of critical barriers over all openings to work area

  isolation of HVAC systems

  use of impermeable dropcloths and coverage of all objects within regulated areas

In addition, more specific requirements for NPEs include:

  maintenance of −0.02 inches water gauge within enclosure

  manometric measurements

  air movement away from employees performing removal work

  smoke testing or equivalent for detection of leaks and air direction

  deactivation of electrical circuits, if not provided with ground-fault circuit interrupters.

Planning the Project

The standard requires that an exposure assessment be conducted before the asbestos job is begun [§1926.1101 (f)(1)]. Information needed for that assessment, includes data relating to prior similar jobs, as applied to the specific variables of the current job. The information needed to conduct the assessment will be useful in planning the project, and in complying with any reporting requirements under this standard, when significant changes are being made to a control system listed in the standard, [see also those of USEPA (40 CFR 61, subpart M). Thus, although the standard does not explicitly require the preparation of a written asbestos removal plan, the usual constituents of such a plan, i.e., a description of the enclosure, the equipment, and the procedures to be used throughout the project, must be determined before the enclosure can be erected. The following information should be included in the planning of the system:

A physical description of the work area;

A description of the approximate amount of material to be removed;

A schedule for turning off and sealing existing ventilation systems;

Personnel hygiene procedures;

A description of personal protective equipment and clothing to be worn by employees;

A description of the local exhaust ventilation systems to be used and how they are to be tested;

A description of work practices to be observed by employees;

An air monitoring plan;

A description of the method to be used to transport waste material; and

The location of the dump site.

Materials and Equipment Necessary for Asbestos Removal

Although individual asbestos removal projects vary in terms of the equipment required to accomplish the removal of the materials, some equipment and materials are common to most asbestos removal operations.

Plastic sheeting used to protect horizontal surfaces, seal HVAC openings or to seal vertical openings and ceilings should have a minimum thickness of 6 mils. Tape or other adhesive used to attach plastic sheeting should be of sufficient adhesive strength to support the weight of the material plus all stresses encountered during the entire duration of the project without becoming detached from the surface.

Other equipment and materials which should be available at the beginning of each project are:

—HEPA Filtered Vacuum is essential for cleaning the work area after the asbestos has been removed. It should have a long hose capable of reaching out-of-the-way places, such as areas above ceiling tiles, behind pipes, etc.

—Portable air ventilation systems installed to provide the negative air pressure and air removal from the enclosure must be equipped with a HEPA filter. The number and capacity of units required to ventilate an enclosure depend on the size of the area to be ventilated. The filters for these systems should be designed in such a manner that they can be replaced when the air flow volume is reduced by the build-up of dust in the filtration material. Pressure monitoring devices with alarms and strip chart recorders attached to each system to indicate the pressure differential and the loss due to dust buildup on the filter are recommended.

—Water sprayers should be used to keep the asbestos material as saturated as possible during removal; the sprayers will provide a fine mist that minimizes the impact of the spray on the material.

—Water used to saturate the asbestos containing material can be amended by adding at least 15 milliliters ( 14 ounce) of wetting agent in 1 liter (1 pint) of water. An example of a wetting agent is a 50/50 mixture of polyoxyethylene ether and polyoxyethylene polyglycol ester.

—Backup power supplies are recommended, especially for ventilation systems.

—Shower and bath water should be with mixed hot and cold water faucets. Water that has been used to clean personnel or equipment should either be filtered or be collected and discarded as asbestos waste. Soap and shampoo should be provided to aid in removing dust from the workers' skin and hair.

—See paragraphs (h) and (i) of this section for appropriate respiratory protection and protective clothing.

—See paragraph (k) of this section for required signs and labels.

Preparing the Work Area

Disabling HVAC Systems: The power to the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems that service the restricted area must be deactivated and locked off. All ducts, grills, access ports, windows and vents must be sealed off with two layers of plastic to prevent entrainment of contaminated air.

Operating HVAC Systems in the Restricted Area: If components of a HVAC system located in the restricted area are connected to a system that will service another zone during the project, the portion of the duct in the restricted area must be sealed and pressurized. Necessary precautions include caulking the duct joints, covering all cracks and openings with two layers of sheeting, and pressurizing the duct throughout the duration of the project by restricting the return air flow. The power to the fan supplying the positive pressure should be locked “on” to prevent pressure loss.

Sealing Elevators: If an elevator shaft is located in the restricted area, it should be either shut down or isolated by sealing with two layers of plastic sheeting. The sheeting should provide enough slack to accommodate the pressure changes in the shaft without breaking the air-tight seal.

Removing Mobile Objects: All movable objects should be cleaned and removed from the work area before an enclosure is constructed unless moving the objects creates a hazard. Mobile objects will be assumed to be contaminated and should be either cleaned with amended water and a HEPA vacuum and then removed from the area or wrapped and then disposed of as hazardous waste.

Cleaning and Sealing Surfaces: After cleaning with water and a HEPA vacuum, surfaces of stationary objects should be covered with two layers of plastic sheeting. The sheeting should be secured with duct tape or an equivalent method to provide a tight seal around the object.

Bagging Waste: In addition to the requirement for immediate bagging of waste for disposal, it is further recommended that the waste material be double-bagged and sealed in plastic bags designed for asbestos disposal. The bags should be stored in a waste storage area that can be controlled by the workers conducting the removal. Filters removed from air handling units and rubbish removed from the area are to be bagged and handled as hazardous waste.

Constructing the Enclosure

The enclosure should be constructed to provide an air-tight seal around ducts and openings into existing ventilation systems and around penetrations for electrical conduits, telephone wires, water lines, drain pipes, etc. Enclosures should be both airtight and watertight except for those openings designed to provide entry and/or air flow control.

Size: An enclosure should be the minimum volume to encompass all of the working surfaces yet allow unencumbered movement by the worker(s), provide unrestricted air flow past the worker(s), and ensure walking surfaces can be kept free of tripping hazards.

Shape: The enclosure may be any shape that optimizes the flow of ventilation air past the worker(s).

Structural Integrity: The walls, ceilings and floors must be supported in such a manner that portions of the enclosure will not fall down during normal use.

Openings: It is not necessary that the structure be airtight; openings may be designed to direct air flow. Such openings should be located at a distance from active removal operations. They should be designed to draw air into the enclosure under all anticipated circumstances. In the event that negative pressure is lost, they should be fitted with either HEPA filters to trap dust or automatic trap doors that prevent dust from escaping the enclosure. Openings for exits should be controlled by an airlock or a vestibule.

Barrier Supports: Frames should be constructed to support all unsupported spans of sheeting.

Sheeting: Walls, barriers, ceilings, and floors should be lined with two layers of plastic sheeting having a thickness of at least 6 mil.

Seams: Seams in the sheeting material should be minimized to reduce the possibilities of accidental rips and tears in the adhesive or connections. All seams in the sheeting should overlap, be staggered and not be located at corners or wall-to-floor joints. Areas Within an Enclosure: Each enclosure consists of a work area, a decontamination area, and waste storage area. The work area where the asbestos removal operations occur should be separated from both the waste storage area and the contamination control area by physical curtains, doors, and/or airflow patterns that force any airborne contamination back into the work area.

See paragraph (j) of this section for requirements for hygiene facilities.

During egress from the work area, each worker should step into the equipment room, clean tools and equipment, and remove gross contamination from clothing by wet cleaning and HEPA vacuuming. Before entering the shower area, foot coverings, head coverings, hand coverings, and coveralls are removed and placed in impervious bags for disposal or cleaning. Airline connections from airline respirators with HEPA disconnects and power cables from powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs) will be disconnected just prior to entering the shower room.

Establishing Negative Pressure Within the Enclosure

Negative Pressure: Air is to be drawn into the enclosure under all anticipated conditions and exhausted through a HEPA filter for 24 hours a day during the entire duration of the project.

Air Flow Tests: Air flow patterns will be checked before removal operations begin, at least once per operating shift and any time there is a question regarding the integrity of the enclosure. The primary test for air flow is to trace air currents with smoke tubes or other visual methods. Flow checks are made at each opening and at each doorway to demonstrate that air is being drawn into the enclosure and at each worker's position to show that air is being drawn away from the breathing zone.

Monitoring Pressure Within the Enclosure: After the initial air flow patterns have been checked, the static pressure must be monitored within the enclosure. Monitoring may be made using manometers, pressure gauges, or combinations of these devices. It is recommended that they be attached to alarms and strip chart recorders at points identified by the design engineer.

Corrective Actions: If the manometers or pressure gauges demonstrate a reduction in pressure differential below the required level, work should cease and the reason for the change investigated and appropriate changes made. The air flow patterns should be retested before work begins again.

Pressure Differential: The design parameters for static pressure differentials between the inside and outside of enclosures typically range from 0.02 to 0.10 inches of water gauge, depending on conditions. All zones inside the enclosure must have less pressure than the ambient pressure outside of the enclosure (−0.02 inches water gauge differential). Design specifications for the differential vary according to the size, configuration, and shape of the enclosure as well as ambient and mechanical air pressure conditions around the enclosure.

Air Flow Patterns: The flow of air past each worker shall be enhanced by positioning the intakes and exhaust ports to remove contaminated air from the worker's breathing zone, by positioning HEPA vacuum cleaners to draw air from the worker's breathing zone, by forcing relatively uncontaminated air past the worker toward an exhaust port, or by using a combination of methods to reduce the worker's exposure.

Air Handling Unit Exhaust: The exhaust plume from air handling units should be located away from adjacent personnel and intakes for HVAC systems.

Air Flow Volume: The air flow volume (cubic meters per minute) exhausted (removed) from the workplace must exceed the amount of makeup air supplied to the enclosure. The rate of air exhausted from the enclosure should be designed to maintain a negative pressure in the enclosure and air movement past each worker. The volume of air flow removed from the enclosure should replace the volume of the container at every 5 to 15 minutes. Air flow volume will need to be relatively high for large enclosures, enclosures with awkward shapes, enclosures with multiple openings, and operations employing several workers in the enclosure.

Air Flow Velocity: At each opening, the air flow velocity must visibly “drag” air into the enclosure. The velocity of air flow within the enclosure must be adequate to remove airborne contamination from each worker's breathing zone without disturbing the asbestos-containing material on surfaces.

Airlocks: Airlocks are mechanisms on doors and curtains that control the air flow patterns in the doorways. If air flow occurs, the patterns through doorways must be such that the air flows toward the inside of the enclosure. Sometimes vestibules, double doors, or double curtains are used to prevent air movement through the doorways. To use a vestibule, a worker enters a chamber by opening the door or curtain and then closing the entry before opening the exit door or curtain.

Airlocks should be located between the equipment room and shower room, between the shower room and the clean room, and between the waste storage area and the outside of the enclosure. The air flow between adjacent rooms must be checked using smoke tubes or other visual tests to ensure the flow patterns draw air toward the work area without producing eddies.

Monitoring for Airborne Concentrations

In addition to the breathing zone samples taken as outlined in paragraph (f) of this section, samples of air should be taken to demonstrate the integrity of the enclosure, the cleanliness of the clean room and shower area, and the effectiveness of the HEPA filter. If the clean room is shown to be contaminated, the room must be relocated to an uncontaminated area.

Samples taken near the exhaust of portable ventilation systems must be done with care.

General Work Practices

Preventing dust dispersion is the primary means of controlling the spread of asbestos within the enclosure. Whenever practical, the point of removal should be isolated, enclosed, covered, or shielded from the workers in the area. Waste asbestos containing materials must be bagged during or immediately after removal; the material must remain saturated until the waste container is sealed.

Waste material with sharp points or corners must be placed in hard air-tight containers rather than bags.

Whenever possible, large components should be sealed in plastic sheeting and removed intact.

Bags or containers of waste will be moved to the waste holding area, washed, and wrapped in a bag with the appropriate labels.

Cleaning the Work Area

Surfaces within the work area should be kept free of visible dust and debris to the extent feasible. Whenever visible dust appears on surfaces, the surfaces within the enclosure must be cleaned by wiping with a wet sponge, brush, or cloth and then vacuumed with a HEPA vacuum.

All surfaces within the enclosure should be cleaned before the exhaust ventilation system is deactivated and the enclosure is disassembled. An approved encapsulant may be sprayed onto areas after the visible dust has been removed.

Appendix G to §1926.1101 [Reserved]

Appendix H to §1926.1101—Substance Technical Information for Asbestos. Non-Mandatory

I. Substance Identification

A. Substance: “Asbestos” is the name of a class of magnesium-silicate minerals that occur in fibrous form. Minerals that are included in this group are chrysotile, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite asbestos, tremolite asbestos, and actinolite asbestos.

B. Asbestos is and was used in the manufacture of heat-resistant clothing, automotive brake and clutch linings, and a variety of building materials including floor tiles, roofing felts, ceiling tiles, asbestos-cement pipe and sheet, and fire-resistant drywall. Asbestos is also present in pipe and boiler insulation materials and in sprayed-on materials located on beams, in crawlspaces, and between walls.

C. The potential for an asbestos-containing product to release breathable fibers depends largely on its degree of friability. Friable means that the material can be crumbled with hand pressure and is therefore likely to emit fibers. The fibrous fluffy sprayed-on materials used for fireproofing, insulation, or sound proofing are considered to be friable, and they readily release airborne fibers if disturbed. Materials such as vinyl-asbestos floor tile or roofing felt are considered non-friable if intact and generally do not emit airborne fibers unless subjected to sanding, sawing and other aggressive operations. Asbestos-cement pipe or sheet can emit airborne fibers if the materials are cut or sawed, or if they are broken.

D. Permissible exposure: Exposure to airborne asbestos fibers may not exceed 0.1 fibers per cubic centimeter of air (0.1 f/cc) averaged over the 8-hour workday, and 1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air (1.0 f/cc) averaged over a 30 minute work period.

II. Health Hazard Data

A. Asbestos can cause disabling respiratory disease and various types of cancers if the fibers are inhaled. Inhaling or ingesting fibers from contaminated clothing or skin can also result in these diseases. The symptoms of these diseases generally do not appear for 20 or more years after initial exposure.

B. Exposure to asbestos has been shown to cause lung cancer, mesothelioma, and cancer of the stomach and colon. Mesothelioma is a rare cancer of the thin membrane lining of the chest and abdomen. Symptoms of mesothelioma include shortness of breath, pain in the walls of the chest, and/or abdominal pain.

III. Respirators and Protective Clothing

A. Respirators: You are required to wear a respirator when performing tasks that result in asbestos exposure that exceeds the permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.1 f/cc and when performing certain designated operations. Air-purifying respirators equipped with a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter can be used where airborne asbestos fiber concentrations do not exceed 1.0 f/cc; otherwise, more protective respirators such as air-supplied, positive-pressure, full facepiece respirators must be used. Disposable respirators or dust masks are not permitted to be used for asbestos work. For effective protection, respirators must fit your face and head snugly. Your employer is required to conduct a fit test when you are first assigned a respirator and every 6 months thereafter. Respirators should not be loosened or removed in work situations where their use is required.

B. Protective Clothing: You are required to wear protective clothing in work areas where asbestos fiber concentrations exceed the permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.1 f/cc.

IV. Disposal Procedures and Clean-up

A. Wastes that are generated by processes where asbestos is present include:

1. Empty asbestos shipping containers.

2. Process wastes such as cuttings, trimmings, or reject materials.

3. Housekeeping waste from wet-sweeping or HEPA-vacuuming.

4. Asbestos fireproofing or insulating material that is removed from buildings.

5. Asbestos-containing building products removed during building renovation or demolition.

6. Contaminated disposable protective clothing.

B. Empty shipping bags can be flattened under exhaust hoods and packed into airtight containers for disposal. Empty shipping drums are difficult to clean and should be sealed.

C. Vacuum bags or disposable paper filters should not be cleaned, but should be sprayed with a fine water mist and placed into a labeled waste container.

D. Process waste and housekeeping waste should be wetted with water or a mixture of water and surfactant prior to packaging in disposable containers.

E. Asbestos-containing material that is removed from buildings must be disposed of in leak-tight 6-mil plastic bags, plastic-lined cardboard containers, or plastic-lined metal containers. These wastes, which are removed while wet, should be sealed in containers before they dry out to minimize the release of asbestos fibers during handling.

V. Access to Information

A. Each year, your employer is required to inform you of the information contained in this standard and appendices for asbestos. In addition, your employer must instruct you in the proper work practices for handling asbestos-containing materials, and the correct use of protective equipment.

B. Your employer is required to determine whether you are being exposed to asbestos. Your employer must treat exposure to thermal system insulation and sprayed-on and troweled-on surfacing material as asbestos exposure, unless results of laboratory analysis show that the material does not contain asbestos. You or your representative has the right to observe employee measurements and to record the results obtained. Your employer is required to inform you of your exposure, and, if you are exposed above the permissible exposure limit, he or she is required to inform you of the actions that are being taken to reduce your exposure to within the permissible limit.

C. Your employer is required to keep records of your exposures and medical examinations. These exposure records must be kept for at least thirty (30) years. Medical records must be kept for the period of your employment plus thirty (30) years.

D. Your employer is required to release your exposure and medical records to your physician or designated representative upon your written request.

Appendix I to §1926.1101—Medical Surveillance Guidelines for Asbestos, Non-Mandatory

I. Route of Entry

Inhalation, ingestion.

II. Toxicology

Clinical evidence of the adverse effects associated with exposure to asbestos is present in the form of several well-conducted epidemiological studies of occupationally exposed workers, family contacts of workers, and persons living near asbestos mines. These studies have shown a definite association between exposure to asbestos and an increased incidence of lung cancer, pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma, gastrointestinal cancer, and asbestosis. The latter is a disabling fibrotic lung disease that is caused only by exposure to asbestos. Exposure to asbestos has also been associated with an increased incidence of esophageal, kidney, laryngeal, pharyngeal, and buccal cavity cancers. As with other known chronic occupational diseases, disease associated with asbestos generally appears about 20 years following the first occurrence of exposure: There are no known acute effects associated with exposure to asbestos.

Epidemiological studies indicate that the risk of lung cancer among exposed workers who smoke cigarettes is greatly increased over the risk of lung cancer among non-exposed smokers or exposed nonsmokers. These studies suggest that cessation of smoking will reduce the risk of lung cancer for a person exposed to asbestos but will not reduce it to the same level of risk as that existing for an exposed worker who has never smoked.

III. Signs and Symptoms of Exposure-Related Disease

The signs and symptoms of lung cancer or gastrointestinal cancer induced by exposure to asbestos are not unique, except that a chest X-ray of an exposed patient with lung cancer may show pleural plaques, pleural calcification, or pleural fibrosis, and may also show asbestosis (i.e., small irregular parenchymal opacities). Symptoms characteristic of mesothelioma include shortness of breath, pain in the chest or abdominal pain. Mesothelioma has a much longer average latency period compared with lung cancer (40 years versus 15-20 years), and mesothelioma is therefore more likely to be found among workers who were first exposed to asbestos at an early age. Mesothelioma is a fatal disease.

Asbestosis is pulmonary fibrosis caused by the accumulation of asbestos fibers in the lungs. Symptoms include shortness of breath, coughing, fatigue, and vague feelings of sickness. When the fibrosis worsens, shortness of breath occurs even at rest. The diagnosis of asbestosis is most commonly based on a history of exposure to asbestos, the presence of characteristic radiologic abnormalities, end-inspiratory crackles (rales), and other clinical features of fibrosing lung disease. Pleural plaques and thickening may be observed on chest X-rays. Asbestosis is often a progressive disease even in the absence of continued exposure, although this appears to be a highly individualized characteristic. In severe cases, death may be caused by respiratory or cardiac failure.

IV. Surveillance and Preventive Considerations

As noted above, exposure to asbestos has been linked to an increased risk of lung cancer, mesothelioma, gastrointestinal cancer, and asbestosis among occupationally exposed workers. Adequate screening tests to determine an employee's potential for developing serious chronic diseases, such as a cancer, from exposure to asbestos do not presently exist. However, some tests, particularly chest X-rays and pulmonary function tests, may indicate that an employee has been overexposed to asbestos increasing his or her risk of developing exposure related chronic diseases. It is important for the physician to become familiar with the operating conditions in which occupational exposure to asbestos is likely to occur. This is particularly important in evaluating medical and work histories and in conducting physical examinations. When an active employee has been identified as having been overexposed to asbestos measures taken by the employer to eliminate or mitigate further exposure should also lower the risk of serious long-term consequences.

The employer is required to institute a medical surveillance program for all employees who are or will be exposed to asbestos at or above the permissible exposure limit (0.1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air). All examinations and procedures must be performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician, at a reasonable time and place, and at no cost to the employee.

Although broad latitude is given to the physician in prescribing specific tests to be included in the medical surveillance program, OSHA requires inclusion of the following elements in the routine examination:

(i) Medical and work histories with special emphasis directed to symptoms of the respiratory system, cardiovascular system, and digestive tract.

(ii) Completion of the respiratory disease questionnaire contained in appendix D.

(iii) A physical examination including a chest X-ray and pulmonary function test that includes measurement of the employee's forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1).

(iv) Any laboratory or other test that the examining physician deems by sound medical practice to be necessary.

The employer is required to make the prescribed tests available at least annually to those employees covered; more often than specified if recommended by the examining physician; and upon termination of employment.

The employer is required to provide the physician with the following information: A copy of this standard and appendices; a description of the employee's duties as they relate to asbestos exposure; the employee's representative level of exposure to asbestos; a description of any personal protective and respiratory equipment used; and information from previous medical examinations of the affected employee that is not otherwise available to the physician. Making this information available to the physician will aid in the evaluation of the employee's health in relation to assigned duties and fitness to wear personal protective equipment, if required.

The employer is required to obtain a written opinion from the examining physician containing the results of the medical examination; the physician's opinion as to whether the employee has any detected medical conditions that would place the employee at an increased risk of exposure-related disease; any recommended limitations on the employee or on the use of personal protective equipment; and a statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of the results of the medical examination and of any medical conditions related to asbestos exposure that require further explanation or treatment. This written opinion must not reveal specific findings or diagnoses unrelated to exposure to asbestos, and a copy of the opinion must be provided to the affected employee.

Appendix J to §1926.1101—Smoking Cessation Program Information for Asbestos—Non-Mandatory

The following organizations provide smoking cessation information.

1. The National Cancer Institute operates a toll-free Cancer Information Service (CIS) with trained personnel to help you. Call 1-800-4-CANCER* to reach the CIS office serving your area, or write: Office of Cancer Communications, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Building 31 Room 10A24, Bethesda, Maryland 20892.

2. American Cancer Society, 3340 Peachtree Road, N.E., Atlanta, Georgia 30026, (404) 320-3333

The American Cancer Society (ACS) is a voluntary organization composed of 58 divisions and 3,100 local units. Through “The Great American Smokeout” in November, the annual Cancer Crusade in April, and numerous educational materials, ACS helps people learn about the health hazards of smoking and become successful ex-smokers.

3. American Heart Association, 7320 Greenville Avenue, Dallas, Texas 75231, (214) 750-5300

The American Heart Association (AHA) is a voluntary organization with 130,000 members (physicians, scientists, and laypersons) in 55 state and regional groups. AHA produces a variety of publications and audiovisual materials about the effects of smoking on the heart. AHA also has developed a guidebook for incorporating a weight-control component into smoking cessation programs.

4. American Lung Association, 1740 Broadway, New York, New York 10019, (212) 245-8000

A voluntary organization of 7,500 members (physicians, nurses, and laypersons), the American Lung Association (ALA) conducts numerous public information programs about the health effects of smoking. ALA has 59 state and 85 local units. The organization actively supports legislation and information campaigns for non-smokers' rights and provides help for smokers who want to quit, for example, through “Freedom From Smoking,” a self-help smoking cessation program.

5. Office on Smoking and Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 5600 Fishers Lane, Park Building, Room 110, Rockville, Maryland 20857

The Office on Smoking and Health (OSH) is the Department of Health and Human Services' lead agency in smoking control. OSH has sponsored distribution of publications on smoking-related topics, such as free flyers on relapse after initial quitting, helping a friend or family member quit smoking, the health hazards of smoking, and the effects of parental smoking on teenagers.

*In Hawaii, on Oahu call 524-1234 (call collect from neighboring islands),

Spanish-speaking staff members are available during daytime hours to callers from the following areas: California, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, New Jersey (area code 201), New York, and Texas. Consult your local telephone directory for listings of local chapters.

Appendix K to §1926.1101—Polarized Light Microscopy of Asbestos (Non-Mandatory)

Method number:

ID-191

Matrix: Bulk

Collection Procedure:

Collect approximately 1 to 2 grams of each type of material and place into separate 20 mL scintillation vials.

Analytical Procedure:

A portion of each separate phase is analyzed by gross examination, phase-polar examination, and central stop dispersion microscopy.

Commercial manufacturers and products mentioned in this method are for descriptive use only and do not constitute endorsements by USDOL-OSHA. Similar products from other sources may be substituted.

1. Introduction

This method describes the collection and analysis of asbestos bulk materials by light microscopy techniques including phase- polar illumination and central-stop dispersion microscopy. Some terms unique to asbestos analysis are defined below:

Amphibole: A family of minerals whose crystals are formed by long, thin units which have two thin ribbons of double chain silicate with a brucite ribbon in between. The shape of each unit is similar to an “I beam”. Minerals important in asbestos analysis include cummingtonite-grunerite, crocidolite, tremolite-actinolite and anthophyllite.

Asbestos: A term for naturally occurring fibrous minerals. Asbestos includes chrysotile, cummingtonite-grunerite asbestos (amosite), anthophyllite asbestos, tremolite asbestos, crocidolite, actinolite asbestos and any of these minerals which have been chemically treated or altered. The precise chemical formulation of each species varies with the location from which it was mined. Nominal compositions are listed:

ChrysotileMg3 Si2 O5(OH)4
Crocidolite (Riebeckite asbestos)Na2 Fe32 + Fe23 + Si8 O22(OH)2
Cummingtonite-Grunerite asbestos (Amosite)(Mg,Fe)7 Si8 O22(OH)2
Tremolite-Actinolite asbestosCa2(Mg,Fe)5 Si8 O22(OH)2
Anthophyllite asbestos(Mg,Fe)7 Si8 O22(OH)2

Asbestos Fiber: A fiber of asbestos meeting the criteria for a fiber. (See section 3.5. of this Appendix)

Aspect Ratio: The ratio of the length of a fiber to its diameter usually defined as “length : width”, e.g. 3:1.

Brucite: A sheet mineral with the composition Mg(OH)2.

Central Stop Dispersion Staining (microscope): This is a dark field microscope technique that images particles using only light refracted by the particle, excluding light that travels through the particle unrefracted. This is usually accomplished with a McCrone objective or other arrangement which places a circular stop with apparent aperture equal to the objective aperture in the back focal plane of the microscope.

Cleavage Fragments: Mineral particles formed by the comminution of minerals, especially those characterized by relatively parallel sides and moderate aspect ratio.

Differential Counting: The term applied to the practice of excluding certain kinds of fibers from a phase contrast asbestos count because they are not asbestos.

Fiber: A particle longer than or equal to 5 µm with a length to width ratio greater than or equal to 3:1. This may include cleavage fragments. (see section 3.5 of this appendix).

Phase Contrast: Contrast obtained in the microscope by causing light scattered by small particles to destructively interfere with unscattered light, thereby enhancing the visibility of very small particles and particles with very low intrinsic contrast.

Phase Contrast Microscope: A microscope configured with a phase mask pair to create phase contrast. The technique which uses this is called Phase Contrast Microscopy (PCM).

Phase-Polar Analysis: This is the use of polarized light in a phase contrast microscope. It is used to see the same size fibers that are visible in air filter analysis. Although fibers finer than 1 µm are visible, analysis of these is inferred from analysis of larger bundles that are usually present.

Phase-Polar Microscope: The phase-polar microscope is a phase contrast microscope which has an analyzer, a polarizer, a first order red plate and a rotating phase condenser all in place so that the polarized light image is enhanced by phase contrast.

Sealing Encapsulant: This is a product which can be applied, preferably by spraying, onto an asbestos surface which will seal the surface so that fibers cannot be released.

Serpentine: A mineral family consisting of minerals with the general composition Mg3(Si2 O5(OH)4 having the magnesium in brucite layer over a silicate layer. Minerals important in asbestos analysis included in this family are chrysotile, lizardite, antigorite.

1.1. History

Light microscopy has been used for well over 100 years for the determination of mineral species. This analysis is carried out using specialized polarizing microscopes as well as bright field microscopes. The identification of minerals is an on-going process with many new minerals described each year. The first recorded use of asbestos was in Finland about 2500 B.C. where the material was used in the mud wattle for the wooden huts the people lived in as well as strengthening for pottery. Adverse health aspects of the mineral were noted nearly 2000 years ago when Pliny the Younger wrote about the poor health of slaves in the asbestos mines. Although known to be injurious for centuries, the first modern references to its toxicity were by the British Labor Inspectorate when it banned asbestos dust from the workplace in 1898. Asbestosis cases were described in the literature after the turn of the century. Cancer was first suspected in the mid 1930's and a causal link to mesothelioma was made in 1965. Because of the public concern for worker and public safety with the use of this material, several different types of analysis were applied to the determination of asbestos content. Light microscopy requires a great deal of experience and craft. Attempts were made to apply less subjective methods to the analysis. X-ray diffraction was partially successful in determining the mineral types but was unable to separate out the fibrous portions from the non-fibrous portions. Also, the minimum detection limit for asbestos analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD) is about 1%. Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) was no more successful. These provide useful corroborating information when the presence of asbestos has been shown by microscopy; however, neither can determine the difference between fibrous and non-fibrous minerals when both habits are present. The same is true of Infrared Absorption (IR).

When electron microscopy was applied to asbestos analysis, hundreds of fibers were discovered present too small to be visible in any light microscope. There are two different types of electron microscope used for asbestos analysis: Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). Scanning Electron Microscopy is useful in identifying minerals. The SEM can provide two of the three pieces of information required to identify fibers by electron microscopy: morphology and chemistry. The third is structure as determined by Selected Area Electron Diffraction—SAED which is performed in the TEM. Although the resolution of the SEM is sufficient for very fine fibers to be seen, accuracy of chemical analysis that can be performed on the fibers varies with fiber diameter in fibers of less than 0.2 µm diameter. The TEM is a powerful tool to identify fibers too small to be resolved by light microscopy and should be used in conjunction with this method when necessary. The TEM can provide all three pieces of information required for fiber identification. Most fibers thicker than 1 µm can adequately be defined in the light microscope. The light microscope remains as the best instrument for the determination of mineral type. This is because the minerals under investigation were first described analytically with the light microscope. It is inexpensive and gives positive identification for most samples analyzed. Further, when optical techniques are inadequate, there is ample indication that alternative techniques should be used for complete identification of the sample.

