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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of February 13, 2020

Title 26Chapter ISubchapter DPart 48 → Subpart H


Title 26: Internal Revenue
PART 48—MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES


Subpart H—Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel


Contents

Automotive and Related Items

motor vehicles

§48.4052-1   Heavy trucks and trailers; certification requirement.
§48.4061(a)   [Reserved]
§48.4061(a)-1   Imposition of tax; exclusion for light-duty trucks, etc.
§48.4061(a)-2   Bonding of importers.
§48.4061(a)-3   Definitions.
§48.4061(a)-4   Parts or accessories sold on or in connection with chasis, bodies, etc.
§48.4061(a)-5   Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis.
§48.4061(b)   [Reserved]
§48.4061(b)-1   Imposition of tax.
§48.4061(b)-2   Definition of parts or accessories.
§48.4061(b)-3   Rebuilt, reconditioned, or repaired parts or accessories.
§48.4061-1   Temporary regulations with respect to floor stock refunds or credits on cement mixers.
§48.4062(a)   [Reserved]
§48.4062(a)-1   Specific parts or accessories.
§48.4062(b)   [Reserved]
§48.4062(b)-1   Rebuilt parts or accessories sold on an exchange basis.
§48.4063-1   Tax-free sales of bodies to chassis manufacturers.
§48.4063-2   Tax-free sales of parts or accessories sold for resale on or in connection with the first retail sale of a light-duty truck.
§48.4063-3   Other tax-free sales.
§48.4064-1   Gas guzzler tax.

Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber

§48.4071-1   Imposition and rates of tax.
§48.4071-2   Determination of weight.
§48.4071-3   Imposition of tax on tires and tubes delivered to manufacturer's retail outlet.
§48.4071-4   Original equipment tires on imported articles.
§48.4072-1   Definitions.
§48.4073   [Reserved]
§48.4073-1   Exemption of tires of certain sizes.
§48.4073-2   Exemption of tires with internal wire fastening.
§48.4073-3   Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping nonhighway tires.
§48.4073-4   Other tax-free sales.

Taxable Fuel

§48.4081-1   Taxable fuel; definitions.
§48.4081-2   Taxable fuel; tax on removal at a terminal rack.
§48.4081-3   Taxable fuel; taxable events other than removal at the terminal rack.
§48.4081-4   Gasoline; special rules for gasoline blendstocks.
§48.4081-5   Taxable fuel; notification certificate of taxable fuel registrant.
§48.4081-6   Gasoline; gasohol.
§48.4081-7   Taxable fuel; conditions for refunds of taxable fuel tax under section 4081(e).
§48.4081-8   Taxable fuel; measurement.
§48.4082-1   Diesel fuel and kerosene; exemption for dyed fuel.
§48.4082-1T   Diesel fuel and kerosene; exemption for dyed fuel (temporary).
§48.4082-2   Diesel fuel and kerosene; notice required for dyed fuel.
§48.4082-3   Diesel fuel and kerosene; visual inspection devices. [Reserved]
§48.4082-4   Diesel fuel and kerosene; back-up tax.
§48.4082-5   Diesel fuel and kerosene; Alaska.
§48.4082-6   Kerosene; exemption for aviation-grade kerosene.
§48.4082-7   Kerosene; exemption for feedstock purposes.
§48.4083-1   Taxable fuel; administrative authority.
§48.4091-3   {Reserved]
§48.4101-1   Taxable fuel; registration.
§48.4101-2   Information reporting.
§48.4102-1   Inspection of records by State or local tax officers.

Source: T.D. 6648, 28 FR 3633, Apr. 13, 1963, unless otherwise noted.

Automotive and Related Items

motor vehicles

§48.4052-1   Heavy trucks and trailers; certification requirement.

(a) In general. Tax is not imposed by section 4051 on the sale of an article for resale or leasing in a long-term lease if, by the time of sale, the seller has in good faith accepted from the buyer a statement that the buyer executed in good faith and that is in substantially the same form, and subject to the same conditions, as the certificate described in §145.4052-1(a)(6) of this chapter, except that the certificate must be signed under penalties of perjury and need not refer to Form 637 or include a registration number.

(b) References to §145.4052-1(a)(2) of this chapter. References to §145.4052-1(a)(2) of this chapter appearing in §145.4052-1 of this chapter apply also to paragraph (a) of this section.

(c) Effective date. This section is applicable after June 30, 1998. In addition, tax is not imposed on a sale occurring after December 31, 1997, and before July 1, 1998, if the conditions of paragraph (a) of this section are satisfied.

[T.D. 8879, 65 FR 17155, Mar. 31, 2000]

§48.4061(a)   [Reserved]

§48.4061(a)-1   Imposition of tax; exclusion for light-duty trucks, etc.

(a) Imposition of tax—(1) In general. Section 4061(a)(1) imposes a tax on the sale by the manufacturer, producer, or importer of the following articles (including in each case parts and accessories therefor sold on or in connection therewith or with the sale thereof):

(i) Automobile truck and bus chassis and bodies;

(ii) Truck and bus trailer and semitrailer chassis and bodies; and

(iii) Tractors of the kind chiefly used for highway transportation in combination with a trailer or semitrailer.