1.2. Principle

Minerals consist of atoms that may be arranged in random order or in a regular arrangement. Amorphous materials have atoms in random order while crystalline materials have long range order. Many materials are transparent to light, at least for small particles or for thin sections. The properties of these materials can be investigated by the effect that the material has on light passing through it. The six asbestos minerals are all crystalline with particular properties that have been identified and cataloged. These six minerals are anisotropic. They have a regular array of atoms, but the arrangement is not the same in all directions. Each major direction of the crystal presents a different regularity. Light photons travelling in each of these main directions will encounter different electrical neighborhoods, affecting the path and time of travel. The techniques outlined in this method use the fact that light traveling through fibers or crystals in different directions will behave differently, but predictably. The behavior of the light as it travels through a crystal can be measured and compared with known or determined values to identify the mineral species. Usually, Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM) is performed with strain-free objectives on a bright-field microscope platform. This would limit the resolution of the microscope to about 0.4 µm. Because OSHA requires the counting and identification of fibers visible in phase contrast, the phase contrast platform is used to visualize the fibers with the polarizing elements added into the light path. Polarized light methods cannot identify fibers finer than about 1 µm in diameter even though they are visible. The finest fibers are usually identified by inference from the presence of larger, identifiable fiber bundles. When fibers are present, but not identifiable by light microscopy, use either SEM or TEM to determine the fiber identity.

1.3. Advantages and Disadvantages

The advantages of light microcopy are:

(a) Basic identification of the materials was first performed by light microscopy and gross analysis. This provides a large base of published information against which to check analysis and analytical technique.

(b) The analysis is specific to fibers. The minerals present can exist in asbestiform, fibrous, prismatic, or massive varieties all at the same time. Therefore, bulk methods of analysis such as X-ray diffraction, IR analysis, DTA, etc. are inappropriate where the material is not known to be fibrous.

(c) The analysis is quick, requires little preparation time, and can be performed on-site if a suitably equipped microscope is available.

The disadvantages are:

(a) Even using phase-polar illumination, not all the fibers present may be seen. This is a problem for very low asbestos concentrations where agglomerations or large bundles of fibers may not be present to allow identification by inference.

(b) The method requires a great degree of sophistication on the part of the microscopist. An analyst is only as useful as his mental catalog of images. Therefore, a microscopist's accuracy is enhanced by experience. The mineralogical training of the analyst is very important. It is the basis on which subjective decisions are made.

(c) The method uses only a tiny amount of material for analysis. This may lead to sampling bias and false results (high or low). This is especially true if the sample is severely inhomogeneous.

(d) Fibers may be bound in a matrix and not distinguishable as fibers so identification cannot be made.

1.4. Method Performance

1.4.1. This method can be used for determination of asbestos content from 0 to 100% asbestos. The detection limit has not been adequately determined, although for selected samples, the limit is very low, depending on the number of particles examined. For mostly homogeneous, finely divided samples, with no difficult fibrous interferences, the detection limit is below 1%. For inhomogeneous samples (most samples), the detection limit remains undefined. NIST has conducted proficiency testing of laboratories on a national scale. Although each round is reported statistically with an average, control limits, etc., the results indicate a difficulty in establishing precision especially in the low concentration range. It is suspected that there is significant bias in the low range especially near 1%. EPA tried to remedy this by requiring a mandatory point counting scheme for samples less than 10%. The point counting procedure is tedious, and may introduce significant biases of its own. It has not been incorporated into this method.

1.4.2. The precision and accuracy of the quantitation tests performed in this method are unknown. Concentrations are easier to determine in commercial products where asbestos was deliberately added because the amount is usually more than a few percent. An analyst's results can be “calibrated” against the known amounts added by the manufacturer. For geological samples, the degree of homogeneity affects the precision.

1.4.3. The performance of the method is analyst dependent. The analyst must choose carefully and not necessarily randomly the portions for analysis to assure that detection of asbestos occurs when it is present. For this reason, the analyst must have adequate training in sample preparation, and experience in the location and identification of asbestos in samples. This is usually accomplished through substantial on-the-job training as well as formal education in mineralogy and microscopy.

1.5. Interferences

Any material which is long, thin, and small enough to be viewed under the microscope can be considered an interference for asbestos. There are literally hundreds of interferences in workplaces. The techniques described in this method are normally sufficient to eliminate the interferences. An analyst's success in eliminating the interferences depends on proper training.

Asbestos minerals belong to two mineral families: the serpentines and the amphiboles. In the serpentine family, the only common fibrous mineral is chrysotile. Occasionally, the mineral antigorite occurs in a fibril habit with morphology similar to the amphiboles. The amphibole minerals consist of a score of different minerals of which only five are regulated by federal standard: amosite, crocidolite, anthophyllite asbestos, tremolite asbestos and actinolite asbestos. These are the only amphibole minerals that have been commercially exploited for their fibrous properties; however, the rest can and do occur occasionally in asbestiform habit.

In addition to the related mineral interferences, other minerals common in building material may present a problem for some microscopists: gypsum, anhydrite, brucite, quartz fibers, talc fibers or ribbons, wollastonite, perlite, attapulgite, etc. Other fibrous materials commonly present in workplaces are: fiberglass, mineral wool, ceramic wool, refractory ceramic fibers, kevlar, nomex, synthetic fibers, graphite or carbon fibers, cellulose (paper or wood) fibers, metal fibers, etc.

Matrix embedding material can sometimes be a negative interference. The analyst may not be able to easily extract the fibers from the matrix in order to use the method. Where possible, remove the matrix before the analysis, taking careful note of the loss of weight. Some common matrix materials are: vinyl, rubber, tar, paint, plant fiber, cement, and epoxy. A further negative interference is that the asbestos fibers themselves may be either too small to be seen in Phase contrast Microscopy (PCM) or of a very low fibrous quality, having the appearance of plant fibers. The analyst's ability to deal with these materials increases with experience.

1.6. Uses and Occupational Exposure

Asbestos is ubiquitous in the environment. More than 40% of the land area of the United States is composed of minerals which may contain asbestos. Fortunately, the actual formation of great amounts of asbestos is relatively rare. Nonetheless, there are locations in which environmental exposure can be severe such as in the Serpentine Hills of California.

There are thousands of uses for asbestos in industry and the home. Asbestos abatement workers are the most current segment of the population to have occupational exposure to great amounts of asbestos. If the material is undisturbed, there is no exposure. Exposure occurs when the asbestos-containing material is abraded or otherwise disturbed during maintenance operations or some other activity. Approximately 95% of the asbestos in place in the United States is chrysotile.

Amosite and crocidolite make up nearly all the difference. Tremolite and anthophyllite make up a very small percentage. Tremolite is found in extremely small amounts in certain chrysotile deposits. Actinolite exposure is probably greatest from environmental sources, but has been identified in vermiculite containing, sprayed-on insulating materials which may have been certified as asbestos-free.

1.7. Physical and Chemical Properties

The nominal chemical compositions for the asbestos minerals were given in Section 1. Compared to cleavage fragments of the same minerals, asbestiform fibers possess a high tensile strength along the fiber axis. They are chemically inert, non-combustible, and heat resistant. Except for chrysotile, they are insoluble in Hydrochloric acid (HCl). Chrysotile is slightly soluble in HCl. Asbestos has high electrical resistance and good sound absorbing characteristics. It can be woven into cables, fabrics or other textiles, or matted into papers, felts, and mats.

1.8. Toxicology (This section is for Information Only and Should Not Be Taken as OSHA Policy)

Possible physiologic results of respiratory exposure to asbestos are mesothelioma of the pleura or peritoneum, interstitial fibrosis, asbestosis, pneumoconiosis, or respiratory cancer. The possible consequences of asbestos exposure are detailed in the NIOSH Criteria Document or in the OSHA Asbestos Standards 29 CFR 1910.1001 and 29 CFR 1926.1101 and 29 CFR 1915.1001.

2. Sampling Procedure

2.1. Equipment for sampling

(a) Tube or cork borer sampling device

(b) Knife

(c) 20 mL scintillation vial or similar vial

(d) Sealing encapsulant

2.2. Safety Precautions

Asbestos is a known carcinogen. Take care when sampling. While in an asbestos-containing atmosphere, a properly selected and fit-tested respirator should be worn. Take samples in a manner to cause the least amount of dust. Follow these general guidelines:

(a) Do not make unnecessary dust.

(b) Take only a small amount (1 to 2 g).

(c) Tightly close the sample container.

(d) Use encapsulant to seal the spot where the sample was taken, if necessary.

2.3. Sampling Procedure

Samples of any suspect material should be taken from an inconspicuous place. Where the material is to remain, seal the sampling wound with an encapsulant to eliminate the potential for exposure from the sample site. Microscopy requires only a few milligrams of material. The amount that will fill a 20 mL scintillation vial is more than adequate. Be sure to collect samples from all layers and phases of material. If possible, make separate samples of each different phase of the material. This will aid in determining the actual hazard. DO NOT USE ENVELOPES, PLASTIC OR PAPER BAGS OF ANY KIND TO COLLECT SAMPLES. The use of plastic bags presents a contamination hazard to laboratory personnel and to other samples. When these containers are opened, a bellows effect blows fibers out of the container onto everything, including the person opening the container.

If a cork-borer type sampler is available, push the tube through the material all the way, so that all layers of material are sampled. Some samplers are intended to be disposable. These should be capped and sent to the laboratory. If a non-disposable cork borer is used, empty the contents into a scintillation vial and send to the laboratory. Vigorously and completely clean the cork borer between samples.

2.4   Shipment

Samples packed in glass vials must not touch or they might break in shipment.

(a) Seal the samples with a sample seal over the end to guard against tampering and to identify the sample.

(b) Package the bulk samples in separate packages from the air samples. They may cross-contaminate each other and will invalidate the results of the air samples.

(c) Include identifying paperwork with the samples, but not in contact with the suspected asbestos.

(d) To maintain sample accountability, ship the samples by certified mail, overnight express, or hand carry them to the laboratory.

3. Analysis

The analysis of asbestos samples can be divided into two major parts: sample preparation and microscopy. Because of the different asbestos uses that may be encountered by the analyst, each sample may need different preparation steps. The choices are outlined below. There are several different tests that are performed to identify the asbestos species and determine the percentage. They will be explained below.

3.1. Safety

(a) Do not create unnecessary dust. Handle the samples in HEPA-filter equipped hoods. If samples are received in bags, envelopes or other inappropriate container, open them only in a hood having a face velocity at or greater than 100 fpm. Transfer a small amount to a scintillation vial and only handle the smaller amount.

(b) Open samples in a hood, never in the open lab area.

(c) Index of refraction oils can be toxic. Take care not to get this material on the skin. Wash immediately with soap and water if this happens.

(d) Samples that have been heated in the muffle furnace or the drying oven may be hot. Handle them with tongs until they are cool enough to handle.

(e) Some of the solvents used, such as THF (tetrahydrofuran), are toxic and should only be handled in an appropriate fume hood and according to instructions given in the Safety Data Sheet (SDS).

3.2. Equipment

(a) Phase contrast microscope with 10x, 16x and 40x objectives, 10x wide-field eyepieces, G-22 Walton-Beckett graticule, Whipple disk, polarizer, analyzer and first order red or gypsum plate, 100 Watt illuminator, rotating position condenser with oversize phase rings, central stop dispersion objective, Kohler illumination and a rotating mechanical stage.

(b) Stereo microscope with reflected light illumination, transmitted light illumination, polarizer, analyzer and first order red or gypsum plate, and rotating stage.

(c) Negative pressure hood for the stereo microscope

(d) Muffle furnace capable of 600 °C

(e) Drying oven capable of 50-150 °C

(f) Aluminum specimen pans

(g) Tongs for handling samples in the furnace

(h) High dispersion index of refraction oils (Special for dispersion staining.)

n = 1.550

n = 1.585

n = 1.590

n = 1.605

n = 1.620

n = 1.670

n = 1.680

n = 1.690

(i) A set of index of refraction oils from about n = 1.350 to n = 2.000 in n = 0.005 increments. (Standard for Becke line analysis.)

(j) Glass slides with painted or frosted ends 1 × 3 inches 1mm (thick, precleaned.

(k) Cover Slips 22 × 22 mm, #112

(l) Paper clips or dissection needles

(m) Hand grinder

(n) Scalpel with both #10 and #11 blades

(o) 0.1 molar HCl

(p) Decalcifying solution (Baxter Scientific Products) Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid,

  • Tetrasodium 0.7 g/l
  • Sodium Potassium Tartrate 8.0 mg/liter
  • Hydrochloric Acid 99.2 g/liter
  • Sodium Tartrate 0.14 g/liter

(q) Tetrahydrofuran (THF)

(r) Hotplate capable of 60 °C

(s) Balance

(t) Hacksaw blade

(u) Ruby mortar and pestle

3.3. Sample Pre-Preparation

Sample preparation begins with pre-preparation which may include chemical reduction of the matrix, heating the sample to dryness or heating in the muffle furnace. The end result is a sample which has been reduced to a powder that is sufficiently fine to fit under the cover slip. Analyze different phases of samples separately, e.g., tile and the tile mastic should be analyzed separately as the mastic may contain asbestos while the tile may not.

(a) Wet Samples

Samples with a high water content will not give the proper dispersion colors and must be dried prior to sample mounting. Remove the lid of the scintillation vial, place the bottle in the drying oven and heat at 100 °C to dryness (usually about 2 h). Samples which are not submitted to the lab in glass must be removed and placed in glass vials or aluminum weighing pans before placing them in the drying oven.

(b) Samples With Organic Interference—Muffle Furnace

These may include samples with tar as a matrix, vinyl asbestos tile, or any other organic that can be reduced by heating. Remove the sample from the vial and weigh in a balance to determine the weight of the submitted portion. Place the sample in a muffle furnace at 500 °C for 1 to 2 h or until all obvious organic material has been removed. Retrieve, cool and weigh again to determine the weight loss on ignition. This is necessary to determine the asbestos content of the submitted sample, because the analyst will be looking at a reduced sample.

Note: Heating above 600 °C will cause the sample to undergo a structural change which, given sufficient time, will convert the chrysotile to forsterite. Heating even at lower temperatures for 1 to 2 h may have a measurable effect on the optical properties of the minerals. If the analyst is unsure of what to expect, a sample of standard asbestos should be heated to the same temperature for the same length of time so that it can be examined for the proper interpretation.

(c) Samples With Organic Interference—THF

Vinyl asbestos tile is the most common material treated with this solvent, although, substances containing tar will sometimes yield to this treatment. Select a portion of the material and then grind it up if possible. Weigh the sample and place it in a test tube. Add sufficient THF to dissolve the organic matrix. This is usually about 4 to 5 mL. Remember, THF is highly flammable. Filter the remaining material through a tared silver membrane, dry and weigh to determine how much is left after the solvent extraction. Further process the sample to remove carbonate or mount directly.

(d) Samples With Carbonate Interference

Carbonate material is often found on fibers and sometimes must be removed in order to perform dispersion microscopy. Weigh out a portion of the material and place it in a test tube. Add a sufficient amount of 0.1 M HCl or decalcifying solution in the tube to react all the carbonate as evidenced by gas formation; i.e., when the gas bubbles stop, add a little more solution. If no more gas forms, the reaction is complete. Filter the material out through a tared silver membrane, dry and weigh to determine the weight lost.

3.4. Sample Preparation

Samples must be prepared so that accurate determination can be made of the asbestos type and amount present. The following steps are carried out in the low-flow hood (a low-flow hood has less than 50 fpm flow):

(1) If the sample has large lumps, is hard, or cannot be made to lie under a cover slip, the grain size must be reduced. Place a small amount between two slides and grind the material between them or grind a small amount in a clean mortar and pestle. The choice of whether to use an alumina, ruby, or diamond mortar depends on the hardness of the material. Impact damage can alter the asbestos mineral if too much mechanical shock occurs. (Freezer mills can completely destroy the observable crystallinity of asbestos and should not be used). For some samples, a portion of material can be shaved off with a scalpel, ground off with a hand grinder or hack saw blade.

The preparation tools should either be disposable or cleaned thoroughly. Use vigorous scrubbing to loosen the fibers during the washing. Rinse the implements with copious amounts of water and air-dry in a dust-free environment.

(2) If the sample is powder or has been reduced as in (1) above, it is ready to mount. Place a glass slide on a piece of optical tissue and write the identification on the painted or frosted end. Place two drops of index of refraction medium n = 1.550 on the slide. (The medium n = 1.550 is chosen because it is the matching index for chrysotile. Dip the end of a clean paper-clip or dissecting needle into the droplet of refraction medium on the slide to moisten it. Then dip the probe into the powder sample. Transfer what sticks on the probe to the slide. The material on the end of the probe should have a diameter of about 3 mm for a good mount. If the material is very fine, less sample may be appropriate. For non-powder samples such as fiber mats, forceps should be used to transfer a small amount of material to the slide. Stir the material in the medium on the slide, spreading it out and making the preparation as uniform as possible. Place a cover-slip on the preparation by gently lowering onto the slide and allowing it to fall “trapdoor” fashion on the preparation to push out any bubbles. Press gently on the cover slip to even out the distribution of particulate on the slide. If there is insufficient mounting oil on the slide, one or two drops may be placed near the edge of the coverslip on the slide. Capillary action will draw the necessary amount of liquid into the preparation. Remove excess oil with the point of a laboratory wiper.

Treat at least two different areas of each phase in this fashion. Choose representative areas of the sample. It may be useful to select particular areas or fibers for analysis. This is useful to identify asbestos in severely inhomogeneous samples.

When it is determined that amphiboles may be present, repeat the above process using the appropriate high-dispersion oils until an identification is made or all six asbestos minerals have been ruled out. Note that percent determination must be done in the index medium 1.550 because amphiboles tend to disappear in their matching mediums.

3.5. Analytical procedure

Note: This method presumes some knowledge of mineralogy and optical petrography.

The analysis consists of three parts: The determination of whether there is asbestos present, what type is present and the determination of how much is present. The general flow of the analysis is:

(1) Gross examination.

(2) Examination under polarized light on the stereo microscope.

(3) Examination by phase-polar illumination on the compound phase microscope.

(4) Determination of species by dispersion stain. Examination by Becke line analysis may also be used; however, this is usually more cumbersome for asbestos determination.

(5) Difficult samples may need to be analyzed by SEM or TEM, or the results from those techniques combined with light microscopy for a definitive identification.

Identification of a particle as asbestos requires that it be asbestiform. Description of particles should follow the suggestion of Campbell. (Figure 1)

eCFR graphic er10au94.026.gif

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For the purpose of regulation, the mineral must be one of the six minerals covered and must be in the asbestos growth habit. Large specimen samples of asbestos generally have the gross appearance of wood. Fibers are easily parted from it. Asbestos fibers are very long compared with their widths. The fibers have a very high tensile strength as demonstrated by bending without breaking. Asbestos fibers exist in bundles that are easily parted, show longitudinal fine structure and may be tufted at the ends showing “bundle of sticks” morphology. In the microscope some of these properties may not be observable. Amphiboles do not always show striations along their length even when they are asbestos. Neither will they always show tufting. They generally do not show a curved nature except for very long fibers. Asbestos and asbestiform minerals are usually characterized in groups by extremely high aspect ratios (greater than 100:1). While aspect ratio analysis is useful for characterizing populations of fibers, it cannot be used to identify individual fibers of intermediate to short aspect ratio. Observation of many fibers is often necessary to determine whether a sample consists of “cleavage fragments” or of asbestos fibers.

Most cleavage fragments of the asbestos minerals are easily distinguishable from true asbestos fibers. This is because true cleavage fragments usually have larger diameters than 1 µm. Internal structure of particles larger than this usually shows them to have no internal fibrillar structure. In addition, cleavage fragments of the monoclinic amphiboles show inclined extinction under crossed polars with no compensator. Asbestos fibers usually show extinction at zero degrees or ambiguous extinction if any at all. Morphologically, the larger cleavage fragments are obvious by their blunt or stepped ends showing prismatic habit. Also, they tend to be acicular rather than filiform.

Where the particles are less than 1 µm in diameter and have an aspect ratio greater than or equal to 3:1, it is recommended that the sample be analyzed by SEM or TEM if there is any question whether the fibers are cleavage fragments or asbestiform particles.

Care must be taken when analyzing by electron microscopy because the interferences are different from those in light microscopy and may structurally be very similar to asbestos. The classic interference is between anthophyllite and biopyribole or intermediate fiber. Use the same morphological clues for electron microscopy as are used for light microscopy, e.g. fibril splitting, internal longitudinal striation, fraying, curvature, etc.

(1) Gross examination:

Examine the sample, preferably in the glass vial. Determine the presence of any obvious fibrous component. Estimate a percentage based on previous experience and current observation. Determine whether any pre-preparation is necessary. Determine the number of phases present. This step may be carried out or augmented by observation at 6 to 40 × under a stereo microscope.

(2) After performing any necessary pre-preparation, prepare slides of each phase as described above. Two preparations of the same phase in the same index medium can be made side-by-side on the same glass for convenience. Examine with the polarizing stereo microscope. Estimate the percentage of asbestos based on the amount of birefringent fiber present.

(3) Examine the slides on the phase-polar microscopes at magnifications of 160 and 400 × . Note the morphology of the fibers. Long, thin, very straight fibers with little curvature are indicative of fibers from the amphibole family. Curved, wavy fibers are usually indicative of chrysotile. Estimate the percentage of asbestos on the phase-polar microscope under conditions of crossed polars and a gypsum plate. Fibers smaller than 1.0 µm in thickness must be identified by inference to the presence of larger, identifiable fibers and morphology. If no larger fibers are visible, electron microscopy should be performed. At this point, only a tentative identification can be made. Full identification must be made with dispersion microscopy. Details of the tests are included in the appendices.

(4) Once fibers have been determined to be present, they must be identified. Adjust the microscope for dispersion mode and observe the fibers. The microscope has a rotating stage, one polarizing element, and a system for generating dark-field dispersion microscopy (see Section 4.6. of this appendix). Align a fiber with its length parallel to the polarizer and note the color of the Becke lines. Rotate the stage to bring the fiber length perpendicular to the polarizer and note the color. Repeat this process for every fiber or fiber bundle examined. The colors must be consistent with the colors generated by standard asbestos reference materials for a positive identification. In n = 1.550, amphiboles will generally show a yellow to straw-yellow color indicating that the fiber indices of refraction are higher than the liquid. If long, thin fibers are noted and the colors are yellow, prepare further slides as above in the suggested matching liquids listed below:

Type of asbestosIndex of refraction
Chrysotilen = 1.550.
Amositen = 1.670 or 1.680.
Crocidoliten = 1.690.
Anthophylliten = 1.605 and 1.620.
Tremoliten = 1.605 and 1.620.
Actinoliten = 1.620.

Where more than one liquid is suggested, the first is preferred; however, in some cases this liquid will not give good dispersion color. Take care to avoid interferences in the other liquid; e.g., wollastonite in n = 1.620 will give the same colors as tremolite. In n = 1.605 wollastonite will appear yellow in all directions. Wollastonite may be determined under crossed polars as it will change from blue to yellow as it is rotated along its fiber axis by tapping on the cover slip. Asbestos minerals will not change in this way.

Determination of the angle of extinction may, when present, aid in the determination of anthophyllite from tremolite. True asbestos fibers usually have 0° extinction or ambiguous extinction, while cleavage fragments have more definite extinction.

Continue analysis until both preparations have been examined and all present species of asbestos are identified. If there are no fibers present, or there is less than 0.1% present, end the analysis with the minimum number of slides (2).

(5) Some fibers have a coating on them which makes dispersion microscopy very difficult or impossible. Becke line analysis or electron microscopy may be performed in those cases. Determine the percentage by light microscopy. TEM analysis tends to overestimate the actual percentage present.

(6) Percentage determination is an estimate of occluded area, tempered by gross observation. Gross observation information is used to make sure that the high magnification microscopy does not greatly over- or under- estimate the amount of fiber present. This part of the analysis requires a great deal of experience. Satisfactory models for asbestos content analysis have not yet been developed, although some models based on metallurgical grain-size determination have found some utility. Estimation is more easily handled in situations where the grain sizes visible at about 160 × are about the same and the sample is relatively homogeneous.

View all of the area under the cover slip to make the percentage determination. View the fields while moving the stage, paying attention to the clumps of material. These are not usually the best areas to perform dispersion microscopy because of the interference from other materials. But, they are the areas most likely to represent the accurate percentage in the sample. Small amounts of asbestos require slower scanning and more frequent analysis of individual fields.

Report the area occluded by asbestos as the concentration. This estimate does not generally take into consideration the difference in density of the different species present in the sample. For most samples this is adequate. Simulation studies with similar materials must be carried out to apply microvisual estimation for that purpose and is beyond the scope of this procedure.

(7) Where successive concentrations have been made by chemical or physical means, the amount reported is the percentage of the material in the “as submitted” or original state. The percentage determined by microscopy is multiplied by the fractions remaining after pre-preparation steps to give the percentage in the original sample. For example:

Step 1. 60% remains after heating at 550 °C for 1 h.

Step 2. 30% of the residue of step 1 remains after dissolution of carbonate in 0.1 m HCl.

Step 3. Microvisual estimation determines that 5% of the sample is chrysotile asbestos.

The reported result is:

R = (Microvisual result in percent) × (Fraction remaining after step 2) × (Fraction remaining of original sample after step 1)

R = (5) × (.30) × (.60) = 0.9%

(8) Report the percent and type of asbestos present. For samples where asbestos was identified, but is less than 1.0%, report “Asbestos present, less than 1.0%.” There must have been at least two observed fibers or fiber bundles in the two preparations to be reported as present. For samples where asbestos was not seen, report as “None Detected.”

Auxiliary Information

Because of the subjective nature of asbestos analysis, certain concepts and procedures need to be discussed in more depth. This information will help the analyst understand why some of the procedures are carried out the way they are.

4.1. Light

Light is electromagnetic energy. It travels from its source in packets called quanta. It is instructive to consider light as a plane wave. The light has a direction of travel. Perpendicular to this and mutually perpendicular to each other, are two vector components. One is the magnetic vector and the other is the electric vector. We shall only be concerned with the electric vector. In this description, the interaction of the vector and the mineral will describe all the observable phenomena. From a light source such a microscope illuminator, light travels in all different direction from the filament.

In any given direction away from the filament, the electric vector is perpendicular to the direction of travel of a light ray. While perpendicular, its orientation is random about the travel axis. If the electric vectors from all the light rays were lined up by passing the light through a filter that would only let light rays with electric vectors oriented in one direction pass, the light would then be POLARIZED.

Polarized light interacts with matter in the direction of the electric vector. This is the polarization direction. Using this property it is possible to use polarized light to probe different materials and identify them by how they interact with light.

The speed of light in a vacuum is a constant at about 2.99 × 108 m/s. When light travels in different materials such as air, water, minerals or oil, it does not travel at this speed. It travels slower. This slowing is a function of both the material through which the light is traveling and the wavelength or frequency of the light. In general, the more dense the material, the slower the light travels. Also, generally, the higher the frequency, the slower the light will travel. The ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to that in a material is called the index of refraction (n). It is usually measured at 589 nm (the sodium D line). If white light (light containing all the visible wavelengths) travels through a material, rays of longer wavelengths will travel faster than those of shorter wavelengths, this separation is called dispersion. Dispersion is used as an identifier of materials as described in Section 4.6.

4.2. Material Properties

Materials are either amorphous or crystalline. The difference between these two descriptions depends on the positions of the atoms in them. The atoms in amorphous materials are randomly arranged with no long range order. An example of an amorphous material is glass. The atoms in crystalline materials, on the other hand, are in regular arrays and have long range order. Most of the atoms can be found in highly predictable locations. Examples of crystalline material are salt, gold, and the asbestos minerals.

It is beyond the scope of this method to describe the different types of crystalline materials that can be found, or the full description of the classes into which they can fall. However, some general crystallography is provided below to give a foundation to the procedures described.

With the exception of anthophyllite, all the asbestos minerals belong to the monoclinic crystal type. The unit cell is the basic repeating unit of the crystal and for monoclinic crystals can be described as having three unequal sides, two 90° angles and one angle not equal to 90°. The orthorhombic group, of which anthophyllite is a member has three unequal sides and three 90° angles. The unequal sides are a consequence of the complexity of fitting the different atoms into the unit cell. Although the atoms are in a regular array, that array is not symmetrical in all directions. There is long range order in the three major directions of the crystal. However, the order is different in each of the three directions. This has the effect that the index of refraction is different in each of the three directions. Using polarized light, we can investigate the index of refraction in each of the directions and identify the mineral or material under investigation. The indices α, β, and γ are used to identify the lowest, middle, and highest index of refraction respectively. The x direction, associated with α is called the fast axis. Conversely, the z direction is associated with γ and is the slow direction. Crocidolite has α along the fiber length making it “length-fast”. The remainder of the asbestos minerals have the γ axis along the fiber length. They are called “length-slow”. This orientation to fiber length is used to aid in the identification of asbestos.

4.3. Polarized Light Technique

Polarized light microscopy as described in this section uses the phase-polar microscope described in Section 3.2. A phase contrast microscope is fitted with two polarizing elements, one below and one above the sample. The polarizers have their polarization directions at right angles to each other. Depending on the tests performed, there may be a compensator between these two polarizing elements. A compensator is a piece of mineral with known properties that “compensates” for some deficiency in the optical train. Light emerging from a polarizing element has its electric vector pointing in the polarization direction of the element. The light will not be subsequently transmitted through a second element set at a right angle to the first element. Unless the light is altered as it passes from one element to the other, there is no transmission of light.

4.4. Angle of Extinction

Crystals which have different crystal regularity in two or three main directions are said to be anisotropic. They have a different index of refraction in each of the main directions. When such a crystal is inserted between the crossed polars, the field of view is no longer dark but shows the crystal in color. The color depends on the properties of the crystal. The light acts as if it travels through the crystal along the optical axes. If a crystal optical axis were lined up along one of the polarizing directions (either the polarizer or the analyzer) the light would appear to travel only in that direction, and it would blink out or go dark. The difference in degrees between the fiber direction and the angle at which it blinks out is called the angle of extinction. When this angle can be measured, it is useful in identifying the mineral. The procedure for measuring the angle of extinction is to first identify the polarization direction in the microscope. A commercial alignment slide can be used to establish the polarization directions or use anthophyllite or another suitable mineral. This mineral has a zero degree angle of extinction and will go dark to extinction as it aligns with the polarization directions. When a fiber of anthophyllite has gone to extinction, align the eyepiece reticle or graticule with the fiber so that there is a visual cue as to the direction of polarization in the field of view. Tape or otherwise secure the eyepiece in this position so it will not shift.

After the polarization direction has been identified in the field of view, move the particle of interest to the center of the field of view and align it with the polarization direction. For fibers, align the fiber along this direction. Note the angular reading of the rotating stage. Looking at the particle, rotate the stage until the fiber goes dark or “blinks out”. Again note the reading of the stage. The difference in the first reading and the second is an angle of extinction.

The angle measured may vary as the orientation of the fiber changes about its long axis. Tables of mineralogical data usually report the maximum angle of extinction. Asbestos forming minerals, when they exhibit an angle of extinction, usually do show an angle of extinction close to the reported maximum, or as appropriate depending on the substitution chemistry.

4.5. Crossed Polars with Compensator

When the optical axes of a crystal are not lined up along one of the polarizing directions (either the polarizer or the analyzer) part of the light travels along one axis and part travels along the other visible axis. This is characteristic of birefringent materials.

The color depends on the difference of the two visible indices of refraction and the thickness of the crystal. The maximum difference available is the difference between the α and the γ axes. This maximum difference is usually tabulated as the birefringence of the crystal.

For this test, align the fiber at 45° to the polarization directions in order to maximize the contribution to each of the optical axes. The colors seen are called retardation colors. They arise from the recombination of light which has traveled through the two separate directions of the crystal. One of the rays is retarded behind the other since the light in that direction travels slower. On recombination, some of the colors which make up white light are enhanced by constructive interference and some are suppressed by destructive interference. The result is a color dependent on the difference between the indices and the thickness of the crystal. The proper colors, thicknesses, and retardations are shown on a Michel-Levy chart. The three items, retardation, thickness and birefringence are related by the following relationship:

R = t(nγ−nα)

R = retardation, t = crystal thickness in µm, and

nα,γ = indices of refraction.

Examination of the equation for asbestos minerals reveals that the visible colors for almost all common asbestos minerals and fiber sizes are shades of gray and black. The eye is relatively poor at discriminating different shades of gray. It is very good at discriminating different colors. In order to compensate for the low retardation, a compensator is added to the light train between the polarization elements. The compensator used for this test is a gypsum plate of known thickness and birefringence. Such a compensator when oriented at 45° to the polarizer direction, provides a retardation of 530 nm of the 530 nm wavelength color. This enhances the red color and gives the background a characteristic red to red-magenta color. If this “full-wave” compensator is in place when the asbestos preparation is inserted into the light train, the colors seen on the fibers are quite different. Gypsum, like asbestos has a fast axis and a slow axis. When a fiber is aligned with its fast axis in the same direction as the fast axis of the gypsum plate, the ray vibrating in the slow direction is retarded by both the asbestos and the gypsum. This results in a higher retardation than would be present for either of the two minerals. The color seen is a second order blue. When the fiber is rotated 90° using the rotating stage, the slow direction of the fiber is now aligned with the fast direction of the gypsum and the fast direction of the fiber is aligned with the slow direction of the gypsum. Thus, one ray vibrates faster in the fast direction of the gypsum, and slower in the slow direction of the fiber; the other ray will vibrate slower in the slow direction of the gypsum and faster in the fast direction of the fiber. In this case, the effect is subtractive and the color seen is a first order yellow. As long as the fiber thickness does not add appreciably to the color, the same basic colors will be seen for all asbestos types except crocidolite. In crocidolite the colors will be weaker, may be in the opposite directions, and will be altered by the blue absorption color natural to crocidolite. Hundreds of other materials will give the same colors as asbestos, and therefore, this test is not definitive for asbestos. The test is useful in discriminating against fiberglass or other amorphous fibers such as some synthetic fibers. Certain synthetic fibers will show retardation colors different than asbestos; however, there are some forms of polyethylene and aramid which will show morphology and retardation colors similar to asbestos minerals. This test must be supplemented with a positive identification test when birefringent fibers are present which can not be excluded by morphology. This test is relatively ineffective for use on fibers less than 1 µm in diameter. For positive confirmation TEM or SEM should be used if no larger bundles or fibers are visible.

4.6. Dispersion Staining

Dispersion microscopy or dispersion staining is the method of choice for the identification of asbestos in bulk materials. Becke line analysis is used by some laboratories and yields the same results as does dispersion staining for asbestos and can be used in lieu of dispersion staining. Dispersion staining is performed on the same platform as the phase-polar analysis with the analyzer and compensator removed. One polarizing element remains to define the direction of the light so that the different indices of refraction of the fibers may be separately determined. Dispersion microscopy is a dark-field technique when used for asbestos. Particles are imaged with scattered light. Light which is unscattered is blocked from reaching the eye either by the back field image mask in a McCrone objective or a back field image mask in the phase condenser. The most convenient method is to use the rotating phase condenser to move an oversized phase ring into place. The ideal size for this ring is for the central disk to be just larger than the objective entry aperture as viewed in the back focal plane. The larger the disk, the less scattered light reaches the eye. This will have the effect of diminishing the intensity of dispersion color and will shift the actual color seen. The colors seen vary even on microscopes from the same manufacturer. This is due to the different bands of wavelength exclusion by different mask sizes. The mask may either reside in the condenser or in the objective back focal plane. It is imperative that the analyst determine by experimentation with asbestos standards what the appropriate colors should be for each asbestos type. The colors depend also on the temperature of the preparation and the exact chemistry of the asbestos. Therefore, some slight differences from the standards should be allowed. This is not a serious problem for commercial asbestos uses. This technique is used for identification of the indices of refraction for fibers by recognition of color. There is no direct numerical readout of the index of refraction. Correlation of color to actual index of refraction is possible by referral to published conversion tables. This is not necessary for the analysis of asbestos. Recognition of appropriate colors along with the proper morphology are deemed sufficient to identify the commercial asbestos minerals. Other techniques including SEM, TEM, and XRD may be required to provide additional information in order to identify other types of asbestos.

Make a preparation in the suspected matching high dispersion oil, e.g., n = 1.550 for chrysotile. Perform the preliminary tests to determine whether the fibers are birefringent or not. Take note of the morphological character. Wavy fibers are indicative of chrysotile while long, straight, thin, frayed fibers are indicative of amphibole asbestos. This can aid in the selection of the appropriate matching oil. The microscope is set up and the polarization direction is noted as in Section 4.4. Align a fiber with the polarization direction. Note the color. This is the color parallel to the polarizer. Then rotate the fiber rotating the stage 90° so that the polarization direction is across the fiber. This is the perpendicular position. Again note the color. Both colors must be consistent with standard asbestos minerals in the correct direction for a positive identification of asbestos. If only one of the colors is correct while the other is not, the identification is not positive. If the colors in both directions are bluish-white, the analyst has chosen a matching index oil which is higher than the correct matching oil, e.g. the analyst has used n = 1.620 where chrysotile is present. The next lower oil (Section 3.5.) should be used to prepare another specimen. If the color in both directions is yellow-white to straw-yellow-white, this indicates that the index of the oil is lower than the index of the fiber, e.g. the preparation is in n = 1.550 while anthophyllite is present. Select the next higher oil (Section 3.5.) and prepare another slide. Continue in this fashion until a positive identification of all asbestos species present has been made or all possible asbestos species have been ruled out by negative results in this test. Certain plant fibers can have similar dispersion colors as asbestos. Take care to note and evaluate the morphology of the fibers or remove the plant fibers in pre-preparation. Coating material on the fibers such as carbonate or vinyl may destroy the dispersion color. Usually, there will be some outcropping of fiber which will show the colors sufficient for identification. When this is not the case, treat the sample as described in Section 3.3. and then perform dispersion staining. Some samples will yield to Becke line analysis if they are coated or electron microscopy can be used for identification.

5. References

5.1. Crane, D.T., Asbestos in Air, OSHA method ID160, Revised November 1992.

5.2. Ford, W.E., Dana's Textbook of Mineralogy; Fourth Ed.; John Wiley and Son, New York, 1950, p. vii.

5.3. Selikoff, I.J., Lee, D.H.K., Asbestos and Disease, Academic Press, New York, 1978, pp. 3,20.

5.4. Women Inspectors of Factories. Annual Report for 1898, H.M. Statistical Office, London, p. 170 (1898).

5.5. Selikoff,.I.J., Lee, D.H.K., Asbestos and Disease, Academic Press, New York, 1978, pp. 26,30.

5.6. Campbell, W.J., et al, Selected Silicate Minerals and Their Asbestiform Varieties, United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, Information Circular 8751, 1977.

5.7. Asbestos, Code of Federal Regulations, 29 CFR 1910.1001 and 29 CFR 1926.58.

5.8. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Asbestos NESHAP Revision, Federal Register, Vol. 55, No. 224, 20 November 1990, p. 48410.

5.9. Ross, M. The Asbestos Minerals: Definitions, Description, Modes of Formation, Physical and Chemical Properties and Health Risk to the Mining Community, Nation Bureau of Standards Special Publication, Washington, DC, 1977.

5.10. Lilis, R., Fibrous Zeolites and Endemic Mesothelioma in Cappadocia, Turkey, J. Occ Medicine, 1981, 23,(8),548-550.

5.11. Occupational Exposure to Asbestos—1972, U.S. Department of Health Education and Welfare, Public Health Service, Center for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, HSM-72-10267.

5.12. Campbell,W.J., et al, Relationship of Mineral Habit to Size Characteristics for Tremolite Fragments and Fibers, United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, Information Circular 8367, 1979.

5.13. Mefford, D., DCM Laboratory, Denver, private communication, July 1987.

5.14. Deer, W.A., Howie, R.A., Zussman, J., Rock Forming Minerals, Longman, Thetford, UK, 1974.

5.15. Kerr, P.F., Optical Mineralogy; Third Ed. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1959.

5.16. Veblen, D.R. (Ed.), Amphiboles and Other Hydrous Pyriboles—Mineralogy, Reviews in Mineralogy, Vol 9A, Michigan, 1982, pp 1-102.

5.17. Dixon, W.C., Applications of Optical Microscopy in the Analysis of Asbestos and Quartz, ACS Symposium Series, No. 120, Analytical Techniques in Occupational Health Chemistry, 1979.

5.18. Polarized Light Microscopy, McCrone Research Institute, Chicago, 1976.

5.19. Asbestos Identification, McCrone Research Institute, G & G printers, Chicago, 1987.

5.20. McCrone, W.C., Calculation of Refractive Indices from Dispersion Staining Data, The Microscope, No 37, Chicago, 1989.

5.21. Levadie, B. (Ed.), Asbestos and Other Health Related Silicates, ASTM Technical Publication 834, ASTM, Philadelphia 1982.

5.22. Steel, E. and Wylie, A., Riordan, P.H. (Ed.), Mineralogical Characteristics of Asbestos, Geology of Asbestos Deposits, pp. 93-101, SME-AIME, 1981.

5.23. Zussman, J., The Mineralogy of Asbestos, Asbestos: Properties, Applications and Hazards, pp. 45-67 Wiley, 1979.

[51 FR 22756, June 20, 1986]

Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting §1926.1101, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www.govinfo.gov.

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§1926.1102   Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to those set forth at §1910.1002 of this chapter.

[61 FR 31433, June 20, 1996]

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§1926.1103   13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to those set forth at §1910.1003 of this chapter.

[61 FR 31433, June 20, 1996]

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§1926.1104   alpha-Naphthylamine.

Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to those set forth at §1910.1003 of this chapter.

[61 FR 31433, June 20, 1996]

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§1926.1105   [Reserved]

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§1926.1106   Methyl chloromethyl ether.

Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to those set forth at §1910.1003 of this chapter.

[61 FR 31433, June 20, 1996]

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§1926.1107   3,3′-Dichlorobenzidiene (and its salts).

Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to those set forth at §1910.1003 of this chapter.

[61 FR 31433, June 20, 1996]

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§1926.1108   bis-Chloromethyl ether.

Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to those set forth at §1910.1003 of this chapter.

[61 FR 31433, June 20, 1996]

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§1926.1109   beta-Naphthylamine.

Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to those set forth at §1910.1003 of this chapter.

[61 FR 31433, June 20, 1996]

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§1926.1110   Benzidine.

Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to those set forth at §1910.1003 of this chapter.

[61 FR 31433, June 20, 1996]

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§1926.1111   4-Aminodiphenyl.

Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to those set forth at §1910.1003 of this chapter.

[61 FR 31433, June 20, 1996]

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§1926.1112   Ethyleneimine.

Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to those set forth at §1910.1003 of this chapter.

[61 FR 31433, June 20, 1996]

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§1926.1113   beta-Propiolactone.

Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to those set forth at §1910.1003 of this chapter.

[61 FR 31433, June 20, 1996]

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§1926.1114   2-Acetylaminofluorene.

Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to those set forth at §1910.1003 of this chapter.

[61 FR 31433, June 20, 1996]

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§1926.1115   4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene.

Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to those set forth at §1910.1003 of this chapter.

[61 FR 31433, June 20, 1996]

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§1926.1116   N-Nitrosodimethylamine.

Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to those set forth at §1910.1003 of this chapter.

[61 FR 31433, June 20, 1996]

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§1926.1117   Vinyl chloride.

Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to those set forth at §1910.1017 of this chapter.

[61 FR 31433, June 20, 1996]

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§1926.1118   Inorganic arsenic.

Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to those set forth at §1910.1018 of this chapter.

[61 FR 31433, June 20, 1996]

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§1926.1124   Beryllium.

(a) Scope and application. (1) This standard applies to occupational exposure to beryllium in all forms, compounds, and mixtures in construction, except those articles and materials exempted by paragraphs (a)(2) and (a)(3) of this standard.

(2) This standard does not apply to articles, as defined in the Hazard Communication standard (HCS) (29 CFR 1910.1200(c)), that contain beryllium and that the employer does not process.

(3) This standard does not apply to materials containing less than 0.1% beryllium by weight where the employer has objective data demonstrating that employee exposure to beryllium will remain below the action level as an 8-hour TWA under any foreseeable conditions.

(b) Definitions. As used in this standard:

Action level means a concentration of airborne beryllium of 0.1 micrograms per cubic meter of air (µg/m3) calculated as an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA).

Airborne exposure and airborne exposure to beryllium mean the exposure to airborne beryllium that would occur if the employee were not using a respirator.

Assistant Secretary means the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health, United States Department of Labor, or designee.

Beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) means the measurement of blood lymphocyte proliferation in a laboratory test when lymphocytes are challenged with a soluble beryllium salt.

CBD diagnostic center means a medical diagnostic center that has an on-site pulmonary specialist and on-site facilities to perform a clinical evaluation for the presence of chronic beryllium disease (CBD). This evaluation must include pulmonary function testing (as outlined by the American Thoracic Society criteria), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and transbronchial biopsy. The CBD diagnostic center must also have the capacity to transfer BAL samples to a laboratory for appropriate diagnostic testing within 24 hours. The on-site pulmonary specialist must be able to interpret the biopsy pathology and the BAL diagnostic test results.

Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) means a chronic lung disease associated with airborne exposure to beryllium.

Competent person means an individual who is capable of identifying existing and foreseeable beryllium hazards in the workplace and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate or minimize them. The competent person must have the knowledge, ability, and authority necessary to fulfill the responsibilities set forth in paragraph (e) of this standard.

Confirmed positive means the person tested has beryllium sensitization, as indicated by two abnormal BeLPT test results, an abnormal and a borderline test result, or three borderline test results. It also means the result of a more reliable and accurate test indicating a person has been identified as having beryllium sensitization.

Director means the Director of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or designee.

Emergency means any uncontrolled release of airborne beryllium.

High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter means a filter that is at least 99.97 percent efficient in removing particles 0.3 micrometers in diameter.

Objective data means information, such as air monitoring data from industry-wide surveys or calculations based on the composition of a substance, demonstrating airborne exposure to beryllium associated with a particular product or material or a specific process, task, or activity. The data must reflect workplace conditions closely resembling or with a higher airborne exposure potential than the processes, types of material, control methods, work practices, and environmental conditions in the employer's current operations.

Physician or other licensed health care professional (PLHCP) means an individual whose legally permitted scope of practice (i.e., license, registration, or certification) allows the individual to independently provide or be delegated the responsibility to provide some or all of the health care services required by paragraph (k) of this standard.

This standard means this beryllium standard, 29 CFR 1926.1124.

(c) Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs)—(1) Time-weighted average (TWA) PEL. The employer must ensure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of beryllium in excess of 0.2 µg/m3 calculated as an 8-hour TWA.

(2) Short-term exposure limit (STEL). The employer must ensure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of beryllium in excess of 2.0 µg/m3 as determined over a sampling period of 15 minutes.

(d) Exposure assessment—(1) General. The employer must assess the airborne exposure of each employee who is or may reasonably be expected to be exposed to airborne beryllium in accordance with either the performance option in paragraph (d)(2) or the scheduled monitoring option in paragraph (d)(3) of this standard.

(2) Performance option. The employer must assess the 8-hour TWA exposure and the 15-minute short-term exposure for each employee on the basis of any combination of air monitoring data and objective data sufficient to accurately characterize airborne exposure to beryllium.

(3) Scheduled monitoring option. (i) The employer must perform initial monitoring to assess the 8-hour TWA exposure for each employee on the basis of one or more personal breathing zone air samples that reflect the airborne exposure of employees on each shift, for each job classification, and in each work area.

(ii) The employer must perform initial monitoring to assess the short-term exposure from 15-minute personal breathing zone air samples measured in operations that are likely to produce airborne exposure above the STEL for each work shift, for each job classification, and in each work area.

(iii) Where several employees perform the same tasks on the same shift and in the same work area, the employer may sample a representative fraction of these employees in order to meet the requirements of paragraph (d)(3). In representative sampling, the employer must sample the employee(s) expected to have the highest airborne exposure to beryllium.

(iv) If initial monitoring indicates that airborne exposure is below the action level and at or below the STEL, the employer may discontinue monitoring for those employees whose airborne exposure is represented by such monitoring.

(v) Where the most recent exposure monitoring indicates that airborne exposure is at or above the action level but at or below the TWA PEL, the employer must repeat such monitoring within six months of the most recent monitoring.

(vi) Where the most recent exposure monitoring indicates that airborne exposure is above the TWA PEL, the employer must repeat such monitoring within three months of the most recent 8-hour TWA exposure monitoring.

(vii) Where the most recent (non-initial) exposure monitoring indicates that airborne exposure is below the action level, the employer must repeat such monitoring within six months of the most recent monitoring until two consecutive measurements, taken 7 or more days apart, are below the action level, at which time the employer may discontinue 8-hour TWA exposure monitoring for those employees whose exposure is represented by such monitoring, except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d)(4) of this standard.

(viii) Where the most recent exposure monitoring indicates that airborne exposure is above the STEL, the employer must repeat such monitoring within three months of the most recent short-term exposure monitoring until two consecutive measurements, taken 7 or more days apart, are below the STEL, at which time the employer may discontinue short-term exposure monitoring for those employees whose exposure is represented by such monitoring, except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d)(4) of this standard.

(4) Reassessment of exposure. The employer must reassess airborne exposure whenever a change in the production, process, control equipment, personnel, or work practices may reasonably be expected to result in new or additional airborne exposure at or above the action level or STEL, or when the employer has any reason to believe that new or additional airborne exposure at or above the action level or STEL has occurred.

(5) Methods of sample analysis. The employer must ensure that all air monitoring samples used to satisfy the monitoring requirements of paragraph (d) of this standard are evaluated by a laboratory that can measure beryllium to an accuracy of plus or minus 25 percent within a statistical confidence level of 95 percent for airborne concentrations at or above the action level.

(6) Employee notification of assessment results. (i) Within 15 working days after completing an exposure assessment in accordance with paragraph (d) of this standard, the employer must notify each employee whose airborne exposure is represented by the assessment of the results of that assessment individually in writing or post the results in an appropriate location that is accessible to each of these employees.

(ii) Whenever an exposure assessment indicates that airborne exposure is above the TWA PEL or STEL, the employer must describe in the written notification the corrective action being taken to reduce airborne exposure to or below the exposure limit(s) exceeded where feasible corrective action exists but had not been implemented when the monitoring was conducted.

(7) Observation of monitoring. (i) The employer must provide an opportunity to observe any exposure monitoring required by this standard to each employee whose airborne exposure is measured or represented by the monitoring and each employee's representative(s).

(ii) When observation of monitoring requires entry into an area where the use of personal protective clothing or equipment (which may include respirators) is required, the employer must provide each observer with appropriate personal protective clothing and equipment at no cost to the observer.

(iii) The employer must ensure that each observer follows all other applicable safety and health procedures.

(e) Competent person. Wherever employees are, or can reasonably be expected to be, exposed to airborne beryllium at levels above the TWA PEL or STEL, the employer must designate a competent person to

(1) Make frequent and regular inspections of job sites, materials, and equipment;

(2) Implement the written exposure control plan under paragraph (f) of this standard;

(3) Ensure that all employees use respiratory protection in accordance with paragraph (g) of this standard; and

(4) Ensure that all employees use personal protective clothing and equipment in accordance with paragraph (h) of this standard.

(f) Methods of compliance—(1) Written exposure control plan. (i) The employer must establish, implement, and maintain a written exposure control plan, which must contain:

(A) A list of operations and job titles reasonably expected to involve airborne exposure to or dermal contact with beryllium;

(B) A list of operations and job titles reasonably expected to involve airborne exposure at or above the action level;

(C) A list of operations and job titles reasonably expected to involve airborne exposure above the TWA PEL or STEL;

(D) Procedures for minimizing cross-contamination;

(E) Procedures for minimizing the migration of beryllium within or to locations outside the workplace;

(F) A list of engineering controls, work practices, and respiratory protection required by paragraph (f)(2) of this standard;

(G) A list of personal protective clothing and equipment required by paragraph (h) of this standard;

(H) Procedures for removing, laundering, storing, cleaning, repairing, and disposing of beryllium-contaminated personal protective clothing and equipment, including respirators; and

(I) Procedures used to restrict access to work areas when airborne exposures are, or can reasonably be expected to be, above the TWA PEL or STEL, to minimize the number of employees exposed to airborne beryllium and their level of exposure, including exposures generated by other employers or sole proprietors.

(ii) The employer must review and evaluate the effectiveness of each written exposure control plan at least annually and update it, as necessary, when:

(A) Any change in production processes, materials, equipment, personnel, work practices, or control methods results, or can reasonably be expected to result, in new or additional airborne exposure to beryllium;

(B) The employer is notified that an employee is eligible for medical removal in accordance with paragraph (l)(1) of this standard, referred for evaluation at a CBD diagnostic center, or shows signs or symptoms associated with airborne exposure to or dermal contact with beryllium; or

(C) The employer has any reason to believe that new or additional airborne exposure is occurring or will occur.

(iii) The employer must make a copy of the written exposure control plan accessible to each employee who is, or can reasonably be expected to be, exposed to airborne beryllium in accordance with OSHA's Access to Employee Exposure and Medical Records (Records Access) standard (29 CFR 1910.1020(e)).

(2) Engineering and work practice controls. (i) Where exposures are, or can reasonably be expected to be, at or above the action level, the employer must ensure that at least one of the following is in place to reduce airborne exposure:

(A) Material and/or process substitution;

(B) Isolation, such as ventilated partial or full enclosures;

(C) Local exhaust ventilation, such as at the points of operation, material handling, and transfer; or

(D) Process control, such as wet methods and automation.

(ii) An employer is exempt from using the controls listed in paragraph (f)(2)(i) of this standard to the extent that:

(A) The employer can establish that such controls are not feasible; or

(B) The employer can demonstrate that airborne exposure is below the action level, using no fewer than two representative personal breathing zone samples taken at least 7 days apart, for each affected operation.

(iii) If airborne exposure exceeds the TWA PEL or STEL after implementing the control(s) required by paragraph (f)(2)(i) of this standard, the employer must implement additional or enhanced engineering and work practice controls to reduce airborne exposure to or below the exposure limit(s) exceeded.

(iv) Wherever the employer demonstrates that it is not feasible to reduce airborne exposure to or below the PELs by the engineering and work practice controls required by paragraphs (f)(2)(i) and (f)(2)(iii), the employer must implement and maintain engineering and work practice controls to reduce airborne exposure to the lowest levels feasible and supplement these controls by using respiratory protection in accordance with paragraph (g) of this standard.

(3) Prohibition of rotation. The employer must not rotate employees to different jobs to achieve compliance with the PELs.

(g) Respiratory protection—(1) General. The employer must provide respiratory protection at no cost to the employee and ensure that each employee uses respiratory protection:

(i) During periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work practice controls where airborne exposure exceeds, or can reasonably be expected to exceed, the TWA PEL or STEL;

(ii) During operations, including maintenance and repair activities and non-routine tasks, when engineering and work practice controls are not feasible and airborne exposure exceeds, or can reasonably be expected to exceed, the TWA PEL or STEL;

(iii) During operations for which an employer has implemented all feasible engineering and work practice controls when such controls are not sufficient to reduce airborne exposure to or below the TWA PEL or STEL;

(iv) During emergencies; and

(v) When an employee who is eligible for medical removal under paragraph (l)(1) chooses to remain in a job with airborne exposure at or above the action level, as permitted by paragraph (l)(2)(ii) of this standard.

(2) Respiratory protection program. Where this standard requires an employer to provide respiratory protection, the selection and use of such respiratory protection must be in accordance with the Respiratory Protection standard (29 CFR 1910.134).

(3) The employer must provide at no cost to the employee a powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) instead of a negative pressure respirator when

(i) Respiratory protection is required by this standard;

(ii) An employee entitled to such respiratory protection requests a PAPR; and

(iii) The PAPR provides adequate protection to the employee in accordance with paragraph (g)(2) of this standard.

(h) Personal protective clothing and equipment—(1) Provision and use. The employer must provide at no cost, and ensure that each employee uses, appropriate personal protective clothing and equipment in accordance with the written exposure control plan required under paragraph (f)(1) of this standard and OSHA's Personal Protective and Life Saving Equipment standards for construction (29 CFR part 1926 Subpart E):

(i) Where airborne exposure exceeds, or can reasonably be expected to exceed, the TWA PEL or STEL; or

(ii) Where there is a reasonable expectation of dermal contact with beryllium.

(2) Removal and storage. (i) The employer must ensure that each employee removes all beryllium-contaminated personal protective clothing and equipment at the end of the work shift, at the completion of tasks involving beryllium, or when personal protective clothing or equipment becomes visibly contaminated with beryllium, whichever comes first.

(ii) The employer must ensure that each employee removes beryllium-contaminated personal protective clothing and equipment as specified in the written exposure control plan required by paragraph (f)(1) of this standard.

(iii) The employer must ensure that each employee stores and keeps beryllium-contaminated personal protective clothing and equipment separate from street clothing and that storage facilities prevent cross-contamination as specified in the written exposure control plan required by paragraph (f)(1) of this standard.

(iv) The employer must ensure that no employee removes beryllium-contaminated personal protective clothing or equipment from the workplace, except for employees authorized to do so for the purposes of laundering, cleaning, maintaining or disposing of beryllium-contaminated personal protective clothing and equipment at an appropriate location or facility away from the workplace.

(v) When personal protective clothing or equipment required by this standard is removed from the workplace for laundering, cleaning, maintenance or disposal, the employer must ensure that personal protective clothing and equipment are stored and transported in sealed bags or other closed containers that are impermeable and are labeled in accordance with paragraph (m)(2) of this standard and the HCS (29 CFR 1910.1200).

(3) Cleaning and replacement. (i) The employer must ensure that all reusable personal protective clothing and equipment required by this standard is cleaned, laundered, repaired, and replaced as needed to maintain its effectiveness.

(ii) The employer must ensure that beryllium is not removed from personal protective clothing and equipment by blowing, shaking or any other means that disperses beryllium into the air.

(iii) The employer must inform in writing the persons or the business entities who launder, clean or repair the personal protective clothing or equipment required by this standard of the potentially harmful effects of airborne exposure to and dermal contact with beryllium and that the personal protective clothing and equipment must be handled in accordance with this standard.

(i) Hygiene areas and practices—(1) General. For each employee required to use personal protective clothing or equipment by this standard, the employer must:

(i) Provide readily accessible washing facilities in accordance with this standard and the Sanitation standard (§1926.51) to remove beryllium from the hands, face, and neck; and

(ii) Ensure that employees who have dermal contact with beryllium wash any exposed skin at the end of the activity, process, or work shift and prior to eating, drinking, smoking, chewing tobacco or gum, applying cosmetics, or using the toilet.

(2) Change rooms. In addition to the requirements of paragraph (i)(1)(i) of this standard, the employer must provide employees required to use personal protective clothing by this standard with a designated change room in accordance with this standard and the Sanitation standard (§1926.51) where employees are required to remove their personal clothing.

(3) Eating and drinking areas. Wherever the employer allows employees to consume food or beverages at a worksite where beryllium is present, the employer must ensure that:

(i) Surfaces in eating and drinking areas are as free as practicable of beryllium;

(ii) No employees enter any eating or drinking area with personal protective clothing or equipment unless, prior to entry, surface beryllium has been removed from the clothing or equipment by methods that do not disperse beryllium into the air or onto an employee's body; and

(iii) Eating and drinking facilities provided by the employer are in accordance with the Sanitation standard (§1926.51).

(4) Prohibited activities. The employer must ensure that no employees eat, drink, smoke, chew tobacco or gum, or apply cosmetics in work areas where there is a reasonable expectation of exposure above the TWA PEL or STEL.

(j) Housekeeping—(1) General. (i) When cleaning beryllium-contaminated areas, the employer must follow the written exposure control plan required under paragraph (f)(1) of this standard;

(ii) The employer must ensure that all spills and emergency releases of beryllium are cleaned up promptly and in accordance with the written exposure control plan required under paragraph (f)(1) of this standard.

(2) Cleaning methods. (i) When cleaning beryllium-contaminated areas, the employer must ensure the use of HEPA-filtered vacuuming or other methods that minimize the likelihood and level of airborne exposure.

(ii) The employer must not allow dry sweeping or brushing for cleaning in beryllium-contaminated areas unless HEPA-filtered vacuuming or other methods that minimize the likelihood and level of airborne exposure are not safe or effective.

(iii) The employer must not allow the use of compressed air for cleaning in beryllium-contaminated areas unless the compressed air is used in conjunction with a ventilation system designed to capture the particulates made airborne by the use of compressed air.

(iv) Where employees use dry sweeping, brushing, or compressed air to clean in beryllium-contaminated areas, the employer must provide, and ensure that each employee uses, respiratory protection and personal protective clothing and equipment in accordance with paragraphs (g) and (h) of this standard.

(v) The employer must ensure that cleaning equipment is handled and maintained in a manner that minimizes the likelihood and level of airborne exposure and the re-entrainment of airborne beryllium in the workplace.

(3) Disposal. When the employer transfers materials containing beryllium to another party for use or disposal, the employer must provide the recipient with a copy of the warning described in paragraph (m)(2) of this standard.

(k) Medical surveillance—(1) General. (i) The employer must make medical surveillance required by this paragraph available at no cost to the employee, and at a reasonable time and place, to each employee:

(A) Who is or is reasonably expected to be exposed at or above the action level for more than 30 days per year;

(B) Who shows signs or symptoms of CBD or other beryllium-related health effects;

(C) Who is exposed to beryllium during an emergency; or

(D) Whose most recent written medical opinion required by paragraph (k)(6) or (k)(7) recommends periodic medical surveillance.

(ii) The employer must ensure that all medical examinations and procedures required by this standard are performed by, or under the direction of, a licensed physician.

(2) Frequency. The employer must provide a medical examination:

(i) Within 30 days after determining that:

(A) An employee meets the criteria of paragraph (k)(1)(i)(A), unless the employee has received a medical examination, provided in accordance with this standard, within the last two years; or

(B) An employee meets the criteria of paragraph (k)(1)(i)(B) or (C).

(ii) At least every two years thereafter for each employee who continues to meet the criteria of paragraph (k)(1)(i)(A), (B), or (D) of this standard.

(iii) At the termination of employment for each employee who meets any of the criteria of paragraph (k)(1)(i) of this standard at the time the employee's employment terminates, unless an examination has been provided in accordance with this standard during the six months prior to the date of termination.

(3) Contents of examination. (i) The employer must ensure that the PLHCP conducting the examination advises the employee of the risks and benefits of participating in the medical surveillance program and the employee's right to opt out of any or all parts of the medical examination.

(ii) The employer must ensure that the employee is offered a medical examination that includes:

(A) A medical and work history, with emphasis on past and present airborne exposure to or dermal contact with beryllium, smoking history, and any history of respiratory system dysfunction;

(B) A physical examination with emphasis on the respiratory system;

(C) A physical examination for skin rashes;

(D) Pulmonary function tests, performed in accordance with the guidelines established by the American Thoracic Society including forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1);

(E) A standardized BeLPT or equivalent test, upon the first examination and at least every two years thereafter, unless the employee is confirmed positive. If the results of the BeLPT are other than normal, a follow-up BeLPT must be offered within 30 days, unless the employee has been confirmed positive. Samples must be analyzed in a laboratory certified under the College of American Pathologists/Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) guidelines to perform the BeLPT.

(F) A low dose computed tomography (LDCT) scan, when recommended by the PLHCP after considering the employee's history of exposure to beryllium along with other risk factors, such as smoking history, family medical history, sex, age, and presence of existing lung disease; and

(G) Any other test deemed appropriate by the PLHCP.

(4) Information provided to the PLHCP. The employer must ensure that the examining PLHCP (and the agreed-upon CBD diagnostic center, if an evaluation is required under paragraph (k)(7) of this standard) has a copy of this standard and must provide the following information, if known:

(i) A description of the employee's former and current duties that relate to the employee's airborne exposure to and dermal contact with beryllium;

(ii) The employee's former and current levels of airborne exposure;

(iii) A description of any personal protective clothing and equipment, including respirators, used by the employee, including when and for how long the employee has used that personal protective clothing and equipment; and

(iv) Information from records of employment-related medical examinations previously provided to the employee, currently within the control of the employer, after obtaining written consent from the employee.

(5) Licensed physician's written medical report for the employee. The employer must ensure that the employee receives a written medical report from the licensed physician within 45 days of the examination (including any follow-up BeLPT required under paragraph (k)(3)(ii)(E) of this standard) and that the PLHCP explains the results of the examination to the employee. The written medical report must contain:

(i) A statement indicating the results of the medical examination, including the licensed physician's opinion as to whether the employee has

(A) Any detected medical condition, such as CBD or beryllium sensitization (i.e., the employee is confirmed positive, as defined in paragraph (b) of this standard), that may place the employee at increased risk from further airborne exposure, and

(B) Any medical conditions related to airborne exposure that require further evaluation or treatment.

(ii) Any recommendations on:

(A) The employee's use of respirators, protective clothing, or equipment; or

(B) Limitations on the employee's airborne exposure to beryllium.

(iii) If the employee is confirmed positive or diagnosed with CBD or if the licensed physician otherwise deems it appropriate, the written report must also contain a referral for an evaluation at a CBD diagnostic center.

(iv) If the employee is confirmed positive or diagnosed with CBD the written report must also contain a recommendation for continued periodic medical surveillance.

(v) If the employee is confirmed positive or diagnosed with CBD the written report must also contain a recommendation for medical removal from airborne exposure to beryllium, as described in paragraph (l).

(6) Licensed physician's written medical opinion for the employer. (i) The employer must obtain a written medical opinion from the licensed physician within 45 days of the medical examination (including any follow-up BeLPT required under paragraph (k)(3)(ii)(E) of this standard). The written medical opinion must contain only the following:

(A) The date of the examination;

(B) A statement that the examination has met the requirements of this standard;

(C) Any recommended limitations on the employee's use of respirators, protective clothing, or equipment; and

(D) A statement that the PLHCP has explained the results of the medical examination to the employee, including any tests conducted, any medical conditions related to airborne exposure that require further evaluation or treatment, and any special provisions for use of personal protective clothing or equipment;

(ii) If the employee provides written authorization, the written opinion must also contain any recommended limitations on the employee's airborne exposure to beryllium.

(iii) If the employee is confirmed positive or diagnosed with CBD or if the licensed physician otherwise deems it appropriate, and the employee provides written authorization, the written opinion must also contain a referral for an evaluation at a CBD diagnostic center.

(iv) If the employee is confirmed positive or diagnosed with CBD and the employee provides written authorization, the written opinion must also contain a recommendation for continued periodic medical surveillance.

(v) If the employee is confirmed positive or diagnosed with CBD and the employee provides written authorization, the written opinion must also contain a recommendation for medical removal from airborne exposure to beryllium, as described in paragraph (l).

(vi) The employer must ensure that each employee receives a copy of the written medical opinion described in paragraph (k)(6) of this standard within 45 days of any medical examination (including any follow-up BeLPT required under paragraph (k)(3)(ii)(E) of this standard) performed for that employee.

(7) CBD diagnostic center. (i) The employer must provide an evaluation at no cost to the employee at a CBD diagnostic center that is mutually agreed upon by the employer and the employee. The examination must be provided within 30 days of:

(A) The employer's receipt of a physician's written medical opinion to the employer that recommends referral to a CBD diagnostic center; or

(B) The employee presenting to the employer a physician's written medical report indicating that the employee has been confirmed positive or diagnosed with CBD, or recommending referral to a CBD diagnostic center.

(ii) The employer must ensure that the employee receives a written medical report from the CBD diagnostic center that contains all the information required in paragraphs (k)(5)(i), (ii), (iv), and (v) of this standard and that the PLHCP explains the results of the examination to the employee within 30 days of the examination.

(iii) The employer must obtain a written medical opinion from the CBD diagnostic center within 30 days of the medical examination. The written medical opinion must contain only the information in paragraph (k)(6)(i) of this standard, as applicable, unless the employee provides written authorization to release additional information. If the employee provides written authorization, the written opinion must also contain the information from paragraphs (k)(6)(ii), (iv), and (v), if applicable.

(iv) The employer must ensure that each employee receives a copy of the written medical opinion from the CBD diagnostic center described in paragraph (k)(7) of this standard within 30 days of any medical examination performed for that employee.

(v) After an employee has received the initial clinical evaluation at a CBD diagnostic center described in paragraph (k)(7)(i) of this standard, the employee may choose to have any subsequent medical examinations for which the employee is eligible under paragraph (k) of this standard performed at a CBD diagnostic center mutually agreed upon by the employer and the employee, and the employer must provide such examinations at no cost to the employee.

(l) Medical removal. (1) An employee is eligible for medical removal, if the employee works in a job with airborne exposure at or above the action level and either:

(i) The employee provides the employer with:

(A) A written medical report indicating a confirmed positive finding or CBD diagnosis; or

(B) A written medical report recommending removal from airborne exposure to beryllium in accordance with paragraph (k)(5)(v) or (k)(7)(ii) of this standard; or

(ii) The employer receives a written medical opinion recommending removal from airborne exposure to beryllium in accordance with paragraph (k)(6)(v) or (k)(7)(iii) of this standard.

(2) If an employee is eligible for medical removal, the employer must provide the employee with the employee's choice of:

(i) Removal as described in paragraph (l)(3) of this standard; or

(ii) Remaining in a job with airborne exposure at or above the action level, provided that the employer provides, and ensures that the employee uses, respiratory protection that complies with paragraph (g) of this standard whenever airborne exposures are at or above the action level.

(3) If the employee chooses removal:

(i) If a comparable job is available where airborne exposures to beryllium are below the action level, and the employee is qualified for that job or can be trained within one month, the employer must remove the employee to that job. The employer must maintain for six months from the time of removal the employee's base earnings, seniority, and other rights and benefits that existed at the time of removal.

(ii) If comparable work is not available, the employer must maintain the employee's base earnings, seniority, and other rights and benefits that existed at the time of removal for six months or until such time that comparable work described in paragraph (l)(3)(i) becomes available, whichever comes first.

(4) The employer's obligation to provide medical removal protection benefits to a removed employee shall be reduced to the extent that the employee receives compensation for earnings lost during the period of removal from a publicly or employer-funded compensation program, or receives income from another employer made possible by virtue of the employee's removal.

(m) Communication of hazards—(1) General. (i) Chemical manufacturers, importers, distributors, and employers must comply with all requirements of the HCS (29 CFR 1910.1200) for beryllium.

(ii) Employers must include beryllium in the hazard communication program established to comply with the HCS. Employers must ensure that each employee has access to labels on containers of beryllium and to safety data sheets, and is trained in accordance with the requirements of the HCS (29 CFR 1910.1200) and paragraph (m)(4) of this standard.

(2) Warning labels. Consistent with the HCS (29 CFR 1910.1200), the employer must label each bag and container of clothing, equipment, and materials contaminated with beryllium, and must, at a minimum, include the following on the label:

DANGER

CONTAINS BERYLLIUM

MAY CAUSE CANCER

CAUSES DAMAGE TO LUNGS

AVOID CREATING DUST

DO NOT GET ON SKIN

(3) Employee information and training. (i) For each employee who has, or can reasonably be expected to have, airborne exposure to or dermal contact with beryllium:

(A) The employer must provide information and training in accordance with the HCS (29 CFR 1910.1200(h));

(B) The employer must provide initial training to each employee by the time of initial assignment; and

(C) The employer must repeat the training required under this standard annually for each employee.

(ii) The employer must ensure that each employee who is, or can reasonably be expected to be, exposed to airborne beryllium can demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the following:

(A) The health hazards associated with airborne exposure to and dermal contact with beryllium, including the signs and symptoms of CBD;

(B) The written exposure control plan, with emphasis on the specific nature of operations that could result in airborne exposure, especially airborne exposure above the TWA PEL or STEL;

(C) The purpose, proper selection, fitting, proper use, and limitations of personal protective clothing and equipment, including respirators;

(D) Applicable emergency procedures;

(E) Measures employees can take to protect themselves from airborne exposure to and dermal contact with beryllium, including personal hygiene practices;

(F) The purpose and a description of the medical surveillance program required by paragraph (k) of this standard including risks and benefits of each test to be offered;

(G) The purpose and a description of the medical removal protection provided under paragraph (l) of this standard;

(H) The contents of the standard; and

(I) The employee's right of access to records under the Records Access standard (29 CFR 1910.1020).

(iii) When a workplace change (such as modification of equipment, tasks, or procedures) results in new or increased airborne exposure that exceeds, or can reasonably be expected to exceed, either the TWA PEL or the STEL, the employer must provide additional training to those employees affected by the change in airborne exposure.

(iv) Employee information. The employer must make a copy of this standard and its appendices readily available at no cost to each employee and designated employee representative(s).

(n) Recordkeeping—(1) Air monitoring data. (i) The employer must make and maintain a record of all exposure measurements taken to assess airborne exposure as prescribed in paragraph (d) of this standard.

(ii) This record must include at least the following information:

(A) The date of measurement for each sample taken;

(B) The task that is being monitored;

(C) The sampling and analytical methods used and evidence of their accuracy;

(D) The number, duration, and results of samples taken;

(E) The type of personal protective clothing and equipment, including respirators, worn by monitored employees at the time of monitoring; and

(F) The name, social security number, and job classification of each employee represented by the monitoring, indicating which employees were actually monitored.

(iii) The employer must ensure that exposure records are maintained and made available in accordance with the Records Access standard (29 CFR 1910.1020).

(2) Objective data. (i) Where an employer uses objective data to satisfy the exposure assessment requirements under paragraph (d)(2) of this standard, the employer must make and maintain a record of the objective data relied upon.

(ii) This record must include at least the following information:

(A) The data relied upon;

(B) The beryllium-containing material in question;

(C) The source of the objective data;

(D) A description of the process, task, or activity on which the objective data were based; and

(E) Other data relevant to the process, task, activity, material, or airborne exposure on which the objective data were based.

(iii) The employer must ensure that objective data are maintained and made available in accordance with the Records Access standard (29 CFR 1910.1020).

(3) Medical surveillance. (i) The employer must make and maintain a record for each employee covered by medical surveillance under paragraph (k) of this standard.

(ii) The record must include the following information about each employee:

(A) Name, social security number, and job classification;

(B) A copy of all licensed physicians' written medical opinions for each employee; and

(C) A copy of the information provided to the PLHCP as required by paragraph (k)(4) of this standard.

(iii) The employer must ensure that medical records are maintained and made available in accordance with the Records Access standard (29 CFR 1910.1020).

(4) Training. (i) At the completion of any training required by this standard, the employer must prepare a record that indicates the name, social security number, and job classification of each employee trained, the date the training was completed, and the topic of the training.

(ii) This record must be maintained for three years after the completion of training.

(5) Access to records. Upon request, the employer must make all records maintained as a requirement of this standard available for examination and copying to the Assistant Secretary, the Director, each employee, and each employee's designated representative(s) in accordance the Records Access standard (29 CFR 1910.1020).

(6) Transfer of records. The employer must comply with the requirements involving transfer of records set forth in the Records Access standard (29 CFR 1910.1020).

(o) Dates—(1) Effective date. This standard shall become effective March 10, 2017.

(2) Compliance dates. (i) All obligations contained in paragraph (c) of this standard commence and become enforceable on March 12, 2018; and

(ii) All other obligations of this standard commence and become enforceable on September 30, 2020.

[82 FR 2751, Jan. 9, 2017, as amended at 84 FR 51400, Sept. 30, 2019]

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§1926.1126   Chromium (VI).

(a) Scope. (1) This standard applies to occupational exposures to chromium (VI) in all forms and compounds in construction, except:

(2) Exposures that occur in the application of pesticides regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency or another Federal government agency (e.g., the treatment of wood with preservatives);

(3) Exposures to portland cement; or

(4) Where the employer has objective data demonstrating that a material containing chromium or a specific process, operation, or activity involving chromium cannot release dusts, fumes, or mists of chromium (VI) in concentrations at or above 0.5 µgm/m3 as an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) under any expected conditions of use.

(b) Definitions. For the purposes of this section the following definitions apply:

Action level means a concentration of airborne chromium (VI) of 2.5 micrograms per cubic meter of air (2.5 µgm/m3) calculated as an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA).

Assistant Secretary means the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Labor, or designee.

Chromium (VI) [hexavalent chromium or Cr(VI)] means chromium with a valence of positive six, in any form and in any compound.

Director means the Director of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or designee.

Emergency means any occurrence that results, or is likely to result, in an uncontrolled release of chromium (VI). If an incidental release of chromium (VI) can be controlled at the time of release by employees in the immediate release area, or by maintenance personnel, it is not an emergency.

Employee exposure means the exposure to airborne chromium (VI) that would occur if the employee were not using a respirator.

High-efficiency particulate air [HEPA] filter means a filter that is at least 99.97 percent efficient in removing mono-dispersed particles of 0.3 micrometers in diameter or larger.

Historical monitoring data means data from chromium (VI) monitoring conducted prior to May 30, 2006, obtained during work operations conducted under workplace conditions closely resembling the processes, types of material, control methods, work practices, and environmental conditions in the employer's current operations.

Objective data means information such as air monitoring data from industry-wide surveys or calculations based on the composition or chemical and physical properties of a substance demonstrating the employee exposure to chromium (VI) associated with a particular product or material or a specific process, operation, or activity. The data must reflect workplace conditions closely resembling the processes, types of material, control methods, work practices, and environmental conditions in the employer's current operations.

Physician or other licensed health care professional [PLHCP] is an individual whose legally permitted scope of practice (i.e., license, registration, or certification) allows him or her to independently provide or be delegated the responsibility to provide some or all of the particular health care services required by paragraph (i) of this section.

This section means this §1926.1126 chromium (VI) standard.

(c) Permissible exposure limit (PEL). The employer shall ensure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of chromium (VI) in excess of 5 micrograms per cubic meter of air (5 µgm/m3), calculated as an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA).

(d) Exposure determination—(1) General. Each employer who has a workplace or work operation covered by this section shall determine the 8-hour TWA exposure for each employee exposed to chromium (VI). This determination shall be made in accordance with either paragraph (d)(2) or paragraph (d)(3) of this section.

(2) Scheduled monitoring option. (i) The employer shall perform initial monitoring to determine the 8-hour TWA exposure for each employee on the basis of a sufficient number of personal breathing zone air samples to accurately characterize full shift exposure on each shift, for each job classification, in each work area. Where an employer does representative sampling instead of sampling all employees in order to meet this requirement, the employer shall sample the employee(s) expected to have the highest chromium (VI) exposures.

(ii) If initial monitoring indicates that employee exposures are below the action level, the employer may discontinue monitoring for those employees whose exposures are represented by such monitoring.

(iii) If monitoring reveals employee exposures to be at or above the action level, the employer shall perform periodic monitoring at least every six months.

(iv) If monitoring reveals employee exposures to be above the PEL, the employer shall perform periodic monitoring at least every three months.

(v) If periodic monitoring indicates that employee exposures are below the action level, and the result is confirmed by the result of another monitoring taken at least seven days later, the employer may discontinue the monitoring for those employees whose exposures are represented by such monitoring.

(vi) The employer shall perform additional monitoring when there has been any change in the production process, raw materials, equipment, personnel, work practices, or control methods that may result in new or additional exposures to chromium (VI), or when the employer has any reason to believe that new or additional exposures have occurred.

(3) Performance-oriented option. The employer shall determine the 8-hour TWA exposure for each employee on the basis of any combination of air monitoring data, historical monitoring data, or objective data sufficient to accurately characterize employee exposure to chromium (VI).

(4) Employee notification of determination results. (i) Within 5 work days after making an exposure determination in accordance with paragraph (d)(2) or paragraph (d)(3) of this section, the employer shall individually notify each affected employee in writing of the results of that determination or post the results in an appropriate location accessible to all affected employees.

(ii) Whenever the exposure determination indicates that employee exposure is above the PEL, the employer shall describe in the written notification the corrective action being taken to reduce employee exposure to or below the PEL.

(5) Accuracy of measurement. Where air monitoring is performed to comply with the requirements of this section, the employer shall use a method of monitoring and analysis that can measure chromium (VI) to within an accuracy of plus or minus 25 percent (±25%) and can produce accurate measurements to within a statistical confidence level of 95 percent for airborne concentrations at or above the action level.

(6) Observation of monitoring. (i) Where air monitoring is performed to comply with the requirements of this section, the employer shall provide affected employees or their designated representatives an opportunity to observe any monitoring of employee exposure to chromium (VI).

(ii) When observation of monitoring requires entry into an area where the use of protective clothing or equipment is required, the employer shall provide the observer with clothing and equipment and shall assure that the observer uses such clothing and equipment and complies with all other applicable safety and health procedures.

(e) Methods of compliance—(1) Engineering and work practice controls. (i) Except as permitted in paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section, the employer shall use engineering and work practice controls to reduce and maintain employee exposure to chromium (VI) to or below the PEL unless the employer can demonstrate that such controls are not feasible. Wherever feasible engineering and work practice controls are not sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the PEL, the employer shall use them to reduce employee exposure to the lowest levels achievable, and shall supplement them by the use of respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of paragraph (f) of this section.

(ii) Where the employer can demonstrate that a process or task does not result in any employee exposure to chromium (VI) above the PEL for 30 or more days per year (12 consecutive months), the requirement to implement engineering and work practice controls to achieve the PEL does not apply to that process or task.

(2) Prohibition of rotation. The employer shall not rotate employees to different jobs to achieve compliance with the PEL.

(f) Respiratory protection—(1) General. Where respiratory protection is required by this section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate respirator that complies with the requirements of this paragraph. Respiratory protection is required during:

(i) Periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work practice controls;

(ii) Work operations, such as maintenance and repair activities, for which engineering and work practice controls are not feasible;

(iii) Work operations for which an employer has implemented all feasible engineering and work practice controls and such controls are not sufficient to reduce exposures to or below the PEL;

(iv) Work operations where employees are exposed above the PEL for fewer than 30 days per year, and the employer has elected not to implement engineering and work practice controls to achieve the PEL; or

(v) Emergencies.

(2) Respiratory protection program. Where respirator use is required by this section, the employer shall institute a respiratory protection program in accordance with §1910.134, which covers each employee required to use a respirator.

(g) Protective work clothing and equipment—(1) Provision and use. Where a hazard is present or is likely to be present from skin or eye contact with chromium (VI), the employer shall provide appropriate personal protective clothing and equipment at no cost to employees, and shall ensure that employees use such clothing and equipment.

(2) Removal and storage. (i) The employer shall ensure that employees remove all protective clothing and equipment contaminated with chromium (VI) at the end of the work shift or at the completion of their tasks involving chromium (VI) exposure, whichever comes first.

(ii) The employer shall ensure that no employee removes chromium (VI)-contaminated protective clothing or equipment from the workplace, except for those employees whose job it is to launder, clean, maintain, or dispose of such clothing or equipment.

(iii) When contaminated protective clothing or equipment is removed for laundering, cleaning, maintenance, or disposal, the employer shall ensure that it is stored and transported in sealed, impermeable bags or other closed, impermeable containers.

(iv) The employer shall ensure that bags or containers of contaminated protective clothing or equipment that are removed from change rooms for laundering, cleaning, maintenance, or disposal shall be labeled in accordance with the requirements of the Hazard Communication Standard, §1910.1200.

(3) Cleaning and replacement. (i) The employer shall clean, launder, repair and replace all protective clothing and equipment required by this section as needed to maintain its effectiveness.

(ii) The employer shall prohibit the removal of chromium (VI) from protective clothing and equipment by blowing, shaking, or any other means that disperses chromium (VI) into the air or onto an employee's body.

(iii) The employer shall inform any person who launders or cleans protective clothing or equipment contaminated with chromium (VI) of the potentially harmful effects of exposure to chromium (VI) and that the clothing and equipment should be laundered or cleaned in a manner that minimizes skin or eye contact with chromium (VI) and effectively prevents the release of airborne chromium (VI) in excess of the PEL.

(h) Hygiene areas and practices—(1) General. Where protective clothing and equipment is required, the employer shall provide change rooms in conformance with 29 CFR 1926.51 Where skin contact with chromium (VI) occurs, the employer shall provide washing facilities in conformance with 29 CFR 1926.51. Eating and drinking areas provided by the employer shall also be in conformance with §1926.51.

(2) Change rooms. The employer shall assure that change rooms are equipped with separate storage facilities for protective clothing and equipment and for street clothes, and that these facilities prevent cross-contamination.

(3) Washing facilities. (i) The employer shall provide readily accessible washing facilities capable of removing chromium (VI) from the skin, and shall ensure that affected employees use these facilities when necessary.

(ii) The employer shall ensure that employees who have skin contact with chromium (VI) wash their hands and faces at the end of the work shift and prior to eating, drinking, smoking, chewing tobacco or gum, applying cosmetics, or using the toilet.

(4) Eating and drinking areas. (i) Whenever the employer allows employees to consume food or beverages at a worksite where chromium (VI) is present, the employer shall ensure that eating and drinking areas and surfaces are maintained as free as practicable of chromium (VI).

(ii) The employer shall ensure that employees do not enter eating and drinking areas with protective work clothing or equipment unless surface chromium (VI) has been removed from the clothing and equipment by methods that do not disperse chromium (VI) into the air or onto an employee's body.

(5) Prohibited activities. The employer shall ensure that employees do not eat, drink, smoke, chew tobacco or gum, or apply cosmetics in areas where skin or eye contact with chromium (VI) occurs; or carry the products associated with these activities, or store such products in these areas.

(i) Medical surveillance—(1) General. (i) The employer shall make medical surveillance available at no cost to the employee, and at a reasonable time and place, for all employees:

(A) Who are or may be occupationally exposed to chromium (VI) at or above the action level for 30 or more days a year;

(B) Experiencing signs or symptoms of the adverse health effects associated with chromium (VI) exposure; or

(C) Exposed in an emergency.

(ii) The employer shall assure that all medical examinations and procedures required by this section are performed by or under the supervision of a PLHCP.

(2) Frequency. The employer shall provide a medical examination:

(i) Within 30 days after initial assignment, unless the employee has received a chromium (VI) related medical examination that meets the requirements of this paragraph within the last twelve months;

(ii) Annually;

(iii) Within 30 days after a PLHCP's written medical opinion recommends an additional examination;

(iv) Whenever an employee shows signs or symptoms of the adverse health effects associated with chromium (VI) exposure;

(v) Within 30 days after exposure during an emergency which results in an uncontrolled release of chromium (VI); or

(vi) At the termination of employment, unless the last examination that satisfied the requirements of paragraph (i) of this section was less than six months prior to the date of termination.

(3) Contents of examination. A medical examination consists of:

(i) A medical and work history, with emphasis on: past, present, and anticipated future exposure to chromium (VI); any history of respiratory system dysfunction; any history of asthma, dermatitis, skin ulceration, or nasal septum perforation; and smoking status and history;

(ii) A physical examination of the skin and respiratory tract; and

(iii) Any additional tests deemed appropriate by the examining PLHCP.

(4) Information provided to the PLHCP. The employer shall ensure that the examining PLHCP has a copy of this standard, and shall provide the following information:

(i) A description of the affected employee's former, current, and anticipated duties as they relate to the employee's occupational exposure to chromium (VI);

(ii) The employee's former, current, and anticipated levels of occupational exposure to chromium (VI);

(iii) A description of any personal protective equipment used or to be used by the employee, including when and for how long the employee has used that equipment; and

(iv) Information from records of employment-related medical examinations previously provided to the affected employee, currently within the control of the employer.

(5) PLHCP's written medical opinion. (i) The employer shall obtain a written medical opinion from the PLHCP, within 30 days for each medical examination performed on each employee, which contains:

(A) The PLHCP's opinion as to whether the employee has any detected medical condition(s) that would place the employee at increased risk of material impairment to health from further exposure to chromium (VI);

(B) Any recommended limitations upon the employee's exposure to chromium (VI) or upon the use of personal protective equipment such as respirators;

(C) A statement that the PLHCP has explained to the employee the results of the medical examination, including any medical conditions related to chromium (VI) exposure that require further evaluation or treatment, and any special provisions for use of protective clothing or equipment.

(ii) The PLHCP shall not reveal to the employer specific findings or diagnoses unrelated to occupational exposure to chromium (VI).

(iii) The employer shall provide a copy of the PLHCP's written medical opinion to the examined employee within two weeks after receiving it.

(j) Communication of chromium (VI) hazards to employees—(1) Hazard communication. The employer shall include chromium (VI) in the program established to comply with the Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) (§1910.1200). The employer shall ensure that each employee has access to labels on containers of chromium and safety data sheets, and is trained in accordance with the provisions of §1910.1200 and paragraph (j)(2) of this section. The employer shall provide information on at least the following hazards: Cancer; eye irritation; and skin sensitization.

(2) Employee information and training. (i) The employer shall ensure that each employee can demonstrate knowledge of at least the following:

(A) The contents of this section; and

(B) The purpose and a description of the medical surveillance program required by paragraph (i) of this section.

(ii) The employer shall make a copy of this section readily available without cost to all affected employees.

(k) Recordkeeping—(1) Air monitoring data. (i) The employer shall maintain an accurate record of all air monitoring conducted to comply with the requirements of this section.

(ii) This record shall include at least the following information:

(A) The date of measurement for each sample taken;

(B) The operation involving exposure to chromium (VI) that is being monitored;

(C) Sampling and analytical methods used and evidence of their accuracy;

(D) Number, duration, and the results of samples taken;

(E) Type of personal protective equipment, such as respirators worn; and

(F) Name and job classification of all employees represented by the monitoring, indicating which employees were actually monitored.

(iii) The employer shall ensure that exposure records are maintained and made available in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1020.

(2) Historical monitoring data. (i) Where the employer has relied on historical monitoring data to determine exposure to chromium (VI), the employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record of the historical monitoring data relied upon.

(ii) The record shall include information that reflects the following conditions:

(A) The data were collected using methods that meet the accuracy requirements of paragraph (d)(5) of this section;

(B) The processes and work practices that were in use when the historical monitoring data were obtained are essentially the same as those to be used during the job for which exposure is being determined;

(C) The characteristics of the chromium (VI) containing material being handled when the historical monitoring data were obtained are the same as those on the job for which exposure is being determined;

(D) Environmental conditions prevailing when the historical monitoring data were obtained are the same as those on the job for which exposure is being determined; and

(E) Other data relevant to the operations, materials, processing, or employee exposures covered by the exception.

(iii) The employer shall ensure that historical exposure records are maintained and made available in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1020.

(3) Objective data. (i) The employer shall maintain an accurate record of all objective data relied upon to comply with the requirements of this section.

(ii) This record shall include at least the following information:

(A) The chromium containing material in question;

(B) The source of the objective data;

(C) The testing protocol and results of testing, or analysis of the material for the release of chromium (VI);

(D) A description of the process, operation, or activity and how the data support the determination; and

(E) Other data relevant to the process, operation, activity, material, or employee exposures.

(iii) The employer shall ensure that objective data are maintained and made available in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1020.

(4) Medical surveillance. (i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee covered by medical surveillance under paragraph (i) of this section.

(ii) The record shall include the following information about the employee:

(A) Name;

(B) A copy of the PLHCP's written opinions;

(C) A copy of the information provided to the PLHCP as required by paragraph (i)(4) of this section.

(iii) The employer shall ensure that medical records are maintained and made available in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1020.

(l) Dates. (1) For employers with 20 or more employees, all obligations of this section, except engineering controls required by paragraph (e) of this section, commence November 27, 2006.

(2) For employers with 19 or fewer employees, all obligations of this section, except engineering controls required by paragraph (e) of this section, commence May 30, 2007.

(3) For all employers, engineering controls required by paragraph (e) of this section shall be implemented no later than May 31, 2010.

[71 FR 10382, Feb. 28, 2006, as amended at 73 FR 75589, Dec. 12, 2008; 75 FR 12686, Mar. 17, 2010; 77 FR 17895, Mar. 26, 2012]

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§1926.1127   Cadmium.

(a) Scope. This standard applies to all occupational exposures to cadmium and cadmium compounds, in all forms, in all construction work where an employee may potentially be exposed to cadmium. Construction work is defined as work involving construction, alteration and/or repair, including but not limited to the following:

(1) Wrecking, demolition or salvage of structures where cadmium or materials containing cadmium are present;

(2) Use of cadmium containing-paints and cutting, brazing, burning, grinding or welding on surfaces that were painted with cadmium-containing paints;

(3) Construction, alteration, repair, maintenance, or renovation of structures, substrates, or portions thereof, that contain cadmium, or materials containing cadmium;

(4) Cadmium welding; cutting and welding cadmium-plated steel; brazing or welding with cadmium alloys;

(5) Installation of products containing cadmium;

(6) Electrical grounding with cadmium welding, or electrical work using cadmium-coated conduit;

(7) Maintaining or retrofitting cadmium-coated equipment;

(8) Cadmium contamination/emergency cleanup; and

(9) Transportation, disposal, storage, or containment of cadmium or materials containing cadmium on the site or location at which construction activities are performed.

(b) Definitions.

Action level (AL) is defined as an airborne concentration of cadmium of 2.5 micrograms per cubic meter of air (2.5 µg/m3), calculated as an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA).

Assistant Secretary means the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Labor, or designee.

Authorized person means any person authorized by the employer and required by work duties to be present in regulated areas or any person authorized by the OSH Act or regulations issued under it to be in regulated areas.

Competent person, in accordance with 29 CFR 1926.32(f), means a person designated by the employer to act on the employer's behalf who is capable of identifying existing and potential cadmium hazards in the workplace and the proper methods to control them in order to protect workers, and has the authority necessary to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate or control such hazards. The duties of a competent person include at least the following: Determining prior to the performance of work whether cadmium is present in the workplace; establishing, where necessary, regulated areas and assuring that access to and from those areas is limited to authorized employees; assuring the adequacy of any employee exposure monitoring required by this standard; assuring that all employees exposed to air cadmium levels above the PEL wear appropriate personal protective equipment and are trained in the use of appropriate methods of exposure control; assuring that proper hygiene facilities are provided and that workers are trained to use those facilities; and assuring that the engineering controls required by this standard are implemented, maintained in proper operating condition, and functioning properly.

Director means the Director of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or designee.

Employee exposure and similar language referring to the air cadmium level to which an employee is exposed means the exposure to airborne cadmium that would occur if the employee were not using respiratory protective equipment.

Final medical determination is the written medical opinion of the employee's health status by the examining physician under paragraphs (l)(3)-(12) of this section or, if multiple physician review under paragraph (l)(13) of this section or the alternative physician determination under paragraph (l)(14) of this section is invoked, it is the final, written medical finding, recommendation or determination that emerges from that process.

High-efficiency Particulate Air [HEPA] filter means a filter capable of trapping and retaining at least 99.97 percent of mono-dispersed particles of 0.3 micrometers in diameter.

Regulated area means an area demarcated by the employer where an employee's exposure to airborne concentrations of cadmium exceeds, or can reasonably be expected to exceed the permissible exposure limit (PEL).

This section means this cadmium standard.

(c) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL). The employer shall assure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of cadmium in excess of five micrograms per cubic meter of air (5 µg/m3), calculated as an eight-hour time-weighted average exposure (TWA).

(d) Exposure Monitoring—(1) General.

(i) Prior to the performance of any construction work where employees may be potentially exposed to cadmium, the employer shall establish the applicability of this standard by determining whether cadmium is present in the workplace and whether there is the possibility that employee exposures will be at or above the action level. The employer shall designate a competent person who shall make this determination. Investigation and material testing techniques shall be used, as appropriate, in the determination. Investigation shall include a review of relevant plans, past reports, Safety Data Sheets (SDS), and other available records, and consultations with the property owner and discussions with appropriate individuals and agencies.

(ii) Where cadmium has been determined to be present in the workplace, and it has been determined that there is a possibility the employee's exposure will be at or above the action level, the competent person shall identify employees potentially exposed to cadmium at or above the action level.

(iii) Determinations of employee exposure shall be made from breathing-zone air samples that reflect the monitored employee's regular, daily 8-hour TWA exposure to cadmium.

(iv) Eight-hour TWA exposures shall be determined for each employee on the basis of one or more personal breathing-zone air samples reflecting full shift exposure on each shift, for each job classification, in each work area. Where several employees perform the same job tasks, in the same job classification, on the same shift, in the same work area, and the length, duration, and level of cadmium exposures are similar, an employer may sample a representative fraction of the employees instead of all employees in order to meet this requirement. In representative sampling, the employer shall sample the employee(s) expected to have the highest cadmium exposures.

(2) Specific. (i) Initial monitoring. Except as provided for in paragraph (d)(2)(iii) of this section, where a determination conducted under paragraph (d)(1)(i) of this section shows the possibility of employee exposure to cadmium at or above the action level, the employer shall conduct exposure monitoring as soon as practicable that is representative of the exposure for each employee in the workplace who is or may be exposed to cadmium at or above the action level.

(ii) In addition, if the employee periodically performs tasks that may expose the employee to a higher concentration of airborne cadmium, the employee shall be monitored while performing those tasks.

(iii) Where the employer has objective data, as defined in paragraph (n)(2) of this section, demonstrating that employee exposure to cadmium will not exceed airborne concentrations at or above the action level under the expected conditions of processing, use, or handling, the employer may rely upon such data instead of implementing initial monitoring.

(iv) Where a determination conducted under paragraphs (d)(1) or (d)(2) of this section is made that a potentially exposed employee is not exposed to airborne concentrations of cadmium at or above the action level, the employer shall make a written record of such determination. The record shall include at least the monitoring data developed under paragraphs (d)(2)(i)-(iii) of this section, where applicable, and shall also include the date of determination, and the name of each employee.

(3) Monitoring frequency (periodic monitoring). (i) If the initial monitoring or periodic monitoring reveals employee exposures to be at or above the action level, the employer shall monitor at a frequency and pattern needed to assure that the monitoring results reflect with reasonable accuracy the employee's typical exposure levels, given the variability in the tasks performed, work practices, and environmental conditions on the job site, and to assure the adequacy of respiratory selection and the effectiveness of engineering and work practice controls.

(ii) If the initial monitoring or the periodic monitoring indicates that employee exposures are below the action level and that result is confirmed by the results of another monitoring taken at least seven days later, the employer may discontinue the monitoring for those employees whose exposures are represented by such monitoring.

(4) Additional monitoring. The employer also shall institute the exposure monitoring required under paragraphs (d)(2)(i) and (d)(3) of this section whenever there has been a change in the raw materials, equipment, personnel, work practices, or finished products that may result in additional employees being exposed to cadmium at or above the action level or in employees already exposed to cadmium at or above the action level being exposed above the PEL, or whenever the employer or competent person has any reason to suspect that any other change might result in such further exposure.

(5) Employee notification of monitoring results. (i) The employer must, as soon as possible but no later than 5 working days after the receipt of the results of any monitoring performed under this section, notify each affected employee of these results either individually in writing or by posting the results in an appropriate location that is accessible to employees.

(ii) Wherever monitoring results indicate that employee exposure exceeds the PEL, the employer shall include in the written notice a statement that the PEL has been exceeded and a description of the corrective action being taken by the employer to reduce employee exposure to or below the PEL.

(6) Accuracy of measurement. The employer shall use a method of monitoring and analysis that has an accuracy of not less than plus or minus 25 percent (±25%), with a confidence level of 95 percent, for airborne concentrations of cadmium at or above the action level and the permissible exposure limit.

(e) Regulated areas—(1) Establishment. The employer shall establish a regulated area wherever an employee's exposure to airborne concentrations of cadmium is, or can reasonably be expected to be in excess of the permissible exposure limit (PEL).

(2) Demarcation. Regulated areas shall be demarcated from the rest of the workplace in any manner that adequately establishes and alerts employees of the boundaries of the regulated area, including employees who are or may be incidentally in the regulated areas, and that protects persons outside the area from exposure to airborne concentrations of cadmium in excess of the PEL.

(3) Access. Access to regulated areas shall be limited to authorized persons.

(4) Provision of respirators. Each person entering a regulated area shall be supplied with and required to use a respirator, selected in accordance with paragraph (g)(2) of this section.

(5) Prohibited activities. The employer shall assure that employees do not eat, drink, smoke, chew tobacco or gum, or apply cosmetics in regulated areas, or carry the products associated with any of these activities into regulated areas or store such products in those areas.

(f) Methods of compliance—(1) Compliance hierarchy. (i) Except as specified in paragraph (f)(1)(ii) of this section, the employer shall implement engineering and work practice controls to reduce and maintain employee exposure to cadmium at or below the PEL, except to the extent that the employer can demonstrate that such controls are not feasible.

(ii) The requirement to implement engineering controls to achieve the PEL does not apply where the employer demonstrates the following:

(A) The employee is only intermittently exposed; and

(B) The employee is not exposed above the PEL on 30 or more days per year (12 consecutive months).

(iii) Wherever engineering and work practice controls are not sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the PEL, the employer nonetheless shall implement such controls to reduce exposures to the lowest levels achievable. The employer shall supplement such controls with respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of paragraph (g) of this section and the PEL.

(iv) The employer shall not use employee rotation as a method of compliance.

(2) Specific operations—(i) Abrasive blasting. Abrasive blasting on cadmium or cadmium-containing materials shall be conducted in a manner that will provide adequate protection.

(ii) Heating cadmium and cadmium-containing materials. Welding, cutting, and other forms of heating of cadmium or cadmium-containing materials shall be conducted in accordance with the requirements of 29 CFR 1926.353 and 29 CFR 1926.354, where applicable.

(3) Prohibitions. (i) High speed abrasive disc saws and similar abrasive power equipment shall not be used for work on cadmium or cadmium-containing materials unless they are equipped with appropriate engineering controls to minimize emissions, if the exposure levels are above the PEL.

(ii) Materials containing cadmium shall not be applied by spray methods, if exposures are above the PEL, unless employees are protected with supplied-air respirators with full facepiece, hood, helmet, suit, operated in positive pressure mode and measures are instituted to limit overspray and prevent contamination of adjacent areas.

(4) Mechanical ventilation. (i) When ventilation is used to control exposure, measurements that demonstrate the effectiveness of the system in controlling exposure, such as capture velocity, duct velocity, or static pressure shall be made as necessary to maintain its effectiveness.

(ii) Measurements of the system's effectiveness in controlling exposure shall be made as necessary within five working days of any change in production, process, or control that might result in a significant increase in employee exposure to cadmium.

(iii) Recirculation of air. If air from exhaust ventilation is recirculated into the workplace, the system shall have a high efficiency filter and be monitored to assure effectiveness.

(iv) Procedures shall be developed and implemented to minimize employee exposure to cadmium when maintenance of ventilation systems and changing of filters is being conducted.

(5) Compliance program. (i) Where employee exposure to cadmium exceeds the PEL and the employer is required under paragraph (f)(1) of this section to implement controls to comply with the PEL, prior to the commencement of the job the employer shall establish and implement a written compliance program to reduce employee exposure to or below the PEL. To the extent that engineering and work practice controls cannot reduce exposures to or below the PEL, the employer shall include in the written compliance program the use of appropriate respiratory protection to achieve compliance with the PEL.

(ii) Written compliance programs shall be reviewed and updated as often and as promptly as necessary to reflect significant changes in the employer's compliance status or significant changes in the lowest air cadmium level that is technologically feasible.

(iii) A competent person shall review the comprehensive compliance program initially and after each change.

(iv) Written compliance programs shall be provided upon request for examination and copying to the Assistant Secretary, the Director, affected employees, and designated employee representatives.

(g) Respirator protection—(1) General. For employees who use respirators required by this section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate respirator that complies with the requirements of this paragraph. Respirators must be used during:

(i) Periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work-practice controls when employee exposures exceed the PEL.

(ii) Maintenance and repair activities, and brief or intermittent work operations, for which employee exposures exceed the PEL and engineering and work-practice controls are not feasible or are not required.

(iii) Work operations in the regulated areas specified in paragraph (e) of this section.

(iv) Work operations for which the employer has implemented all feasible engineering and work-practice controls, and such controls are not sufficient to reduce employee exposures to or below the PEL.

(v) Work operations for which an employee, who is exposed to cadmium at or above the action level, requests a respirator.

(vi) Work operations for which engineering controls are not required by paragraph (f)(1)(ii) of this section to reduce employee exposures that exceed the PEL.

(vii) Emergencies.

(2) Respirator program. (i) The employer must implement a respiratory protection program in accordance with §1910.134 (b) through (d) (except (d)(1)(iii)), and (f) through (m), which covers each employee required by this section to use a respirator.

(ii) If an employee exhibits breathing difficulty during fit testing or respirator use, the employer must provide the employee with a medical examination in accordance with paragraph (l)(6)(ii) of this section to determine if the employee can use a respirator while performing the required duties.

(iii) No employee must use a respirator when, based on their most recent medical examination, the examining physician determines that the employee will be unable to continue to function normally while using a respirator. If the physician determines the employee must be limited in, or removed from, their current job because of the employee's inability to use a respirator, the job limitation or removal must be conducted in accordance with paragraphs (l) (11) and (12) of this section.

(3) Respirator selection. (i) Employers must:

(A) Select, and provide to employees, the appropriate respirators specified in paragraph (d)(3)(i)(A) of 29 CFR 1910.134.

(B) Provide employees with full facepiece respirators when they experience eye irritation.

(C) Provide HEPA filters for powered and non-powered air-purifying respirators.

(ii) The employer must provide a powered air-purifying respirator instead of a negative-pressure respirator when an employee entitled to a respirator chooses to use this type of respirator and such a respirator will provide adequate protection to the employee.

(h) Emergency situations. The employer shall develop and implement a written plan for dealing with emergency situations involving substantial releases of airborne cadmium. The plan shall include provisions for the use of appropriate respirators and personal protective equipment. In addition, employees not essential to correcting the emergency situation shall be restricted from the area and normal operations halted in that area until the emergency is abated.

(i) Protective work clothing and equipment—(1) Provision and use. If an employee is exposed to airborne cadmium above the PEL or where skin or eye irritation is associated with cadmium exposure at any level, the employer shall provide at no cost to the employee, and assure that the employee uses, appropriate protective work clothing and equipment that prevents contamination of the employee and the employee's garments. Protective work clothing and equipment includes, but is not limited to:

(i) Coveralls or similar full-body work clothing;

(ii) Gloves, head coverings, and boots or foot coverings; and

(iii) Face shields, vented goggles, or other appropriate protective equipment that complies with 29 CFR 1910.133.

(2) Removal and storage. (i) The employer shall assure that employees remove all protective clothing and equipment contaminated with cadmium at the completion of the work shift and do so only in change rooms provided in accordance with paragraph (j)(1) of this section.

(ii) The employer shall assure that no employee takes cadmium-contaminated protective clothing or equipment from the workplace, except for employees authorized to do so for purposes of laundering, cleaning, maintaining, or disposing of cadmium-contaminated protective clothing and equipment at an appropriate location or facility away from the workplace.

(iii) The employer shall assure that contaminated protective clothing and equipment, when removed for laundering, cleaning, maintenance, or disposal, is placed and stored in sealed, impermeable bags or other closed, impermeable containers that are designed to prevent dispersion of cadmium dust.

(iv) The employer shall ensure that containers of contaminated protective clothing and equipment that are to be taken out of the change rooms or the workplace for laundering, cleaning, maintenance or disposal shall bear labels in accordance with paragraph (m)(3)(ii) of this section.

(3) Cleaning, replacement, and disposal. (i) The employer shall provide the protective clothing and equipment required by paragraph (i)(1) of this section in a clean and dry condition as often as necessary to maintain its effectiveness, but in any event at least weekly. The employer is responsible for cleaning and laundering the protective clothing and equipment required by this paragraph to maintain its effectiveness and is also responsible for disposing of such clothing and equipment.

(ii) The employer also is responsible for repairing or replacing required protective clothing and equipment as needed to maintain its effectiveness. When rips or tears are detected while an employee is working they shall be immediately mended, or the worksuit shall be immediately replaced.

(iii) The employer shall prohibit the removal of cadmium from protective clothing and equipment by blowing, shaking, or any other means that disperses cadmium into the air.

(iv) The employer shall assure that any laundering of contaminated clothing or cleaning of contaminated equipment in the workplace is done in a manner that prevents the release of airborne cadmium in excess of the permissible exposure limit prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section.

(v) The employer shall inform any person who launders or cleans protective clothing or equipment contaminated with cadmium of the potentially harmful effects of exposure to cadmium, and that the clothing and equipment should be laundered or cleaned in a manner to effectively prevent the release of airborne cadmium in excess of the PEL.

(j) Hygiene areas and practices—(1) General. For employees whose airborne exposure to cadmium is above the PEL, the employer shall provide clean change rooms, handwashing facilities, showers, and lunchroom facilities that comply with 29 CFR 1926.51.

(2) Change rooms. The employer shall assure that change rooms are equipped with separate storage facilities for street clothes and for protective clothing and equipment, which are designed to prevent dispersion of cadmium and contamination of the employee's street clothes.

(3) Showers and handwashing facilities. (i) The employer shall assure that employees whose airborne exposure to cadmium is above the PEL shower during the end of the work shift.

(ii) The employer shall assure that employees who are exposed to cadmium above the PEL wash their hands and faces prior to eating, drinking, smoking, chewing tobacco or gum, or applying cosmetics.

(4) Lunchroom facilities. (i) The employer shall assure that the lunchroom facilities are readily accessible to employees, that tables for eating are maintained free of cadmium, and that no employee in a lunchroom facility is exposed at any time to cadmium at or above a concentration of 2.5 µg/m3.

(ii) The employer shall assure that employees do not enter lunchroom facilities with protective work clothing or equipment unless surface cadmium has been removed from the clothing and equipment by HEPA vacuuming or some other method that removes cadmium dust without dispersing it.

(k) Housekeeping. (1) All surfaces shall be maintained as free as practicable of accumulations of cadmium.

(2) All spills and sudden releases of material containing cadmium shall be cleaned up as soon as possible.

(3) Surfaces contaminated with cadmium shall, wherever possible, be cleaned by vacuuming or other methods that minimize the likelihood of cadmium becoming airborne.

(4) HEPA-filtered vacuuming equipment or equally effective filtration methods shall be used for vacuuming. The equipment shall be used and emptied in a manner that minimizes the reentry of cadmium into the workplace.

(5) Shoveling, dry or wet sweeping, and brushing may be used only where vacuuming or other methods that minimize the likelihood of cadmium becoming airborne have been tried and found not to be effective.

(6) Compressed air shall not be used to remove cadmium from any surface unless the compressed air is used in conjunction with a ventilation system designed to capture the dust cloud created by the compressed air.

(7) Waste, scrap, debris, bags, and containers, personal protective equipment and clothing contaminated with cadmium and consigned for disposal shall be collected and disposed of in sealed impermeable bags or other closed, impermeable containers. These bags and containers shall be labeled in accordance with paragraph (m)(3)(ii) of this section.

(l) Medical Surveillance—(1) General—(i) Scope—(A) Currently exposed—The employer shall institute a medical surveillance program for all employees who are or may be exposed at or above the action level and all employees who perform the following tasks, operations or jobs: Electrical grounding with cadmium welding; cutting, brazing, burning, grinding or welding on surfaces that were painted with cadmium-containing paints; electrical work using cadmium-coated conduit; use of cadmium containing paints; cutting and welding cadmium-plated steel; brazing or welding with cadmium alloys; fusing of reinforced steel by cadmium welding; maintaining or retrofitting cadmium-coated equipment; and, wrecking and demolition where cadmium is present. A medical surveillance program will not be required if the employer demonstrates that the employee:

(1) Is not currently exposed by the employer to airborne concentrations of cadmium at or above the action level on 30 or more days per year (twelve consecutive months); and,

(2) Is not currently exposed by the employer in those tasks on 30 or more days per year (twelve consecutive months).

(B) Previously exposed— The employer shall also institute a medical surveillance program for all employees who might previously have been exposed to cadmium by the employer prior to the effective date of this standard in tasks specified under paragraph (l)(1)(i)(A) of this section, unless the employer demonstrates that the employee did not in the years prior to the effective date of this section work in those tasks for the employer with exposure to cadmium for an aggregated total of more than 12 months.

(ii) To determine an employee's fitness for using a respirator, the employer shall provide the limited medical examination specified in paragraph (l)(6) of this section.

(iii) The employer shall assure that all medical examinations and procedures required by this section are performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician, who has read and is familiar with the health effects section of appendix A to this section, the regulatory text of this section, the protocol for sample handling and lab selection in appendix F to this section, and the questionnaire of appendix D to this section.

(iv) The employer shall provide the medical surveillance required by this section, including multiple physician review under paragraph (l)(13) of this section without cost to employees, and at a time and place that is reasonable and convenient to employees.

(v) The employer shall assure that the collecting and handling of biological samples of cadmium in urine (CdU), cadmium in blood (CdB), and beta-2 microglobulin in urine (β2-M) taken from employees under this section is done in a manner that assures their reliability and that analysis of biological samples of cadmium in urine (CdU), cadmium in blood (CdB), and beta-2 microglobulin in urine (β2-M) taken from employees under this section is performed in laboratories with demonstrated proficiency to perform the particular analysis. (See appendix F to this section.)

(2) Initial Examination. (i) For employees covered by medical surveillance under paragraph (l)(1)(i) of this section, the employer shall provide an initial medical examination. The examination shall be provided to those employees within 30 days after initial assignment to a job with exposure to cadmium or no later than 90 days after the effective date of this section, whichever date is later.

(ii) The initial medical examination shall include:

(A) A detailed medical and work history, with emphasis on: Past, present, and anticipated future exposure to cadmium; any history of renal, cardiovascular, respiratory, hematopoietic, reproductive, and/or musculo-skeletal system dysfunction; current usage of medication with potential nephrotoxic side-effects; and smoking history and current status; and

(B) Biological monitoring that includes the following tests:

(1) Cadmium in urine (CdU), standardized to grams of creatinine (g/Cr);

(2) Beta-2 microglobulin in urine (β2-M), standardized to grams of creatinine (g/Cr), with pH specified, as described in appendix F to this section; and

(3) Cadmium in blood (CdB), standardized to liters of whole blood (lwb).

(iii) Recent Examination: An initial examination is not required to be provided if adequate records show that the employee has been examined in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (l)(2)(ii) of this section within the past 12 months. In that case, such records shall be maintained as part of the employee's medical record and the prior exam shall be treated as if it were an initial examination for the purposes of paragraphs (l)(3) and (4) of this section.

(3) Actions triggered by initial biological monitoring. (i) If the results of the biological monitoring tests in the initial examination show the employee's CdU level to be at or below 3 µg/g Cr, β2-M level to be at or below 300 µg/g Cr and CdB level to be at or below 5 µg/lwb, then:

(A) For employees who are subject to medical surveillance under paragraphs (l)(1)(i)(A) of this section because of current or anticipated exposure to cadmium, the employer shall provide the minimum level of periodic medical surveillance in accordance with the requirements in paragraph (l)(4)(i) of this section; and

(B) For employees who are subject to medical surveillance under paragraph (l)(1)(i)(B) of this section because of prior but not current exposure, the employer shall provide biological monitoring for CdU, B2-M, and CdB one year after the initial biological monitoring and then the employer shall comply with the requirements of paragraph (l)(4)(vi) of this section.

(ii) For all employees who are subject to medical surveillance under paragraph (l)(1)(i) of this section, if the results of the initial biological monitoring tests show the level of CdU to exceed 3 µg/g Cr, the level of β2-M to be in excess of 300 µg/g Cr, or the level of CdB to be in excess of 5 µg/lwb, the employer shall:

(A) Within two weeks after receipt of biological monitoring results, reassess the employee's occupational exposure to cadmium as follows:

(1) Reassess the employee's work practices and personal hygiene;

(2) Reevaluate the employee's respirator use, if any, and the respirator program;

(3) Review the hygiene facilities;

(4) Reevaluate the maintenance and effectiveness of the relevant engineering controls;

(5) Assess the employee's smoking history and status;

(B) Within 30 days after the exposure reassessment, specified in paragraph (l)(3)(ii)(A) of this section, take reasonable steps to correct any deficiencies found in the reassessment that may be responsible for the employee's excess exposure to cadmium; and,

(C) Within 90 days after receipt of biological monitoring results, provide a full medical examination to the employee in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (l)(4)(ii) of this section. After completing the medical examination, the examining physician shall determine in a written medical opinion whether to medically remove the employee. If the physician determines that medical removal is not necessary, then until the employee's CdU level falls to or below 3 µg/g Cr, β2-M level falls to or below 300 µg/g Cr and CdB level falls to or below 5 µg/lwb, the employer shall:

(1) Provide biological monitoring in accordance with paragraph (l)(2)(ii)(B) of this section on a semiannual basis; and

(2) Provide annual medical examinations in accordance with paragraph (l)(4)(ii) of this section.

(iii) For all employees who are subject to medical surveillance under paragraph (l)(1)(i) of this section, if the results of the initial biological monitoring tests show the level of CdU to be in excess of 15 µg/g Cr, or the level of CdB to be in excess of 15 µg/lwb, or the level of β2-M to be in excess of 1,500 µg/g Cr, the employer shall comply with the requirements of paragraphs (l)(3)(ii)(A)-(B) of this section. Within 90 days after receipt of biological monitoring results, the employer shall provide a full medical examination to the employee in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (l)(4)(ii) of this section. After completing the medical examination, the examining physician shall determine in a written medical opinion whether to medically remove the employee. However, if the initial biological monitoring results and the biological monitoring results obtained during the medical examination both show that: CdU exceeds 15 µg/g Cr; or CdB exceeds 15 µg/lwb; or β2-M exceeds 1500 µg/g Cr, and in addition CdU exceeds 3 µg/g Cr or CdB exceeds 5 µg/liter of whole blood, then the physician shall medically remove the employee from exposure to cadmium at or above the action level. If the second set of biological monitoring results obtained during the medical examination does not show that a mandatory removal trigger level has been exceeded, then the employee is not required to be removed by the mandatory provisions of this paragraph. If the employee is not required to be removed by the mandatory provisions of this paragraph or by the physician's determination, then until the employee's CdU level falls to or below 3 µg/g Cr, β2-M level falls to or below 300 µg/g Cr and CdB level falls to or below 5 µg/lwb, the employer shall:

(A) Periodically reassess the employee's occupational exposure to cadmium;

(B) Provide biological monitoring in accordance with paragraph (l)(2)(ii)(B) of this section on a quarterly basis; and

(C) Provide semiannual medical examinations in accordance with paragraph (l)(4)(ii) of this section.

(iv) For all employees to whom medical surveillance is provided, beginning on January 1, 1999, and in lieu of paragraph (l)(3)(iii) of this section, whenever the results of initial biological monitoring tests show the employee's CdU level to be in excess of 7 µg/g Cr, or β2-M level to be in excess of 750 µg/g Cr, or CdB level to be in excess of 10 µg/lwb, the employer shall comply with the requirements of paragraphs (l)(3)(ii)(A)-(B) of this section. Within 90 days after receipt of biological monitoring results, the employer shall provide a full medical examination to the employee in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (l)(4)(ii) of this section. After completing the medical examination, the examining physician shall determine in a written medical opinion whether to medically remove the employee. However, if the initial biological monitoring results and the biological monitoring results obtained during the medical examination both show that: CdU exceeds 7 µg/g Cr; or CdB exceeds 10 µg/lwb; or β2-M exceeds 750 µg/g Cr, and in addition CdU exceeds 3 µg/g Cr or CdB exceeds 5 µg/liter of whole blood, then the physician shall medically remove the employee from exposure to cadmium at or above the action level. If the second set of biological monitoring results obtained during the medical examination does not show that a mandatory removal trigger level has been exceeded, then the employee is not required to be removed by the mandatory provisions of this paragraph. If the employee is not required to be removed by the mandatory provisions of this paragraph or by the physician's determination, then until the employee's CdU level falls to or below 3 µg/g Cr, β2-M level falls to or below 300 µg/g Cr and CdB level falls to or below 5 µg/lwb, the employer shall:

(A) Periodically reassess the employee's occupational exposure to cadmium;

(B) Provide biological monitoring in accordance with paragraph (l)(2)(ii)(B) of this section on a quarterly basis; and

(C) Provide semiannual medical examinations in accordance with paragraph (l)(4)(ii) of this section.

(4) Periodic medical surveillance. (i) For each employee who is covered by medical surveillance under paragraph (l)(1)(i)(A) of this section because of current or anticipated exposure to cadmium, the employer shall provide at least the minimum level of periodic medical surveillance, which consists of periodic medical examinations and periodic biological monitoring. A periodic medical examination shall be provided within one year after the initial examination required by paragraph (l)(2) of this section and thereafter at least biennially. Biological sampling shall be provided at least annually either as part of a periodic medical examination or separately as periodic biological monitoring.

(ii) The periodic medical examination shall include:

(A) A detailed medical and work history, or update thereof, with emphasis on: Past, present and anticipated future exposure to cadmium; smoking history and current status; reproductive history; current use of medications with potential nephrotoxic side-effects; any history of renal, cardiovascular, respiratory, hematopoietic, and/or musculo-skeletal system dysfunction; and as part of the medical and work history, for employees who wear respirators, questions 3-11 and 25-32 in appendix D to this section;

(B) A complete physical examination with emphasis on: blood pressure, the respiratory system, and the urinary system;

(C) A 14 inch by 17 inch or other reasonably-sized standard film or digital posterior-anterior chest X-ray (after the initial X-ray, the frequency of chest X-rays is to be determined by the examining physician);

(D) Pulmonary function tests, including forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1);

(E) Biological monitoring, as required in paragraph (l)(2)(ii)(B) of this section;

(F) Blood analysis, in addition to the analysis required under paragraph (l)(2)(ii)(B) of this section, including blood urea nitrogen, complete blood count, and serum creatinine;

(G) Urinalysis, in addition to the analysis required under paragraph (l)(2)(ii)(B) of this section, including the determination of albumin, glucose, and total and low molecular weight proteins;

(H) For males over 40 years old, prostate palpation, or other at least as effective diagnostic test(s), and;

(I) Any additional tests or procedures deemed appropriate by the examining physician.

(iii) Periodic biological monitoring shall be provided in accordance with paragraph (l)(2)(ii)(B) of this section.

(iv) If the results of periodic biological monitoring or the results of biological monitoring performed as part of the periodic medical examination show the level of the employee's CdU, β2-M, or CdB to be in excess of the levels specified in paragraphs (l)(3)(ii) or (iii) of this section; or beginning on January 1, 1999, in excess of the levels specified in paragraphs (l)(3)(ii) or (iv), the employer shall take the appropriate actions specified in paragraphs (l)(3)(ii)-(iv) of this section, respectively.

(v) For previously exposed employees under paragraph (l)(1)(i)(B) of this section:

(A) If the employee's levels of CdU did not exceed 3 µg/g Cr, CdB did not exceed 5 µg/lwb, and β2-M did not exceed 300 µg/g Cr in the initial biological monitoring tests, and if the results of the followup biological monitoring required by paragraph (l)(3)(i)(B) of this section one year after the initial examination confirm the previous results, the employer may discontinue all periodic medical surveillance for that employee.

(B) If the initial biological monitoring results for CdU, CdB, or β2-M were in excess of the levels specified in paragraph (l)(3)(i) of this section, but subsequent biological monitoring results required by paragraph (l)(3)(ii)-(iv) of this section show that the employee's CdU levels no longer exceed 3 µg/g Cr, CdB levels no longer exceed 5 µg/lwb, and β2-M levels no longer exceed 300 µg/g Cr, the employer shall provide biological monitoring for CdU, CdB, and β2-M one year after these most recent biological monitoring results. If the results of the followup biological monitoring specified in this paragraph, confirm the previous results, the employer may discontinue all periodic medical surveillance for that employee.

(C) However, if the results of the follow-up tests specified in paragraph (l)(4)(v)(A) or (B) of this section indicate that the level of the employee's CdU, β2-M, or CdB exceeds these same levels, the employer is required to provide annual medical examinations in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (l)(4)(ii) of this section until the results of biological monitoring are consistently below these levels or the examining physician determines in a written medical opinion that further medical surveillance is not required to protect the employee's health.

(vi) A routine, biennial medical examination is not required to be provided in accordance with paragraphs (l)(3)(i) and (l)(4) of this section if adequate medical records show that the employee has been examined in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (l)(4)(ii) of this section within the past 12 months. In that case, such records shall be maintained by the employer as part of the employee's medical record, and the next routine, periodic medical examination shall be made available to the employee within two years of the previous examination.

(5) Actions triggered by medical examinations. (i) If the results of a medical examination carried out in accordance with this section indicate any laboratory or clinical finding consistent with cadmium toxicity that does not require employer action under paragraphs (l)(2), (3) or (4) of this section, the employer shall take the following steps and continue to take them until the physician determines that they are no longer necessary.

(A) Periodically reassess: The employee's work practices and personal hygiene; the employee's respirator use, if any; the employee's smoking history and status; the respiratory protection program; the hygiene facilities; the maintenance and effectiveness of the relevant engineering controls; and take all reasonable steps to correct the deficiencies found in the reassessment that may be responsible for the employee's excess exposure to cadmium.

(B) Provide semi-annual medical reexaminations to evaluate the abnormal clinical sign(s) of cadmium toxicity until the results are normal or the employee is medically removed; and

(C) Where the results of tests for total proteins in urine are abnormal, provide a more detailed medical evaluation of the toxic effects of cadmium on the employee's renal system.

(6) Examination for respirator use. (i) To determine an employee's fitness for respirator use, the employer shall provide a medical examination that includes the elements specified in paragraph (l)(6)(i)(A)-(D) of this section. This examination shall be provided prior to the employee's being assigned to a job that requires the use of a respirator or no later than 90 days after this section goes into effect, whichever date is later, to any employee without a medical examination within the preceding 12 months that satisfies the requirements of this paragraph.

(A) A detailed medical and work history, or update thereof, with emphasis on: past exposure to cadmium; smoking history and current status; any history of renal, cardiovascular, respiratory, hematopoietic, and/or musculo-skeletal system dysfunction; a description of the job for which the respirator is required; and questions 3-11 and 25-32 in appendix D;

(B) A blood pressure test;

(C) Biological monitoring of the employee's levels of CdU, CdB and β2-M in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (l)(2)(ii)(B) of this section, unless such results already have been obtained within the twelve months; and

(D) Any other test or precedure that the examining physician deems appropriate.

(ii) After reviewing all the information obtained from the medical examination required in paragraph (l)(6)(i) of this section, the physician shall determine whether the employee is fit to wear a respirator.

(iii) Whenever an employee has exhibited difficulty in breathing during a respirator fit test or during use of a respirator, the employer, as soon as possible, shall provide the employee with a periodic medical examination in accordance with paragraph (l)(4)(ii) of this section to determine the employee's fitness to wear a respirator.

(iv) Where the results of the examination required under paragraphs (l)(6)(i), (ii), or (iii) of this section are abnormal, medical limitation or prohibition of respirator use shall be considered. If the employee is allowed to wear a respirator, the employee's ability to continue to do so shall be periodically evaluated by a physician.

(7) Emergency Examinations. (i) In addition to the medical surveillance required in paragraphs (l)(2)-(6) of this section, the employer shall provide a medical examination as soon as possible to any employee who may have been acutely exposed to cadmium because of an emergency.

(ii) The examination shall include the requirements of paragraph (l)(4)(ii), of this section, with emphasis on the respiratory system, other organ systems considered appropriate by the examining physician, and symptoms of acute overexposure, as identified in paragraphs II(B)(1)-(2) and IV of appendix A of this section.

(8) Termination of employment examination. (i) At termination of employment, the employer shall provide a medical examination in accordance with paragraph (l)(4)(ii) of this section, including a chest X-ray where necessary, to any employee to whom at any prior time the employer was required to provide medical surveillance under paragraph (l)(1)(i) or (l)(7) of this section. However, if the last examination satisfied the requirements of paragraph (l)(4)(ii) of this section and was less than six months prior to the date of termination, no further examination is required unless otherwise specified in paragraph (l)(3) or (l)(5) of this section;

(ii) In addition, if the employer has discontinued all periodic medical surveillance under paragraph (l)(4)(v) of this section, no termination of employment medical examination is required.

(9) Information provided to the physician. The employer shall provide the following information to the examining physician:

(i) A copy of this standard and appendices;

(ii) A description of the affected employee's former, current, and anticipated duties as they relate to the employee's occupational exposure to cadmium;

(iii) The employee's former, current, and anticipated future levels of occupational exposure to cadmium;

(iv) A description of any personal protective equipment, including respirators, used or to be used by the employee, including when and for how long the employee has used that equipment; and

(v) Relevant results of previous biological monitoring and medical examinations.

(10) Physician's written medical opinion. (i) The employer shall promptly obtain a written, medical opinion from the examining physician for each medical examination performed on each employee. This written opinion shall contain:

(A) The physician's diagnosis for the employee;

(B) The physician's opinion as to whether the employee has any detected medical condition(s) that would place the employee at increased risk of material impairment to health from further exposure to cadmium, including any indications of potential cadmium toxicity;

(C) The results of any biological or other testing or related evaluations that directly assess the employee's absorption of cadmium;

(D) Any recommended removal from, or limitation on the activities or duties of the employee or on the employee's use of personal protective equipment, such as respirators;

(E) A statement that the physician has clearly and carefully explained to the employee the results of the medical examination, including all biological monitoring results and any medical conditions related to cadmium exposure that require further evaluation or treatment, and any limitation on the employee's diet or use of medications.

(ii) The employer shall promptly obtain a copy of the results of any biological monitoring provided by an employer to an employee independently of a medical examination under paragraphs (l)(2) and (l)(4) of this section, and, in lieu of a written medical opinion, an explanation sheet explaining those results.

(iii) The employer shall instruct the physician not to reveal orally or in the written medical opinion given to the employer specific findings or diagnoses unrelated to occupational exposure to cadmium.

(11) Medical Removal Protection (MRP)—(i) General. (A) The employer shall temporarily remove an employee from work where there is excess exposure to cadmium on each occasion that medical removal is required under paragraphs (l)(3), (l)(4), or (l)(6) of this section and on each occasion that a physician determines in a written medical opinion that the employee should be removed from such exposure. The physician's determination may be based on biological monitoring results, inability to wear a respirator, evidence of illness, other signs or symptoms of cadmium-related dysfunction or disease, or any other reason deemed medically sufficient by the physician.

(B) The employer shall medically remove an employee in accordance with paragraph (l)(11) of this section regardless of whether at the time of removal a job is available into which the removed employee may be transferred.

(C) Whenever an employee is medically removed under paragraph (l)(11) of this section, the employer shall transfer the removed employee to a job where the exposure to cadmium is within the permissible levels specified in that paragraph as soon as one becomes available.

(D) For any employee who is medically removed under the provisions of paragraph (l)(11)(i) of this section, the employer shall provide follow-up medical examinations semi-annually until, in a written medical opinion, the examining physician determines that either the employee may be returned to his/her former job status or the employee must be permanently removed from excess cadmium exposure.

(E) The employer may not return an employee who has been medically removed for any reason to his/her former job status until a physician determines in a written medical opinion that continued medical removal is no longer necessary to protect the employee's health.

(ii) Where an employee is found unfit to wear a respirator under paragraph (l)(6)(ii) of this section, the employer shall remove the employee from work where exposure to cadmium is above the PEL.

(iii) Where removal is based upon any reason other than the employee's inability to wear a respirator, the employer shall remove the employee from work where exposure to cadmium is at or above the action level.

(iv) Except as specified in paragraph (l)(11)(v) of this section, no employee who was removed because his/her level of CdU, CdB and/or β2-M exceeded the trigger levels in paragraph (l)(3) or (l)(4) of this section may be returned to work with exposure to cadmium at or above the action level until the employee's levels of CdU fall to or below 3 µg/g Cr, CdB fall to or below 5 µg/lwb, and β2-M fall to or below 300 µg/g Cr.

(v) However, when in the examining physician's opinion continued exposure to cadmium will not pose an increased risk to the employee's health and there are special circumstances that make continued medical removal an inappropriate remedy, the physician shall fully discuss these matters with the employee, and then in a written determination may return a worker to his/her former job status despite what would otherwise be unacceptably high biological monitoring results. Thereafter and until such time as the employee's biological monitoring results have decreased to levels where he/she could have been returned to his/her former job status, the returned employee shall continue medical surveillance as if he/she were still on medical removal. Until such time, the employee is no longer subject to mandatory medical removal. Subsequent questions regarding the employee's medical removal shall be decided solely by a final medical determination.

(vi) Where an employer, although not required by this section to do so, removes an employee from exposure to cadmium or otherwise places limitations on an employee due to the effects of cadmium exposure on the employee's medical condition, the employer shall provide the same medical removal protection benefits to that employee under paragraph (l)(12) of this section as would have been provided had the removal been required under paragraph (l)(11) of this section.

(12) Medical removal protection benefits. (i) The employer shall provide medical removal protection benefits to an employee for up to a maximum of 18 months each time, and while the employee is temporarily medically removed under paragraph (l)(11) of this section.

(ii) For purposes of this section, the requirement that the employer provide medical removal protection benefits means that the employer shall maintain the total normal earnings, seniority, and all other employee rights and benefits of the removed employee, including the employee's right to his/her former job status, as if the employee had not been removed from the employee's job or otherwise medically limited.

(iii) Where, after 18 months on medical removal because of elevated biological monitoring results, the employee's monitoring results have not declined to a low enough level to permit the employee to be returned to his/her former job status:

(A) The employer shall make available to the employee a medical examination pursuant to this section in order to obtain a final medical determination as to whether the employee may be returned to his/her former job status or must be permanently removed from excess cadmium exposure; and

(B) The employer shall assure that the final medical determination indicates whether the employee may be returned to his/her former job status and what steps, if any, should be taken to protect the employee's health;

(iv) The employer may condition the provision of medical removal protection benefits upon the employee's participation in medical surveillance provided in accordance with this section.

(13) Multiple physician review. (i) If the employer selects the initial physician to conduct any medical examination or consultation provided to an employee under this section, the employee may designate a second physician to:

(A) Review any findings, determinations, or recommendations of the initial physician; and

(B) Conduct such examinations, consultations, and laboratory tests as the second physician deems necessary to facilitate this review.

(ii) The employer shall promptly notify an employee of the right to seek a second medical opinion after each occasion that an initial physician provided by the employer conducts a medical examination or consultation pursuant to this section. The employer may condition its participation in, and payment for, multiple physician review upon the employee doing the following within fifteen (15) days after receipt of this notice, or receipt of the initial physician's written opinion, whichever is later:

(A) Informing the employer that he or she intends to seek a medical opinion; and

(B) Initiating steps to make an appointment with a second physician.

(iii) If the findings, determinations, or recommendations of the second physician differ from those of the initial physician, then the employer and the employee shall assure that efforts are made for the two physicians to resolve any disagreement.

(iv) If the two physicians have been unable to quickly resolve their disagreement, then the employer and the employee, through their respective physicians, shall designate a third physician to:

(A) Review any findings, determinations, or recommendations of the other two physicians; and

(B) Conduct such examinations, consultations, laboratory tests, and discussions with the other two physicians as the third physician deems necessary to resolve the disagreement among them.

(v) The employer shall act consistently with the findings, determinations, and recommendations of the third physician, unless the employer and the employee reach an agreement that is consistent with the recommendations of at least one of the other two physicians.

(14) Alternate physician determination. The employer and an employee or designated employee representative may agree upon the use of any alternate form of physician determination in lieu of the multiple physician review provided by paragraph (l)(13) of this section, so long as the alternative is expeditious and at least as protective of the employee.

(15) Information the employer must provide the employee. (i) The employer shall provide a copy of the physician's written medical opinion to the examined employee within five working days after receipt thereof.

(ii) The employer shall provide the employee with a copy of the employee's biological monitoring results and an explanation sheet explaining the results within five working days after receipt thereof.

(iii) Within 30 days after a request by an employee, the employer shall provide the employee with the information the employer is required to provide the examining physician under paragraph (l)(9) of this section.

(16) Reporting. In addition to other medical events that are required to be reported on the OSHA Form No. 200, the employer shall report any abnormal condition or disorder caused by occupational exposure to cadmium associated with employment as specified in Chapter (V)(E) of the Reporting Guidelines for Occupational Injuries and Illnesses.

(m) Communication of cadmium hazards to employees—(1) Hazard communication. The employer shall include cadmium in the program established to comply with the Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) (§1910.1200). The employer shall ensure that each employee has access to labels on containers of cadmium and safety data sheets, and is trained in accordance with the provisions of HCS and paragraph (m)(4) of this section. The employer shall provide information on at least the following hazards: Cancer; lung effects; kidney effects; and acute toxicity effects.

(2) Warning signs. (i) Warning signs shall be provided and displayed in regulated areas. In addition, warning signs shall be posted at all approaches to regulated areas so that an employee may read the signs and take necessary protective steps before entering the area.

(ii) Warning signs required by paragraph (m)(2)(i) of this section shall bear the following legend:

DANGER

CADMIUM

MAY CAUSE CANCER

CAUSES DAMAGE TO LUNGS AND KIDNEYS

WEAR RESPIRATORY PROTECTION IN THIS AREA

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(iii) The employer shall ensure that signs required by this paragraph (m)(2) are illuminated, cleaned, and maintained as necessary so that the legend is readily visible.

(iv) Prior to June 1, 2016, employers may use the following legend in lieu of that specified in paragraph (m)(2)(ii) of this section:

DANGER

CADMIUM

CANCER HAZARD

CAN CAUSE LUNG AND KIDNEY DISEASE

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

RESPIRATORS REQUIRED IN THIS AREA

(3) Warning labels. (i) Shipping and storage containers containing cadmium or cadmium compounds shall bear appropriate warning labels, as specified in paragraph (m)(1) of this section.

(ii) The warning labels for containers of cadmium-contaminated protective clothing, equipment, waste, scrap, or debris shall include at least the following information:

DANGER

CONTAINS CADMIUM

MAY CAUSE CANCER

CAUSES DAMAGE TO LUNGS AND KIDNEYS

AVOID CREATING DUST

(iii) Where feasible, installed cadmium products shall have a visible label or other indication that cadmium is present.

(iv) Prior to June 1, 2015, employers may include the following information on shipping and storage containers containing cadmium, cadmium compounds, or cadmium-contaminated clothing, equipment, waste, scrap, or debris in lieu of the labeling requirements specified in paragraphs (m)(3)(i) and (m)(3)(ii) of this section:

DANGER

CONTAINS CADMIUM

CANCER HAZARD

AVOID CREATING DUST

CAN CAUSE LUNG AND KIDNEY DISEASE

(4) Employee information and training. (i) The employer shall train each employee who is potentially exposed to cadmium in accordance with the requirements of this section. The employer shall institute a training program, ensure employee participation in the program, and maintain a record of the contents of the training program.

(ii) Training shall be provided prior to or at the time of initial assignment to a job involving potential exposure to cadmium and at least annually thereafter.

(iii) The employer shall make the training program understandable to the employee and shall assure that each employee is informed of the following:

(A) The health hazards associated with cadmium exposure, with special attention to the information incorporated in appendix A to this section;

(B) The quantity, location, manner of use, release, and storage of cadmium in the workplace and the specific nature of operations that could result in exposure to cadmium, especially exposures above the PEL;

(C) The engineering controls and work practices associated with the employee's job assignment;

(D) The measures employees can take to protect themselves from exposure to cadmium, including modification of such habits as smoking and personal hygiene, and specific procedures the employer has implemented to protect employees from exposure to cadmium such as appropriate work practices, emergency procedures, and the provision of personal protective equipment;

(E) The purpose, proper selection, fitting, proper use, and limitations of respirators and protective clothing;

(F) The purpose and a description of the medical surveillance program required by paragraph (l) of this section;

(G) The contents of this section and its appendices, and,

(H) The employee's rights of access to records under §1926.33(g) (1) and (2).

(iv) Additional access to information and training program and materials.

(A) The employer shall make a copy of this section and its appendices readily available to all affected employees and shall provide a copy without cost if requested.

(B) Upon request, the employer shall provide to the Assistant Secretary or the Director all materials relating to the employee information and the training program.

(5) Multi-employer workplace. In a multi-employer workplace, an employer who produces, uses, or stores cadmium in a manner that may expose employees of other employers to cadmium shall notify those employers of the potential hazard in accordance with paragraph (e) of the hazard communication standard for construction, 29 CFR 1926.59.

(n) Recordkeeping—(1) Exposure monitoring. (i) The employer shall establish and keep an accurate record of all air monitoring for cadmium in the workplace.

(ii) This record shall include at least the following information:

(A) The monitoring date, shift, duration, air volume, and results in terms of an 8-hour TWA of each sample taken, and if cadmium is not detected, the detection level;

(B) The name and job classification of all employees monitored and of all other employees whose exposures the monitoring result is intended to represent, including, where applicable, a description of how it was determined that the employee's monitoring result could be taken to represent other employee's exposures;

(C) A description of the sampling and analytical methods used and evidence of their accuracy;

(D) The type of respiratory protective device, if any, worn by the monitored employee and by any other employee whose exposure the monitoring result is intended to represent;

(E) A notation of any other conditions that might have affected the monitoring results.

(F) Any exposure monitoring or objective data that were used and the levels.

(iii) The employer shall maintain this record for at least thirty (30) years, in accordance with §1910.1020 of this chapter.

(iv) The employer shall also provide a copy of the results of an employee's air monitoring prescribed in paragraph (d) of this section to an industry trade association and to the employee's union, if any, or, if either of such associations or unions do not exist, to another comparable organization that is competent to maintain such records and is reasonably accessible to employers and employees in the industry.

(2) Objective data for exemption from requirement for initial monitoring. (i) For purposes of this section, objective data are information demonstrating that a particular product or material containing cadmium or a specific process, operation, or activity involving cadmium cannot release dust or fumes in concentrations at or above the action level even under the worst-case release conditions. Objective data can be obtained from an industry-wide study or from laboratory product test results from manufacturers of cadmium-containing products or materials. The data the employer uses from an industry-wide survey must be obtained under workplace conditions closely resembling the processes, types of material, control methods, work practices and environmental conditions in the employer's current operations.

(ii) The employer shall maintain the record for at least 30 years of the objective data relied upon.

(3) Medical surveillance. (i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee covered by medical surveillance under paragraph (l)(1)(i) of this section.

(ii) The record shall include at least the following information about the employee:

(A) Name and description of duties;

(B) A copy of the physician's written opinions and of the explanation sheets for biological monitoring results;

(C) A copy of the medical history, and the results of any physical examination and all test results that are required to be provided by this section, including biological tests, X-rays, pulmonary function tests, etc., or that have been obtained to further evaluate any condition that might be related to cadmium exposure;

(D) The employee's medical symptoms that might be related to exposure to cadmium; and

(E) A copy of the information provided to the physician as required by paragraph (l)(9) of this section.

(iii) The employer shall assure that this record is maintained for the duration of employment plus thirty (30) years, in accordance with §1910.1020 of this chapter.

(iv) At the employee's request, the employer shall promptly provide a copy of the employee's medical record, or update as appropriate, to a medical doctor or a union specified by the employee.

(4) Availability. (i) Except as otherwise provided for in this section, access to all records required to be maintained by paragraphs (n)(1) through (3) of this section shall be in accordance with the provisions of 29 CFR 1910.1020.

(ii) Within 15 days after a request, the employer shall make an employee's medical records required to be kept by paragraph (n)(3) of this section available for examination and copying to the subject employee, to designated representatives, to anyone having the specific written consent of the subject employee, and after the employee's death or incapacitation, to the employee's family members.

(o) Observation of monitoring—(1) Employee observation. The employer shall provide affected employees or their designated representatives an opportunity to observe any monitoring of employee exposure to cadmium.

(2) Observation procedures. When observation of monitoring requires entry into an area where the use of protective clothing or equipment is required, the employer shall provide the observer with that clothing and equipment and shall assure that the observer uses such clothing and equipment and complies with all other applicable safety and health procedures.

(p) [Reserved]

(q) Appendices. Except where portions of appendices A, B, D, E, and F to this section are expressly incorporated in requirements of this section, these appendices are purely informational and are not intended to create any additional obligations not otherwise imposed or to detract from any existing obligations.

Appendix A to §1926.1127—Substance Safety Data Sheet

Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this appendix A are identical to those set forth in appendix A to §1910.1027 of this chapter.

Appendix B to §1926.1127—Substance Technical Guidelines for Cadmium

Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this appendix B are identical to those set forth in appendix B to §1910.1027 of this chapter.

Appendix C to §1926.1127 [Reserved]

Appendix D to §1926.1127—Occupational Health History Interview With Reference to Cadmium Exposure

Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this appendix D are identical to those set forth in appendix D to §1910.1027 of this chapter.

Appendix E to §1926.1127—Cadmium in Workplace Atmospheres

Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this appendix E are identical to those set forth in appendix E to §1910.1027 of this chapter.

Appendix F to §1926.1127—Nonmandatory Protocol for Biological Monitoring

Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this appendix F are identical to those set forth in appendix F to §1910.1027 of this chapter.

[57 FR 42452, Sept. 14, 1992, as amended at 57 FR 49272, Oct. 30, 1992; 58 FR 21787, Apr. 23, 1993. Redesignated and amended at 59 FR 215, Jan. 3, 1994; 61 FR 5510, Feb. 13, 1996; 61 FR 31433, 31434, June 20, 1996; 63 FR 1298, Jan. 8, 1998; 70 FR 1144, Jan. 5, 2005; 71 FR 16675, Apr. 3, 2006; 71 FR 50192, Aug. 24, 2006; 73 FR 75589, Dec. 12, 2008; 76 FR 33612, June 8, 2011; 77 FR 17895, Mar. 26, 2012; 84 FR 21597, May 14, 2019; 85 FR 8746, Feb. 18, 2020]

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§1926.1128   Benzene.

Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to those set forth at §1910.1028 of this chapter.

[61 FR 31434, June 20, 1996]

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§1926.1129   [Reserved]

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§1926.1144   1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane.

Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to those set forth at §1910.1044 of this chapter.

[61 FR 31434, June 20, 1996]

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§1926.1145   Acrylonitrile.

Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to those set forth at §1910.1045 of this chapter.

[61 FR 31434, June 20, 1996]

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§1926.1147   Ethylene oxide.

Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to those set forth at §1910.1047 of this chapter.

[61 FR 31434, June 20, 1996]

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§1926.1148   Formaldehyde.

Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to those set forth at §1910.1048 of this chapter.

[61 FR 31434, June 20, 1996]

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§1926.1152   Methylene chloride.

Note: The requirements applicable to construction employment under this section are identical to those set forth at 29 CFR 1910.1052.

[62 FR 1619, Jan. 10, 1997]

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§1926.1153   Respirable crystalline silica.

(a) Scope and application. This section applies to all occupational exposures to respirable crystalline silica in construction work, except where employee exposure will remain below 25 micrograms per cubic meter of air (25 µg/m3) as an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) under any foreseeable conditions.

(b) Definitions. For the purposes of this section the following definitions apply:

Action level means a concentration of airborne respirable crystalline silica of 25 µg/m3, calculated as an 8-hour TWA.

Assistant Secretary means the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Labor, or designee.

Director means the Director of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or designee.

Competent person means an individual who is capable of identifying existing and foreseeable respirable crystalline silica hazards in the workplace and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate or minimize them. The competent person must have the knowledge and ability necessary to fulfill the responsibilities set forth in paragraph (g) of this section.

Employee exposure means the exposure to airborne respirable crystalline silica that would occur if the employee were not using a respirator.

High-efficiency particulate air [HEPA] filter means a filter that is at least 99.97 percent efficient in removing mono-dispersed particles of 0.3 micrometers in diameter.

Objective data means information, such as air monitoring data from industry-wide surveys or calculations based on the composition of a substance, demonstrating employee exposure to respirable crystalline silica associated with a particular product or material or a specific process, task, or activity. The data must reflect workplace conditions closely resembling or with a higher exposure potential than the processes, types of material, control methods, work practices, and environmental conditions in the employer's current operations.

Physician or other licensed health care professional [PLHCP] means an individual whose legally permitted scope of practice (i.e., license, registration, or certification) allows him or her to independently provide or be delegated the responsibility to provide some or all of the particular health care services required by paragraph (h) of this section.

Respirable crystalline silica means quartz, cristobalite, and/or tridymite contained in airborne particles that are determined to be respirable by a sampling device designed to meet the characteristics for respirable-particle-size-selective samplers specified in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 7708:1995: Air Quality—Particle Size Fraction Definitions for Health-Related Sampling.

Specialist means an American Board Certified Specialist in Pulmonary Disease or an American Board Certified Specialist in Occupational Medicine.

This section means this respirable crystalline silica standard, 29 CFR 1926.1153.

(c) Specified exposure control methods. (1) For each employee engaged in a task identified on Table 1, the employer shall fully and properly implement the engineering controls, work practices, and respiratory protection specified for the task on Table 1, unless the employer assesses and limits the exposure of the employee to respirable crystalline silica in accordance with paragraph (d) of this section.

Table 1—Specified Exposure Control Methods When Working With Materials Containing Crystalline Silica

Equipment/taskEngineering and work practice control methodsRequired respiratory protection and minimum assigned protection factor (APF)
≤4 hours/shift>4 hours/shift
(i) Stationary masonry sawsUse saw equipped with integrated water delivery system that continuously feeds water to the bladeNoneNone.
   Operate and maintain tool in accordance with manufacturer's instructions to minimize dust emissions
(ii) Handheld power saws (any blade diameter)Use saw equipped with integrated water delivery system that continuously feeds water to the blade
   Operate and maintain tool in accordance with manufacturer's instructions to minimize dust emissions:
   —When used outdoorsNoneAPF 10.
   —When used indoors or in an enclosed areaAPF 10APF 10.
(iii) Handheld power saws for cutting fiber-cement board (with blade diameter of 8 inches or less)For tasks performed outdoors only:
Use saw equipped with commercially available dust collection system
Operate and maintain tool in accordance with manufacturer's instructions to minimize dust emissions

None

None.
   Dust collector must provide the air flow recommended by the tool manufacturer, or greater, and have a filter with 99% or greater efficiency
(iv) Walk-behind sawsUse saw equipped with integrated water delivery system that continuously feeds water to the blade
   Operate and maintain tool in accordance with manufacturer's instructions to minimize dust emissions:
   —When used outdoorsNoneNone.
   —When used indoors or in an enclosed areaAPF 10APF 10.
(v) Drivable sawsFor tasks performed outdoors only:
   Use saw equipped with integrated water delivery system that continuously feeds water to the bladeNoneNone.
   Operate and maintain tool in accordance with manufacturer's instructions to minimize dust emissions
(vi) Rig-mounted core saws or drillsUse tool equipped with integrated water delivery system that supplies water to cutting surfaceNoneNone.
   Operate and maintain tool in accordance with manufacturer's instructions to minimize dust emissions
(vii) Handheld and stand-mounted drills (including impact and rotary hammer drills)Use drill equipped with commercially available shroud or cowling with dust collection systemNoneNone.
   Operate and maintain tool in accordance with manufacturer's instructions to minimize dust emissions
   Dust collector must provide the air flow recommended by the tool manufacturer, or greater, and have a filter with 99% or greater efficiency and a filter-cleaning mechanism
   Use a HEPA-filtered vacuum when cleaning holes
(viii) Dowel drilling rigs for concreteFor tasks performed outdoors only:
   Use shroud around drill bit with a dust collection system. Dust collector must have a filter with 99% or greater efficiency and a filter-cleaning mechanismAPF 10APF 10.
   Use a HEPA-filtered vacuum when cleaning holes
(ix) Vehicle-mounted drilling rigs for rock and concreteUse dust collection system with close capture hood or shroud around drill bit with a low-flow water spray to wet the dust at the discharge point from the dust collectorNoneNone.
   OR
   Operate from within an enclosed cab and use water for dust suppression on drill bitNoneNone.
(x) Jackhammers and handheld powered chipping toolsUse tool with water delivery system that supplies a continuous stream or spray of water at the point of impact:
   —When used outdoorsNoneAPF 10.
   —When used indoors or in an enclosed areaAPF 10APF 10.
   OR
   Use tool equipped with commercially available shroud and dust collection system
   Operate and maintain tool in accordance with manufacturer's instructions to minimize dust emissions
   Dust collector must provide the air flow recommended by the tool manufacturer, or greater, and have a filter with 99% or greater efficiency and a filter-cleaning mechanism:
   —When used outdoorsNoneAPF 10.
   —When used indoors or in an enclosed areaAPF 10APF 10.
(xi) Handheld grinders for mortar removal (i.e., tuckpointing)Use grinder equipped with commercially available shroud and dust collection systemAPF 10APF 25.
   Operate and maintain tool in accordance with manufacturer's instructions to minimize dust emissions
   Dust collector must provide 25 cubic feet per minute (cfm) or greater of airflow per inch of wheel diameter and have a filter with 99% or greater efficiency and a cyclonic pre-separator or filter-cleaning mechanism
(xii) Handheld grinders for uses other than mortar removalFor tasks performed outdoors only:
Use grinder equipped with integrated water delivery system that continuously feeds water to the grinding surface
NoneNone.
   Operate and maintain tool in accordance with manufacturer's instructions to minimize dust emissions
   OR
   Use grinder equipped with commercially available shroud and dust collection system
   Operate and maintain tool in accordance with manufacturer's instructions to minimize dust emissions
   Dust collector must provide 25 cubic feet per minute (cfm) or greater of airflow per inch of wheel diameter and have a filter with 99% or greater efficiency and a cyclonic pre-separator or filter-cleaning mechanism:
   —When used outdoorsNoneNone.
   —When used indoors or in an enclosed areaNoneAPF 10.
(xiii) Walk-behind milling machines and floor grindersUse machine equipped with integrated water delivery system that continuously feeds water to the cutting surfaceNoneNone.
   Operate and maintain tool in accordance with manufacturer's instructions to minimize dust emissions
   OR
   Use machine equipped with dust collection system recommended by the manufacturerNoneNone.
   Operate and maintain tool in accordance with manufacturer's instructions to minimize dust emissions
   Dust collector must provide the air flow recommended by the manufacturer, or greater, and have a filter with 99% or greater efficiency and a filter-cleaning mechanism
   When used indoors or in an enclosed area, use a HEPA-filtered vacuum to remove loose dust in between passes
(xiv) Small drivable milling machines (less than half-lane)Use a machine equipped with supplemental water sprays designed to suppress dust. Water must be combined with a surfactantNoneNone.
   Operate and maintain machine to minimize dust emissions
(xv) Large drivable milling machines (half-lane and larger)For cuts of any depth on asphalt only:
Use machine equipped with exhaust ventilation on drum enclosure and supplemental water sprays designed to suppress dust
NoneNone.
   Operate and maintain machine to minimize dust emissions
   For cuts of four inches in depth or less on any substrate:
   Use machine equipped with exhaust ventilation on drum enclosure and supplemental water sprays designed to suppress dustNoneNone.
   Operate and maintain machine to minimize dust emissions
   OR
   Use a machine equipped with supplemental water spray designed to suppress dust. Water must be combined with a surfactantNoneNone.
   Operate and maintain machine to minimize dust emissions
(xvi) Crushing machinesUse equipment designed to deliver water spray or mist for dust suppression at crusher and other points where dust is generated (e.g., hoppers, conveyers, sieves/sizing or vibrating components, and discharge points)NoneNone.
   Operate and maintain machine in accordance with manufacturer's instructions to minimize dust emissions
   Use a ventilated booth that provides fresh, climate-controlled air to the operator, or a remote control station
(xvii) Heavy equipment and utility vehicles used to abrade or fracture silica-containing materials (e.g., hoe-ramming, rock ripping) or used during demolition activities involving silica-containing materialsOperate equipment from within an enclosed cab
When employees outside of the cab are engaged in the task, apply water and/or dust suppressants as necessary to minimize dust emissions
None
None
None.
None.
(xviii) Heavy equipment and utility vehicles for tasks such as grading and excavating but not including: Demolishing, abrading, or fracturing silica-containing materialsApply water and/or dust suppressants as necessary to minimize dust emissions
OR
NoneNone.
   When the equipment operator is the only employee engaged in the task, operate equipment from within an enclosed cabNoneNone.

(2) When implementing the control measures specified in Table 1, each employer shall:

(i) For tasks performed indoors or in enclosed areas, provide a means of exhaust as needed to minimize the accumulation of visible airborne dust;

(ii) For tasks performed using wet methods, apply water at flow rates sufficient to minimize release of visible dust;

(iii) For measures implemented that include an enclosed cab or booth, ensure that the enclosed cab or booth:

(A) Is maintained as free as practicable from settled dust;

(B) Has door seals and closing mechanisms that work properly;

(C) Has gaskets and seals that are in good condition and working properly;

(D) Is under positive pressure maintained through continuous delivery of fresh air;

(E) Has intake air that is filtered through a filter that is 95% efficient in the 0.3-10.0 µm range (e.g., MERV-16 or better); and

(F) Has heating and cooling capabilities.

(3) Where an employee performs more than one task on Table 1 during the course of a shift, and the total duration of all tasks combined is more than four hours, the required respiratory protection for each task is the respiratory protection specified for more than four hours per shift. If the total duration of all tasks on Table 1 combined is less than four hours, the required respiratory protection for each task is the respiratory protection specified for less than four hours per shift.

(d) Alternative exposure control methods. For tasks not listed in Table 1, or where the employer does not fully and properly implement the engineering controls, work practices, and respiratory protection described in Table 1:

(1) Permissible exposure limit (PEL). The employer shall ensure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of respirable crystalline silica in excess of 50 µg/m3, calculated as an 8-hour TWA.

(2) Exposure assessment—(i) General. The employer shall assess the exposure of each employee who is or may reasonably be expected to be exposed to respirable crystalline silica at or above the action level in accordance with either the performance option in paragraph (d)(2)(ii) or the scheduled monitoring option in paragraph (d)(2)(iii) of this section.

(ii) Performance option. The employer shall assess the 8-hour TWA exposure for each employee on the basis of any combination of air monitoring data or objective data sufficient to accurately characterize employee exposures to respirable crystalline silica.

(iii) Scheduled monitoring option. (A) The employer shall perform initial monitoring to assess the 8-hour TWA exposure for each employee on the basis of one or more personal breathing zone air samples that reflect the exposures of employees on each shift, for each job classification, in each work area. Where several employees perform the same tasks on the same shift and in the same work area, the employer may sample a representative fraction of these employees in order to meet this requirement. In representative sampling, the employer shall sample the employee(s) who are expected to have the highest exposure to respirable crystalline silica.

(B) If initial monitoring indicates that employee exposures are below the action level, the employer may discontinue monitoring for those employees whose exposures are represented by such monitoring.

(C) Where the most recent exposure monitoring indicates that employee exposures are at or above the action level but at or below the PEL, the employer shall repeat such monitoring within six months of the most recent monitoring.

(D) Where the most recent exposure monitoring indicates that employee exposures are above the PEL, the employer shall repeat such monitoring within three months of the most recent monitoring.

(E) Where the most recent (non-initial) exposure monitoring indicates that employee exposures are below the action level, the employer shall repeat such monitoring within six months of the most recent monitoring until two consecutive measurements, taken seven or more days apart, are below the action level, at which time the employer may discontinue monitoring for those employees whose exposures are represented by such monitoring, except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d)(2)(iv) of this section.

(iv) Reassessment of exposures. The employer shall reassess exposures whenever a change in the production, process, control equipment, personnel, or work practices may reasonably be expected to result in new or additional exposures at or above the action level, or when the employer has any reason to believe that new or additional exposures at or above the action level have occurred.

(v) Methods of sample analysis. The employer shall ensure that all samples taken to satisfy the monitoring requirements of paragraph (d)(2) of this section are evaluated by a laboratory that analyzes air samples for respirable crystalline silica in accordance with the procedures in Appendix A to this section.

(vi) Employee notification of assessment results. (A) Within five working days after completing an exposure assessment in accordance with paragraph (d)(2) of this section, the employer shall individually notify each affected employee in writing of the results of that assessment or post the results in an appropriate location accessible to all affected employees.

(B) Whenever an exposure assessment indicates that employee exposure is above the PEL, the employer shall describe in the written notification the corrective action being taken to reduce employee exposure to or below the PEL.

(vii) Observation of monitoring. (A) Where air monitoring is performed to comply with the requirements of this section, the employer shall provide affected employees or their designated representatives an opportunity to observe any monitoring of employee exposure to respirable crystalline silica.

(B) When observation of monitoring requires entry into an area where the use of protective clothing or equipment is required for any workplace hazard, the employer shall provide the observer with protective clothing and equipment at no cost and shall ensure that the observer uses such clothing and equipment.

(3) Methods of compliance—(i) Engineering and work practice controls. The employer shall use engineering and work practice controls to reduce and maintain employee exposure to respirable crystalline silica to or below the PEL, unless the employer can demonstrate that such controls are not feasible. Wherever such feasible engineering and work practice controls are not sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the PEL, the employer shall nonetheless use them to reduce employee exposure to the lowest feasible level and shall supplement them with the use of respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of paragraph (e) of this section.

(ii) Abrasive blasting. In addition to the requirements of paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section, the employer shall comply with other OSHA standards, when applicable, such as 29 CFR 1926.57 (Ventilation), where abrasive blasting is conducted using crystalline silica-containing blasting agents, or where abrasive blasting is conducted on substrates that contain crystalline silica.

(e) Respiratory protection—(1) General. Where respiratory protection is required by this section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate respirator that complies with the requirements of this paragraph and 29 CFR 1910.134. Respiratory protection is required:

(i) Where specified by Table 1 of paragraph (c) of this section; or

(ii) For tasks not listed in Table 1, or where the employer does not fully and properly implement the engineering controls, work practices, and respiratory protection described in Table 1:

(A) Where exposures exceed the PEL during periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work practice controls;

(B) Where exposures exceed the PEL during tasks, such as certain maintenance and repair tasks, for which engineering and work practice controls are not feasible; and

(C) During tasks for which an employer has implemented all feasible engineering and work practice controls and such controls are not sufficient to reduce exposures to or below the PEL.

(2) Respiratory protection program. Where respirator use is required by this section, the employer shall institute a respiratory protection program in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.134.

(3) Specified exposure control methods. For the tasks listed in Table 1 in paragraph (c) of this section, if the employer fully and properly implements the engineering controls, work practices, and respiratory protection described in Table 1, the employer shall be considered to be in compliance with paragraph (e)(1) of this section and the requirements for selection of respirators in 29 CFR 1910.134(d)(1)(iii) and (d)(3) with regard to exposure to respirable crystalline silica.

(f) Housekeeping. (1) The employer shall not allow dry sweeping or dry brushing where such activity could contribute to employee exposure to respirable crystalline silica unless wet sweeping, HEPA-filtered vacuuming or other methods that minimize the likelihood of exposure are not feasible.

(2) The employer shall not allow compressed air to be used to clean clothing or surfaces where such activity could contribute to employee exposure to respirable crystalline silica unless:

(i) The compressed air is used in conjunction with a ventilation system that effectively captures the dust cloud created by the compressed air; or

(ii) No alternative method is feasible.

(g) Written exposure control plan. (1) The employer shall establish and implement a written exposure control plan that contains at least the following elements:

(i) A description of the tasks in the workplace that involve exposure to respirable crystalline silica;

(ii) A description of the engineering controls, work practices, and respiratory protection used to limit employee exposure to respirable crystalline silica for each task;

(iii) A description of the housekeeping measures used to limit employee exposure to respirable crystalline silica; and

(iv) A description of the procedures used to restrict access to work areas, when necessary, to minimize the number of employees exposed to respirable crystalline silica and their level of exposure, including exposures generated by other employers or sole proprietors.

(2) The employer shall review and evaluate the effectiveness of the written exposure control plan at least annually and update it as necessary.

(3) The employer shall make the written exposure control plan readily available for examination and copying, upon request, to each employee covered by this section, their designated representatives, the Assistant Secretary and the Director.

(4) The employer shall designate a competent person to make frequent and regular inspections of job sites, materials, and equipment to implement the written exposure control plan.

(h) Medical surveillance—(1) General. (i) The employer shall make medical surveillance available at no cost to the employee, and at a reasonable time and place, for each employee who will be required under this section to use a respirator for 30 or more days per year.

(ii) The employer shall ensure that all medical examinations and procedures required by this section are performed by a PLHCP as defined in paragraph (b) of this section.

(2) Initial examination. The employer shall make available an initial (baseline) medical examination within 30 days after initial assignment, unless the employee has received a medical examination that meets the requirements of this section within the last three years. The examination shall consist of:

(i) A medical and work history, with emphasis on: Past, present, and anticipated exposure to respirable crystalline silica, dust, and other agents affecting the respiratory system; any history of respiratory system dysfunction, including signs and symptoms of respiratory disease (e.g., shortness of breath, cough, wheezing); history of tuberculosis; and smoking status and history;

(ii) A physical examination with special emphasis on the respiratory system;

(iii) A chest X-ray (a single posteroanterior radiographic projection or radiograph of the chest at full inspiration recorded on either film (no less than 14 x 17 inches and no more than 16 x 17 inches) or digital radiography systems), interpreted and classified according to the International Labour Office (ILO) International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses by a NIOSH-certified B Reader;

(iv) A pulmonary function test to include forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and FEV1/FVC ratio, administered by a spirometry technician with a current certificate from a NIOSH-approved spirometry course;

(v) Testing for latent tuberculosis infection; and

(vi) Any other tests deemed appropriate by the PLHCP.

(3) Periodic examinations. The employer shall make available medical examinations that include the procedures described in paragraph (h)(2) of this section (except paragraph (h)(2)(v)) at least every three years, or more frequently if recommended by the PLHCP.

(4) Information provided to the PLHCP. The employer shall ensure that the examining PLHCP has a copy of this standard, and shall provide the PLHCP with the following information:

(i) A description of the employee's former, current, and anticipated duties as they relate to the employee's occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica;

(ii) The employee's former, current, and anticipated levels of occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica;

(iii) A description of any personal protective equipment used or to be used by the employee, including when and for how long the employee has used or will use that equipment; and

(iv) Information from records of employment-related medical examinations previously provided to the employee and currently within the control of the employer.

(5) PLHCP's written medical report for the employee. The employer shall ensure that the PLHCP explains to the employee the results of the medical examination and provides each employee with a written medical report within 30 days of each medical examination performed. The written report shall contain:

(i) A statement indicating the results of the medical examination, including any medical condition(s) that would place the employee at increased risk of material impairment to health from exposure to respirable crystalline silica and any medical conditions that require further evaluation or treatment;

(ii) Any recommended limitations on the employee's use of respirators;

(iii) Any recommended limitations on the employee's exposure to respirable crystalline silica; and

(iv) A statement that the employee should be examined by a specialist (pursuant to paragraph (h)(7) of this section) if the chest X-ray provided in accordance with this section is classified as 1/0 or higher by the B Reader, or if referral to a specialist is otherwise deemed appropriate by the PLHCP.

(6) PLHCP's written medical opinion for the employer. (i) The employer shall obtain a written medical opinion from the PLHCP within 30 days of the medical examination. The written opinion shall contain only the following:

(A) The date of the examination;

(B) A statement that the examination has met the requirements of this section; and

(C) Any recommended limitations on the employee's use of respirators.

(ii) If the employee provides written authorization, the written opinion shall also contain either or both of the following:

(A) Any recommended limitations on the employee's exposure to respirable crystalline silica;

(B) A statement that the employee should be examined by a specialist (pursuant to paragraph (h)(7) of this section) if the chest X-ray provided in accordance with this section is classified as 1/0 or higher by the B Reader, or if referral to a specialist is otherwise deemed appropriate by the PLHCP.

(iii) The employer shall ensure that each employee receives a copy of the written medical opinion described in paragraph (h)(6)(i) and (ii) of this section within 30 days of each medical examination performed.

(7) Additional examinations. (i) If the PLHCP's written medical opinion indicates that an employee should be examined by a specialist, the employer shall make available a medical examination by a specialist within 30 days after receiving the PLHCP's written opinion.

(ii) The employer shall ensure that the examining specialist is provided with all of the information that the employer is obligated to provide to the PLHCP in accordance with paragraph (h)(4) of this section.

(iii) The employer shall ensure that the specialist explains to the employee the results of the medical examination and provides each employee with a written medical report within 30 days of the examination. The written report shall meet the requirements of paragraph (h)(5) (except paragraph (h)(5)(iv)) of this section.

(iv) The employer shall obtain a written opinion from the specialist within 30 days of the medical examination. The written opinion shall meet the requirements of paragraph (h)(6) (except paragraph (h)(6)(i)(B) and (ii)(B)) of this section.

(i) Communication of respirable crystalline silica hazards to employees—(1) Hazard communication. The employer shall include respirable crystalline silica in the program established to comply with the hazard communication standard (HCS) (29 CFR 1910.1200). The employer shall ensure that each employee has access to labels on containers of crystalline silica and safety data sheets, and is trained in accordance with the provisions of HCS and paragraph (i)(2) of this section. The employer shall ensure that at least the following hazards are addressed: Cancer, lung effects, immune system effects, and kidney effects.

(2) Employee information and training. (i) The employer shall ensure that each employee covered by this section can demonstrate knowledge and understanding of at least the following:

(A) The health hazards associated with exposure to respirable crystalline silica;

(B) Specific tasks in the workplace that could result in exposure to respirable crystalline silica;

(C) Specific measures the employer has implemented to protect employees from exposure to respirable crystalline silica, including engineering controls, work practices, and respirators to be used;

(D) The contents of this section;

(E) The identity of the competent person designated by the employer in accordance with paragraph (g)(4) of this section; and

(F) The purpose and a description of the medical surveillance program required by paragraph (h) of this section.

(ii) The employer shall make a copy of this section readily available without cost to each employee covered by this section.

(j) Recordkeeping—(1) Air monitoring data. (i) The employer shall make and maintain an accurate record of all exposure measurements taken to assess employee exposure to respirable crystalline silica, as prescribed in paragraph (d)(2) of this section.

(ii) This record shall include at least the following information:

(A) The date of measurement for each sample taken;

(B) The task monitored;

(C) Sampling and analytical methods used;

(D) Number, duration, and results of samples taken;

(E) Identity of the laboratory that performed the analysis;

(F) Type of personal protective equipment, such as respirators, worn by the employees monitored; and

(G) Name and job classification of all employees represented by the monitoring, indicating which employees were actually monitored.

(iii) The employer shall ensure that exposure records are maintained and made available in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1020.

(2) Objective data. (i) The employer shall make and maintain an accurate record of all objective data relied upon to comply with the requirements of this section.

(ii) This record shall include at least the following information:

(A) The crystalline silica-containing material in question;

(B) The source of the objective data;

(C) The testing protocol and results of testing;

(D) A description of the process, task, or activity on which the objective data were based; and

(E) Other data relevant to the process, task, activity, material, or exposures on which the objective data were based.

(iii) The employer shall ensure that objective data are maintained and made available in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1020.

(3) Medical surveillance. (i) The employer shall make and maintain an accurate record for each employee covered by medical surveillance under paragraph (h) of this section.

(ii) The record shall include the following information about the employee:

(A) Name;

(B) A copy of the PLHCPs' and specialists' written medical opinions; and

(C) A copy of the information provided to the PLHCPs and specialists.

(iii) The employer shall ensure that medical records are maintained and made available in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1020.

(k) Dates. (1) This section shall become effective June 23, 2016.

(2) All obligations of this section, except requirements for methods of sample analysis in paragraph (d)(2)(v), shall commence June 23, 2017.

(3) Requirements for methods of sample analysis in paragraph (d)(2)(v) of this section commence June 23, 2018.

Appendix A to §1926.1153—Methods of Sample Analysis

This This appendix specifies the procedures for analyzing air samples for respirable crystalline silica, as well as the quality control procedures that employers must ensure that laboratories use when performing an analysis required under 29 CFR 1926.1153 (d)(2)(v). Employers must ensure that such a laboratory:

1. Evaluates all samples using the procedures specified in one of the following analytical methods: OSHA ID-142; NMAM 7500; NMAM 7602; NMAM 7603; MSHA P-2; or MSHA P-7;

2. Is accredited to ANS/ISO/IEC Standard 17025:2005 with respect to crystalline silica analyses by a body that is compliant with ISO/IEC Standard 17011:2004 for implementation of quality assessment programs;

3. Uses the most current National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) or NIST traceable standards for instrument calibration or instrument calibration verification;

4. Implements an internal quality control (QC) program that evaluates analytical uncertainty and provides employers with estimates of sampling and analytical error;

5. Characterizes the sample material by identifying polymorphs of respirable crystalline silica present, identifies the presence of any interfering compounds that might affect the analysis, and makes any corrections necessary in order to obtain accurate sample analysis; and

6. Analyzes quantitatively for crystalline silica only after confirming that the sample matrix is free of uncorrectable analytical interferences, corrects for analytical interferences, and uses a method that meets the following performance specifications:

6.1   Each day that samples are analyzed, performs instrument calibration checks with standards that bracket the sample concentrations;

6.2   Uses five or more calibration standard levels to prepare calibration curves and ensures that standards are distributed through the calibration range in a manner that accurately reflects the underlying calibration curve; and

6.3   Optimizes methods and instruments to obtain a quantitative limit of detection that represents a value no higher than 25 percent of the PEL based on sample air volume.

Appendix B to §1926.1153—Medical Surveillance Guidelines

Introduction

The purpose of this Appendix is to provide medical information and recommendations to aid physicians and other licensed health care professionals (PLHCPs) regarding compliance with the medical surveillance provisions of the respirable crystalline silica standard (29 CFR 1926.1153). Appendix B is for informational and guidance purposes only and none of the statements in Appendix B should be construed as imposing a mandatory requirement on employers that is not otherwise imposed by the standard.

Medical screening and surveillance allow for early identification of exposure-related health effects in individual employee and groups of employees, so that actions can be taken to both avoid further exposure and prevent or address adverse health outcomes. Silica-related diseases can be fatal, encompass a variety of target organs, and may have public health consequences when considering the increased risk of a latent tuberculosis (TB) infection becoming active. Thus, medical surveillance of silica-exposed employees requires that PLHCPs have a thorough knowledge of silica-related health effects.

This Appendix is divided into seven sections. Section 1 reviews silica-related diseases, medical responses, and public health responses. Section 2 outlines the components of the medical surveillance program for employees exposed to silica. Section 3 describes the roles and responsibilities of the PLHCP implementing the program and of other medical specialists and public health professionals. Section 4 provides a discussion of considerations, including confidentiality. Section 5 provides a list of additional resources and Section 6 lists references. Section 7 provides sample forms for the written medical report for the employee, the written medical opinion for the employer and the written authorization.

1. Recognition of Silica-Related Diseases

1.1. Overview. The term “silica” refers specifically to the compound silicon dioxide (SiO2). Silica is a major component of sand, rock, and mineral ores. Exposure to fine (respirable size) particles of crystalline forms of silica is associated with adverse health effects, such as silicosis, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and activation of latent TB infections. Exposure to respirable crystalline silica can occur in industry settings such as foundries, abrasive blasting operations, paint manufacturing, glass and concrete product manufacturing, brick making, china and pottery manufacturing, manufacturing of plumbing fixtures, and many construction activities including highway repair, masonry, concrete work, rock drilling, and tuck-pointing. New uses of silica continue to emerge. These include countertop manufacturing, finishing, and installation (Kramer et al. 2012; OSHA 2015) and hydraulic fracturing in the oil and gas industry (OSHA 2012).

Silicosis is an irreversible, often disabling, and sometimes fatal fibrotic lung disease. Progression of silicosis can occur despite removal from further exposure. Diagnosis of silicosis requires a history of exposure to silica and radiologic findings characteristic of silica exposure. Three different presentations of silicosis (chronic, accelerated, and acute) have been defined. Accelerated and acute silicosis are much less common than chronic silicosis. However, it is critical to recognize all cases of accelerated and acute silicosis because these are life-threatening illnesses and because they are caused by substantial overexposures to respirable crystalline silica. Although any case of silicosis indicates a breakdown in prevention, a case of acute or accelerated silicosis implies current high exposure and a very marked breakdown in prevention.

In addition to silicosis, employees exposed to respirable crystalline silica, especially those with accelerated or acute silicosis, are at increased risks of contracting active TB and other infections (ATS 1997; Rees and Murray 2007). Exposure to respirable crystalline silica also increases an employee's risk of developing lung cancer, and the higher the cumulative exposure, the higher the risk (Steenland et al. 2001; Steenland and Ward 2014). Symptoms for these diseases and other respirable crystalline silica-related diseases are discussed below.

1.2. Chronic Silicosis. Chronic silicosis is the most common presentation of silicosis and usually occurs after at least 10 years of exposure to respirable crystalline silica. The clinical presentation of chronic silicosis is:

1.2.1. Symptoms—shortness of breath and cough, although employees may not notice any symptoms early in the disease. Constitutional symptoms, such as fever, loss of appetite and fatigue, may indicate other diseases associated with silica exposure, such as TB infection or lung cancer. Employees with these symptoms should immediately receive further evaluation and treatment.

1.2.2. Physical Examination—may be normal or disclose dry rales or rhonchi on lung auscultation.

1.2.3. Spirometry—may be normal or may show only a mild restrictive or obstructive pattern.

1.2.4. Chest X-ray—classic findings are small, rounded opacities in the upper lung fields bilaterally. However, small irregular opacities and opacities in other lung areas can also occur. Rarely, “eggshell calcifications” in the hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes are seen.

1.2.5. Clinical Course—chronic silicosis in most cases is a slowly progressive disease. Under the respirable crystalline silica standard, the PLHCP is to recommend that employees with a 1/0 category X-ray be referred to an American Board Certified Specialist in Pulmonary Disease or Occupational Medicine. The PLHCP and/or Specialist should counsel employees regarding work practices and personal habits that could affect employees' respiratory health.

1.3. Accelerated Silicosis. Accelerated silicosis generally occurs within 5-10 years of exposure and results from high levels of exposure to respirable crystalline silica. The clinical presentation of accelerated silicosis is:

1.3.1. Symptoms—shortness of breath, cough, and sometimes sputum production. Employees with exposure to respirable crystalline silica, and especially those with accelerated silicosis, are at high risk for activation of TB infections, atypical mycobacterial infections, and fungal superinfections. Constitutional symptoms, such as fever, weight loss, hemoptysis (coughing up blood), and fatigue may herald one of these infections or the onset of lung cancer.

1.3.2. Physical Examination—rales, rhonchi, or other abnormal lung findings in relation to illnesses present. Clubbing of the digits, signs of heart failure, and cor pulmonale may be present in severe lung disease.

1.3.3. Spirometry—restrictive or mixed restrictive/obstructive pattern.

1.3.4. Chest X-ray—small rounded and/or irregular opacities bilaterally. Large opacities and lung abscesses may indicate infections, lung cancer, or progression to complicated silicosis, also termed progressive massive fibrosis.

1.3.5. Clinical Course—accelerated silicosis has a rapid, severe course. Under the respirable crystalline silica standard, the PLHCP can recommend referral to a Board Certified Specialist in either Pulmonary Disease or Occupational Medicine, as deemed appropriate, and referral to a Specialist is recommended whenever the diagnosis of accelerated silicosis is being considered.

1.4. Acute Silicosis. Acute silicosis is a rare disease caused by inhalation of extremely high levels of respirable crystalline silica particles. The pathology is similar to alveolar proteinosis with lipoproteinaceous material accumulating in the alveoli. Acute silicosis develops rapidly, often, within a few months to less than 2 years of exposure, and is almost always fatal. The clinical presentation of acute silicosis is as follows:

1.4.1. Symptoms—sudden, progressive, and severe shortness of breath. Constitutional symptoms are frequently present and include fever, weight loss, fatigue, productive cough, hemoptysis (coughing up blood), and pleuritic chest pain.

1.4.2. Physical Examination—dyspnea at rest, cyanosis, decreased breath sounds, inspiratory rales, clubbing of the digits, and fever.

1.4.3. Spirometry—restrictive or mixed restrictive/obstructive pattern.

1.4.4. Chest X-ray—diffuse haziness of the lungs bilaterally early in the disease. As the disease progresses, the “ground glass” appearance of interstitial fibrosis will appear.

1.4.5. Clinical Course—employees with acute silicosis are at especially high risk of TB activation, nontuberculous mycobacterial infections, and fungal superinfections. Acute silicosis is immediately life-threatening. The employee should be urgently referred to a Board Certified Specialist in Pulmonary Disease or Occupational Medicine for evaluation and treatment. Although any case of silicosis indicates a breakdown in prevention, a case of acute or accelerated silicosis implies a profoundly high level of silica exposure and may mean that other employees are currently exposed to dangerous levels of silica.

1.5. COPD. COPD, including chronic bronchitis and emphysema, has been documented in silica-exposed employees, including those who do not develop silicosis. Periodic spirometry tests are performed to evaluate each employee for progressive changes consistent with the development of COPD. In addition to evaluating spirometry results of individual employees over time, PLHCPs may want to be aware of general trends in spirometry results for groups of employees from the same workplace to identify possible problems that might exist at that workplace. (See Section 2 of this Appendix on Medical Surveillance for further discussion.) Heart disease may develop secondary to lung diseases such as COPD. A recent study by Liu et al. 2014 noted a significant exposure-response trend between cumulative silica exposure and heart disease deaths, primarily due to pulmonary heart disease, such as cor pulmonale.

1.6. Renal and Immune System. Silica exposure has been associated with several types of kidney disease, including glomerulonephritis, nephrotic syndrome, and end stage renal disease requiring dialysis. Silica exposure has also been associated with other autoimmune conditions, including progressive systemic sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis. Studies note an association between employees with silicosis and serologic markers for autoimmune diseases, including antinuclear antibodies, rheumatoid factor, and immune complexes (Jalloul and Banks 2007; Shtraichman et al. 2015).

1.7. TB and Other Infections. Silica-exposed employees with latent TB are 3 to 30 times more likely to develop active pulmonary TB infection (ATS 1997; Rees and Murray 2007). Although respirable crystalline silica exposure does not cause TB infection, individuals with latent TB infection are at increased risk for activation of disease if they have higher levels of respirable crystalline silica exposure, greater profusion of radiographic abnormalities, or a diagnosis of silicosis. Demographic characteristics, such as immigration from some countries, are associated with increased rates of latent TB infection. PLHCPs can review the latest Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) information on TB incidence rates and high risk populations online (See Section 5 of this Appendix). Additionally, silica-exposed employees are at increased risk for contracting nontuberculous mycobacterial infections, including Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare and Mycobacterium kansaii.

1.8. Lung Cancer. The National Toxicology Program has listed respirable crystalline silica as a known human carcinogen since 2000 (NTP 2014). The International Agency for Research on Cancer (2012) has also classified silica as Group 1 (carcinogenic to humans). Several studies have indicated that the risk of lung cancer from exposure to respirable crystalline silica and smoking is greater than additive (Brown 2009; Liu et al. 2013). Employees should be counseled on smoking cessation.

2. Medical Surveillance

PLHCPs who manage silica medical surveillance programs should have a thorough understanding of the many silica-related diseases and health effects outlined in Section 1 of this Appendix. At each clinical encounter, the PLHCP should consider silica-related health outcomes, with particular vigilance for acute and accelerated silicosis. In this Section, the required components of medical surveillance under the respirable crystalline silica standard are reviewed, along with additional guidance and recommendations for PLHCPs performing medical surveillance examinations for silica-exposed employees.

2.1. History.

2.1.1. The respirable crystalline silica standard requires the following: A medical and work history, with emphasis on: Past, present, and anticipated exposure to respirable crystalline silica, dust, and other agents affecting the respiratory system; any history of respiratory system dysfunction, including signs and symptoms of respiratory disease (e.g., shortness of breath, cough, wheezing); history of TB; and smoking status and history.

2.1.2. Further, the employer must provide the PLHCP with the following information:

2.1.2.1. A description of the employee's former, current, and anticipated duties as they relate to the employee's occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica;

2.1.2.2. The employee's former, current, and anticipated levels of occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica;

2.1.2.3. A description of any personal protective equipment used or to be used by the employee, including when and for how long the employee has used or will use that equipment; and

2.1.2.4. Information from records of employment-related medical examinations previously provided to the employee and currently within the control of the employer.

2.1.3. Additional guidance and recommendations: A history is particularly important both in the initial evaluation and in periodic examinations. Information on past and current medical conditions (particularly a history of kidney disease, cardiac disease, connective tissue disease, and other immune diseases), medications, hospitalizations and surgeries may uncover health risks, such as immune suppression, that could put an employee at increased health risk from exposure to silica. This information is important when counseling the employee on risks and safe work practices related to silica exposure.

2.2. Physical Examination.

2.2.1. The respirable crystalline silica standard requires the following: A physical examination, with special emphasis on the respiratory system. The physical examination must be performed at the initial examination and every three years thereafter.

2.2.2. Additional guidance and recommendations: Elements of the physical examination that can assist the PHLCP include: An examination of the cardiac system, an extremity examination (for clubbing, cyanosis, edema, or joint abnormalities), and an examination of other pertinent organ systems identified during the history.

2.3. TB Testing.

2.3.1. The respirable crystalline silica standard requires the following: Baseline testing for TB on initial examination.

2.3.2. Additional guidance and recommendations:

2.3.2.1. Current CDC guidelines (See Section 5 of this Appendix) should be followed for the application and interpretation of Tuberculin skin tests (TST). The interpretation and documentation of TST reactions should be performed within 48 to 72 hours of administration by trained PLHCPs.

2.3.2.2. PLHCPs may use alternative TB tests, such as interferon-γ release assays (IGRAs), if sensitivity and specificity are comparable to TST (Mazurek et al. 2010; Slater et al. 2013). PLHCPs can consult the current CDC guidelines for acceptable tests for latent TB infection.

2.3.2.3. The silica standard allows the PLHCP to order additional tests or test at a greater frequency than required by the standard, if deemed appropriate. Therefore, PLHCPs might perform periodic (e.g., annual) TB testing as appropriate, based on employees' risk factors. For example, according to the American Thoracic Society (ATS), the diagnosis of silicosis or exposure to silica for 25 years or more are indications for annual TB testing (ATS 1997). PLHCPs should consult the current CDC guidance on risk factors for TB (See Section 5 of this Appendix).

2.3.2.4. Employees with positive TB tests and those with indeterminate test results should be referred to the appropriate agency or specialist, depending on the test results and clinical picture. Agencies, such as local public health departments, or specialists, such as a pulmonary or infectious disease specialist, may be the appropriate referral. Active TB is a nationally notifiable disease. PLHCPs should be aware of the reporting requirements for their region. All States have TB Control Offices that can be contacted for further information. (See Section 5 of this Appendix for links to CDC's TB resources and State TB Control Offices.)

2.3.2.5. The following public health principles are key to TB control in the U.S. (ATS-CDC-IDSA 2005):

(1) Prompt detection and reporting of persons who have contracted active TB;

(2) Prevention of TB spread to close contacts of active TB cases;

(3) Prevention of active TB in people with latent TB through targeted testing and treatment; and

(4) Identification of settings at high risk for TB transmission so that appropriate infection-control measures can be implemented.

2.4. Pulmonary Function Testing.

2.4.1. The respirable crystalline silica standard requires the following: Pulmonary function testing must be performed on the initial examination and every three years thereafter. The required pulmonary function test is spirometry and must include forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and FEV1/FVC ratio. Testing must be administered by a spirometry technician with a current certificate from a National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH)-approved spirometry course.

2.4.2. Additional guidance and recommendations: Spirometry provides information about individual respiratory status and can be used to track an employee's respiratory status over time or as a surveillance tool to follow individual and group respiratory function. For quality results, the ATS and the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (ACOEM) recommend use of the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) values, and ATS publishes recommendations for spirometry equipment (Miller et al. 2005; Townsend 2011; Redlich et al. 2014). OSHA's publication, Spirometry Testing in Occupational Health Programs: Best Practices for Healthcare Professionals, provides helpful guidance (See Section 5 of this Appendix). Abnormal spirometry results may warrant further clinical evaluation and possible recommendations for limitations on the employee's exposure to respirable crystalline silica.

2.5. Chest X-ray.

2.5.1. The respirable crystalline silica standard requires the following: A single posteroanterior (PA) radiographic projection or radiograph of the chest at full inspiration recorded on either film (no less than 14 x 17 inches and no more than 16 x 17 inches) or digital radiography systems. A chest X-ray must be performed on the initial examination and every three years thereafter. The chest X-ray must be interpreted and classified according to the International Labour Office (ILO) International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses by a NIOSH-certified B Reader.

Chest radiography is necessary to diagnose silicosis, monitor the progression of silicosis, and identify associated conditions such as TB. If the B reading indicates small opacities in a profusion of 1/0 or higher, the employee is to receive a recommendation for referral to a Board Certified Specialist in Pulmonary Disease or Occupational Medicine.

2.5.2. Additional guidance and recommendations: Medical imaging has largely transitioned from conventional film-based radiography to digital radiography systems. The ILO Guidelines for the Classification of Pneumoconioses has historically provided film-based chest radiography as a referent standard for comparison to individual exams. However, in 2011, the ILO revised the guidelines to include a digital set of referent standards that were derived from the prior film-based standards. To assist in assuring that digitally-acquired radiographs are at least as safe and effective as film radiographs, NIOSH has prepared guidelines, based upon accepted contemporary professional recommendations (See Section 5 of this Appendix). Current research from Laney et al. 2011 and Halldin et al. 2014 validate the use of the ILO digital referent images. Both studies conclude that the results of pneumoconiosis classification using digital references are comparable to film-based ILO classifications. Current ILO guidance on radiography for pneumoconioses and B-reading should be reviewed by the PLHCP periodically, as needed, on the ILO or NIOSH Web sites (See Section 5 of this Appendix).

2.6. Other Testing. Under the respirable crystalline silica standards, the PLHCP has the option of ordering additional testing he or she deems appropriate. Additional tests can be ordered on a case-by-case basis depending on individual signs or symptoms and clinical judgment. For example, if an employee reports a history of abnormal kidney function tests, the PLHCP may want to order a baseline renal function tests (e.g., serum creatinine and urinalysis). As indicated above, the PLHCP may order annual TB testing for silica-exposed employees who are at high risk of developing active TB infections. Additional tests that PLHCPs may order based on findings of medical examinations include, but is not limited to, chest computerized tomography (CT) scan for lung cancer or COPD, testing for immunologic diseases, and cardiac testing for pulmonary-related heart disease, such as cor pulmonale.

3. Roles and Responsibilities

3.1. PLHCP. The PLHCP designation refers to “an individual whose legally permitted scope of practice (i.e., license, registration, or certification) allows him or her to independently provide or be delegated the responsibility to provide some or all of the particular health care services required” by the respirable crystalline silica standard. The legally permitted scope of practice for the PLHCP is determined by each State. PLHCPs who perform clinical services for a silica medical surveillance program should have a thorough knowledge of respirable crystalline silica-related diseases and symptoms. Suspected cases of silicosis, advanced COPD, or other respiratory conditions causing impairment should be promptly referred to a Board Certified Specialist in Pulmonary Disease or Occupational Medicine.

Once the medical surveillance examination is completed, the employer must ensure that the PLHCP explains to the employee the results of the medical examination and provides the employee with a written medical report within 30 days of the examination. The written medical report must contain a statement indicating the results of the medical examination, including any medical condition(s) that would place the employee at increased risk of material impairment to health from exposure to respirable crystalline silica and any medical conditions that require further evaluation or treatment. In addition, the PLHCP's written medical report must include any recommended limitations on the employee's use of respirators, any recommended limitations on the employee's exposure to respirable crystalline silica, and a statement that the employee should be examined by a Board Certified Specialist in Pulmonary Disease or Occupational medicine if the chest X-ray is classified as 1/0 or higher by the B Reader, or if referral to a Specialist is otherwise deemed appropriate by the PLHCP.

The PLHCP should discuss all findings and test results and any recommendations regarding the employee's health, worksite safety and health practices, and medical referrals for further evaluation, if indicated. In addition, it is suggested that the PLHCP offer to provide the employee with a complete copy of their examination and test results, as some employees may want this information for their own records or to provide to their personal physician or a future PLHCP. Employees are entitled to access their medical records.

Under the respirable crystalline silica standard, the employer must ensure that the PLHCP provides the employer with a written medical opinion within 30 days of the employee examination, and that the employee also gets a copy of the written medical opinion for the employer within 30 days. The PLHCP may choose to directly provide the employee a copy of the written medical opinion. This can be particularly helpful to employees, such as construction employees, who may change employers frequently. The written medical opinion can be used by the employee as proof of up-to-date medical surveillance. The following lists the elements of the written medical report for the employee and written medical opinion for the employer. (Sample forms for the written medical report for the employee, the written medical opinion for the employer, and the written authorization are provided in Section 7 of this Appendix.)

3.1.1. The written medical report for the employee must include the following information:

3.1.1.1. A statement indicating the results of the medical examination, including any medical condition(s) that would place the employee at increased risk of material impairment to health from exposure to respirable crystalline silica and any medical conditions that require further evaluation or treatment;

3.1.1.2. Any recommended limitations upon the employee's use of a respirator;

3.1.1.3. Any recommended limitations on the employee's exposure to respirable crystalline silica; and

3.1.1.4. A statement that the employee should be examined by a Board Certified Specialist in Pulmonary Disease or Occupational Medicine, where the standard requires or where the PLHCP has determined such a referral is necessary. The standard requires referral to a Board Certified Specialist in Pulmonary Disease or Occupational Medicine for a chest X-ray B reading indicating small opacities in a profusion of 1/0 or higher, or if the PHLCP determines that referral to a Specialist is necessary for other silica-related findings.

3.1.2. The PLHCP's written medical opinion for the employer must include only the following information:

3.1.2.1. The date of the examination;

3.1.2.2. A statement that the examination has met the requirements of this section; and

3.1.2.3. Any recommended limitations on the employee's use of respirators.

3.1.2.4. If the employee provides the PLHCP with written authorization, the written opinion for the employer shall also contain either or both of the following:

(1) Any recommended limitations on the employee's exposure to respirable crystalline silica; and

(2) A statement that the employee should be examined by a Board Certified Specialist in Pulmonary Disease or Occupational Medicine if the chest X-ray provided in accordance with this section is classified as 1/0 or higher by the B Reader, or if referral to a Specialist is otherwise deemed appropriate.

3.1.2.5. In addition to the above referral for abnormal chest X-ray, the PLHCP may refer an employee to a Board Certified Specialist in Pulmonary Disease or Occupational Medicine for other findings of concern during the medical surveillance examination if these findings are potentially related to silica exposure.

3.1.2.6. Although the respirable crystalline silica standard requires the employer to ensure that the PLHCP explains the results of the medical examination to the employee, the standard does not mandate how this should be done. The written medical opinion for the employer could contain a statement that the PLHCP has explained the results of the medical examination to the employee.

3.2. Medical Specialists. The silica standard requires that all employees with chest X-ray B readings of 1/0 or higher be referred to a Board Certified Specialist in Pulmonary Disease or Occupational Medicine. If the employee has given written authorization for the employer to be informed, then the employer shall make available a medical examination by a Specialist within 30 days after receiving the PLHCP's written medical opinion.

3.2.1. The employer must provide the following information to the Board Certified Specialist in Pulmonary Disease or Occupational Medicine:

3.2.1.1. A description of the employee's former, current, and anticipated duties as they relate to the employee's occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica;

3.2.1.2. The employee's former, current, and anticipated levels of occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica;

3.2.1.3. A description of any personal protective equipment used or to be used by the employee, including when and for how long the employee has used or will use that equipment; and

3.2.1.4. Information from records of employment-related medical examinations previously provided to the employee and currently within the control of the employer.

3.2.2. The PLHCP should make certain that, with written authorization from the employee, the Board Certified Specialist in Pulmonary Disease or Occupational Medicine has any other pertinent medical and occupational information necessary for the specialist's evaluation of the employee's condition.

3.2.3. Once the Board Certified Specialist in Pulmonary Disease or Occupational Medicine has evaluated the employee, the employer must ensure that the Specialist explains to the employee the results of the medical examination and provides the employee with a written medical report within 30 days of the examination. The employer must also ensure that the Specialist provides the employer with a written medical opinion within 30 days of the employee examination. (Sample forms for the written medical report for the employee, the written medical opinion for the employer and the written authorization are provided in Section 7 of this Appendix.)

3.2.4. The Specialist's written medical report for the employee must include the following information:

3.2.4.1. A statement indicating the results of the medical examination, including any medical condition(s) that would place the employee at increased risk of material impairment to health from exposure to respirable crystalline silica and any medical conditions that require further evaluation or treatment;

3.2.4.2. Any recommended limitations upon the employee's use of a respirator; and

3.2.4.3. Any recommended limitations on the employee's exposure to respirable crystalline silica.

3.2.5. The Specialist's written medical opinion for the employer must include the following information:

3.2.5.1. The date of the examination; and

3.2.5.2. Any recommended limitations on the employee's use of respirators.

3.2.5.3. If the employee provides the Board Certified Specialist in Pulmonary Disease or Occupational Medicine with written authorization, the written medical opinion for the employer shall also contain any recommended limitations on the employee's exposure to respirable crystalline silica.

3.2.5.4. Although the respirable crystalline silica standard requires the employer to ensure that the Board Certified Specialist in Pulmonary Disease or Occupational Medicine explains the results of the medical examination to the employee, the standard does not mandate how this should be done. The written medical opinion for the employer could contain a statement that the Specialist has explained the results of the medical examination to the employee.

3.2.6. After evaluating the employee, the Board Certified Specialist in Pulmonary Disease or Occupational Medicine should provide feedback to the PLHCP as appropriate, depending on the reason for the referral. OSHA believes that because the PLHCP has the primary relationship with the employer and employee, the Specialist may want to communicate his or her findings to the PLHCP and have the PLHCP simply update the original medical report for the employee and medical opinion for the employer. This is permitted under the standard, so long as all requirements and time deadlines are met.

3.3. Public Health Professionals. PLHCPs might refer employees or consult with public health professionals as a result of silica medical surveillance. For instance, if individual cases of active TB are identified, public health professionals from state or local health departments may assist in diagnosis and treatment of individual cases and may evaluate other potentially affected persons, including coworkers. Because silica-exposed employees are at increased risk of progression from latent to active TB, treatment of latent infection is recommended. The diagnosis of active TB, acute or accelerated silicosis, or other silica-related diseases and infections should serve as sentinel events suggesting high levels of exposure to silica and may require consultation with the appropriate public health agencies to investigate potentially similarly exposed coworkers to assess for disease clusters. These agencies include local or state health departments or OSHA. In addition, NIOSH can provide assistance upon request through their Health Hazard Evaluation program. (See Section 5 of this Appendix)

4. Confidentiality and Other Considerations

The information that is provided from the PLHCP to the employee and employer under the medical surveillance section of OSHA's respirable crystalline silica standard differs from that of medical surveillance requirements in previous OSHA standards. The standard requires two separate written communications, a written medical report for the employee and a written medical opinion for the employer. The confidentiality requirements for the written medical opinion are more stringent than in past standards. For example, the information the PLHCP can (and must) include in his or her written medical opinion for the employer is limited to: The date of the examination, a statement that the examination has met the requirements of this section, and any recommended limitations on the employee's use of respirators. If the employee provides written authorization for the disclosure of any limitations on the employee's exposure to respirable crystalline silica, then the PLHCP can (and must) include that information in the written medical opinion for the employer as well. Likewise, with the employee's written authorization, the PLHCP can (and must) disclose the PLHCP's referral recommendation (if any) as part of the written medical opinion for the employer. However, the opinion to the employer must not include information regarding recommended limitations on the employee's exposure to respirable crystalline silica or any referral recommendations without the employee's written authorization.

The standard also places limitations on the information that the Board Certified Specialist in Pulmonary Disease or Occupational Medicine can provide to the employer without the employee's written authorization. The Specialist's written medical opinion for the employer, like the PLHCP's opinion, is limited to (and must contain): The date of the examination and any recommended limitations on the employee's use of respirators. If the employee provides written authorization, the written medical opinion can (and must) also contain any limitations on the employee's exposure to respirable crystalline silica.

The PLHCP should discuss the implication of signing or not signing the authorization with the employee (in a manner and language that he or she understands) so that the employee can make an informed decision regarding the written authorization and its consequences. The discussion should include the risk of ongoing silica exposure, personal risk factors, risk of disease progression, and possible health and economic consequences. For instance, written authorization is required for a PLHCP to advise an employer that an employee should be referred to a Board Certified Specialist in Pulmonary Disease or Occupational Medicine for evaluation of an abnormal chest X-ray (B-reading 1/0 or greater). If an employee does not sign an authorization, then the employer will not know and cannot facilitate the referral to a Specialist and is not required to pay for the Specialist's examination. In the rare case where an employee is diagnosed with acute or accelerated silicosis, co-workers are likely to be at significant risk of developing those diseases as a result of inadequate controls in the workplace. In this case, the PLHCP and/or Specialist should explain this concern to the affected employee and make a determined effort to obtain written authorization from the employee so that the PLHCP and/or Specialist can contact the employer.

Finally, without written authorization from the employee, the PLHCP and/or Board Certified Specialist in Pulmonary Disease or Occupational Medicine cannot provide feedback to an employer regarding control of workplace silica exposure, at least in relation to an individual employee. However, the regulation does not prohibit a PLHCP and/or Specialist from providing an employer with general recommendations regarding exposure controls and prevention programs in relation to silica exposure and silica-related illnesses, based on the information that the PLHCP receives from the employer such as employees' duties and exposure levels. Recommendations may include increased frequency of medical surveillance examinations, additional medical surveillance components, engineering and work practice controls, exposure monitoring and personal protective equipment. For instance, more frequent medical surveillance examinations may be a recommendation to employers for employees who do abrasive blasting with silica because of the high exposures associated with that operation.

ACOEM's Code of Ethics and discussion is a good resource to guide PLHCPs regarding the issues discussed in this section (See Section 5 of this Appendix).

5. Resources

5.1. American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (ACOEM):

ACOEM Code of Ethics. Accessed at:http://www.acoem.org/codeofconduct.aspx

Raymond, L.W. and Wintermeyer, S. (2006) ACOEM evidenced-based statement on medical surveillance of silica-exposed workers: Medical surveillance of workers exposed to crystalline silica. J Occup Environ Med, 48, 95-101.

5.2. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

Tuberculosis Web page: http://www.cdc.gov/tb/default.htm

State TB Control Offices Web page: http://www.cdc.gov/tb/links/tboffices.htm

Tuberculosis Laws and Policies Web page: http://www.cdc.gov/tb/programs/laws/default.htm

CDC. (2013). Latent Tuberculosis Infection: A Guide for Primary Health Care Providers. Accessed at: http://www.cdc.gov/tb/publications/ltbi/pdf/targetedltbi.pdf

5.3. International Labour Organization

International Labour Office (ILO). (2011) Guidelines for the use of the ILO International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses, Revised edition 2011. Occupational Safety and Health Series No. 22: http://www.ilo.org/safework/info/publications/WCMS__168260/lang-en/index.htm

5.4. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)

NIOSH B Reader Program Web page. (Information on interpretation of X-rays for silicosis and a list of certified B-readers). Accessed at: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/chestradiography/breader-info.html

NIOSH Guideline (2011). Application of Digital Radiography for the Detection and Classification of Pneumoconiosis. NIOSH publication number 2011-198. Accessed at: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2011-198/

NIOSH Hazard Review (2002), Health Effects of Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica. NIOSH publication number 2002-129: Accessed at http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2002-129/

NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluations Programs. (Information on the NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation (HHE) program, how to request an HHE and how to look up an HHE report). Accessed at: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/hhe/

5.5. National Industrial Sand Association:

Occupational Health Program for Exposure to Crystalline Silica in the Industrial Sand Industry. National Industrial Sand Association, 2nd ed. 2010. Can be ordered at: http://www.sand.org/silica-occupational-health-program

5.6. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

Contacting OSHA: http://www.osha.gov/html/Feed__Back.html

OSHA's Clinicians Web page. (OSHA resources, regulations and links to help clinicians navigate OSHA's Web site and aid clinicians in caring for workers.) Accessed at: http://www.osha.gov/dts/oom/clinicians/index.html

OSHA's Safety and Health Topics Web page on Silica. Accessed at: http://www.osha.gov/dsg/topics/silicacrystalline/index.html

OSHA (2013). Spirometry Testing in Occupational Health Programs: Best Practices for Healthcare Professionals. (OSHA 3637-03 2013). Accessed at: http://www.osha.gov/Publications/OSHA3637.pdf

OSHA/NIOSH (2011). Spirometry: OSHA/NIOSH Spirometry InfoSheet (OSHA 3415-1-11). (Provides guidance to employers). Accessed at http://www.osha.gov/Publications/osha3415.pdf

OSHA/NIOSH (2011) Spirometry: OSHA/NIOSH Spirometry Worker Info. (OSHA 3418-3-11). Accessed at http://www.osha.gov/Publications/osha3418.pdf

5.7. Other

Steenland, K. and Ward E. (2014). Silica: A lung carcinogen. CA Cancer J Clin, 64, 63-69. (This article reviews not only silica and lung cancer but also all the known silica-related health effects. Further, the authors provide guidance to clinicians on medical surveillance of silica-exposed workers and worker counselling on safety practices to minimize silica exposure.)

6. References

American Thoracic Society (ATS). Medical Section of the American Lung Association (1997). Adverse effects of crystalline silica exposure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 155, 761-765.

American Thoracic Society (ATS), Centers for Disease Control (CDC), Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) (2005). Controlling Tuberculosis in the United States. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), 54(RR12), 1-81. Accessed at: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5412a1.htm

Brown, T. (2009). Silica exposure, smoking, silicosis and lung cancer—complex interactions. Occupational Medicine, 59, 89-95.

Halldin, C.N., Petsonk, E.L., and Laney, A.S. (2014). Validation of the International Labour Office digitized standard images for recognition and classification of radiographs of pneumoconiosis. Acad Radiol, 21, 305-311.

International Agency for Research on Cancer. (2012). Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans: Arsenic, Metals, Fibers, and Dusts Silica Dust, Crystalline, in the Form of Quartz or Cristobalite. A Review of Human Carcinogens. Volume 100 C. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.

Jalloul, A.S. and Banks D.E. (2007). Chapter 23. The health effects of silica exposure. In: Rom, W.N. and Markowitz, S.B. (Eds). Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 4th edition. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, 365-387.

Kramer, M.R., Blanc, P.D., Fireman, E., Amital, A., Guber, A., Rahman, N.A., and Shitrit, D. (2012). Artifical stone silicosis: Disease resurgence among artificial stone workers. Chest, 142, 419-424.

Laney, A.S., Petsonk, E.L., and Attfield, M.D. (2011). Intramodality and intermodality comparisons of storage phosphor computed radiography and conventional film-screen radiography in the recognition of small pneumonconiotic opacities. Chest, 140, 1574-1580.

Liu, Y., Steenland, K., Rong, Y., Hnizdo, E., Huang, X., Zhang, H., Shi, T., Sun, Y., Wu, T., and Chen, W. (2013). Exposure-response analysis and risk assessment for lung cancer in relationship to silica exposure: A 44-year cohort study of 34,018 workers. Am J Epi, 178, 1424-1433.

Liu, Y., Rong, Y., Steenland, K., Christiani, D.C., Huang, X., Wu, T., and Chen, W. (2014). Long-term exposure to crystalline silica and risk of heart disease mortality. Epidemiology, 25, 689-696.

Mazurek, G.H., Jereb, J., Vernon, A., LoBue, P., Goldberg, S., Castro, K. (2010). Updated guidelines for using interferon gamma release assays to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection—United States. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), 59(RR05), 1-25.

Miller, M.R., Hankinson, J., Brusasco, V., Burgos, F., Casaburi, R., Coates, A., Crapo, R., Enright, P., van der Grinten, C.P., Gustafsson, P., Jensen, R., Johnson, D.C., MacIntyre, N., McKay, R., Navajas, D., Pedersen, O.F., Pellegrino, R., Viegi, G., and Wanger, J. (2005). American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) Task Force: Standardisation of Spirometry. Eur Respir J, 26, 319-338.

National Toxicology Program (NTP) (2014). Report on Carcinogens, Thirteenth Edition. Silica, Crystalline (respirable Size). Research Triangle Park, NC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/roc/content/profiles/silica.pdf

Occupational Safety and Health Administration/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (OSHA/NIOSH) (2012). Hazard Alert. Worker exposure to silica during hydraulic fracturing.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (OSHA/NIOSH) (2015). Hazard alert. Worker exposure to silica during countertop manufacturing, finishing, and installation. (OSHA-HA-3768-2015).

Redlich, C.A., Tarlo, S.M., Hankinson, J.L., Townsend, M.C, Eschenbacher, W.L., Von Essen, S.G., Sigsgaard, T., Weissman, D.N. (2014). Official American Thoracic Society technical standards: Spirometry in the occupational setting. Am J Respir Crit Care Med; 189, 984-994.

Rees, D. and Murray, J. (2007). Silica, silicosis and tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 11(5), 474-484.

Shtraichman, O., Blanc, P.D., Ollech, J.E., Fridel, L., Fuks, L., Fireman, E., and Kramer, M.R. (2015). Outbreak of autoimmune disease in silicosis linked to artificial stone. Occup Med, 65, 444-450.

Slater, M.L., Welland, G., Pai, M., Parsonnet, J., and Banaei, N. (2013). Challenges with QuantiFERON-TB gold assay for large-scale, routine screening of U.S. healthcare workers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 188,1005-1010.

Steenland, K., Mannetje, A., Boffetta, P., Stayner, L., Attfield, M., Chen, J., Dosemeci, M., DeKlerk, N., Hnizdo, E., Koskela, R., and Checkoway, H. (2001). International Agency for Research on Cancer. Pooled exposure-response analyses and risk assessment for lung cancer in 10 cohorts of silica-exposed workers: An IARC multicentre study. Cancer Causes Control, 12(9): 773-84.

Steenland, K. and Ward E. (2014). Silica: A lung carcinogen. CA Cancer J Clin, 64, 63-69.

Townsend, M.C. ACOEM Guidance Statement. (2011). Spirometry in the occupational health setting—2011 Update. J Occup Environ Med, 53, 569-584.

7. Sample Forms

Three sample forms are provided. The first is a sample written medical report for the employee. The second is a sample written medical opinion for the employer. And the third is a sample written authorization form that employees sign to clarify what information the employee is authorizing to be released to the employer.

eCFR graphic er25mr16.175.gif

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eCFR graphic er25mr16.176.gif

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eCFR graphic er25mr16.177.gif

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[81 FR 16876, Mar. 25, 2016]

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