For purposes of this section, a sale of an automobile truck or bus, or a truck or bus trailer or semitrailer, shall be considered to be a sale of a chassis and of a body enumerated in this paragraph (a)(1).

(2) Special rule applicable to chassis and bodies. A chassis or body enumerated in paragraph (a)(1) of this section is taxable under section 4061(a)(1) only if such chassis or body is, within the meaning of paragraph (e) of this section, sold for use as a component part of a highway vehicle (as defined in paragraph (d) of this section), which is an automobile truck or bus, a truck or bus trailer or semitrailer, or a tractor of the kind chiefly used for highway transportation in combination with a trailer or semitrailer. Furthermore, a chassis or body which is not enumerated in paragraph (a)(1) of this section is not taxable under section 4061(a)(1) even though such chassis or body is used as a component part of a highway vehicle (e.g., a chassis or body of a passenger automobile).

(3) Equipment installed on chassis or bodies. (i) For purposes of the tax imposed by section 4061(a)(1), equipment or machinery installed on a taxable chassis or body is considered to be an integral part of the taxable chassis or body if the machinery or equipment contributes toward the highway transportation function of the chassis or body, regardless of whether separate sales of the machinery or equipment would be subject to the tax on automotive parts or accessories imposed by section 4061(b). Therefore, the amount of the sale price of a taxable chassis or body that is attributable to such machinery or equipment must be included in the tax base when computing the tax due on a manufacturer's or importer's sale or use of a taxable chassis or body. Examples of the type of machinery or equipment that contribute to the highway transportation function of a chassis or body are the following: Loading and unloading equipment; towing winches; and all other machinery or equipment contributing to either the maintenance or safety of the vehicle, the preservation of cargo (other than refrigeration units), or the comfort or nvenience of the driver or passengers.

(ii) Amounts charged for machinery or equipment that is installed on a taxable chassis or body are not part of the taxable sale price of the chassis or body if (A) such machinery or equipment does not contribute toward the highway transportation function of the chassis or body and (B) the reasonableness of the charge for the machinery or equipment is supportable by adequate records. Examples of such machinery or equipment are the following: equipment designed to spread materials on the highway; machinery or equipment used solely in the operation of mobile amusement rides; television equipment mounted in a mobile television studio; machine shop equipment mounted in a mobile machine shop; and car crushing equipment mounted on the chassis of a mobile car crusher.

(4) Passenger automobile chassis and bodies, motorcycles, etc. No tax is imposed under section 4061(a) on the sale of a motorcycle or, in the case of a sale made after December 10, 1971, on the sale of automobile chassis and bodies not enumerated in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, or of trailer and semitrailer chassis and bodies suitable for use in combination with passenger automobiles. For tax on certain sales made after December 31, 1958, and before December 11, 1971, see paragraph (b)(4) of this section.

(5) Cross references. For additional rules relating to the sale of a chassis or body enumerated in this paragraph for use as a component part of a highway vehicle, see paragraph (e) of this section. For exclusion of certain light-duty highway vehicles, see paragraph (f) of this section. For provisions relating to the tax-free sale of bodies to certain manufacturers, see section 4063(b) and the regulations thereunder. For other exemptions from the tax imposed under section 4061(a), see sections 4063 and 4221 and the regulations thereunder. For special rules relating to the sale by a manufacturer of a vehicle consisting of a tax-paid chassis and a body manufactured by him, see §48.4061(a)-5.

(b) Rate and computation of tax—(1) In general. With respect to the articles enumerated in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, the rate of tax imposed by section 4061(a)(1) is:

   Percent
(i) For articles sold during the period beginning on January 1, 1959, and ending on September 30, 197910
(ii) For articles sold on or after October 1, 19795

(2) Determination of price subject to tax. The tax is computed by applying to the price for which the article is sold the rate in effect at the time of the sale. For definition of the term “price” and for application of the tax to leases of articles, see sections 4216 and 4217, respectively, and the regulations thereunder. If an article subject to tax under section 4061(a) has equipment mounted thereon to perform functions other than in connection with the transportation of persons or property, no tax under section 4061(a) attaches to that part of the selling price of the completed unit which is reasonably attributable to such equipment provided such part of the selling price is billed separately on the invoice to the customer or can otherwise be established by adequate records. For other rules relating to the sale of parts or accessories in connection with the sale of a chassis, body, or completed unit, see §48.4061(a)-4. For special rules relating to the determination of selling price when equipment or machinery is permanently installed on a taxable chassis or body, see paragraph (a)(3) of this section.

(3) Tax on trailers sold before December 11, 1971. With respect to sales made after December 31, 1958, and before December 11, 1971, the rate of tax imposed under section 4061(a) on a trailer or semitrailer chassis or body that is a highway vehicle within the meaning of paragraph (d) of this section depends upon a classification of the article. The sale during this period of a trailer or semitrailer chassis or body (other than a house trailer) suitable for use in combination with passenger automobiles is subject ot tax as set forth in paragraph (b)(4) of this section. A trailer suitable for use in combination with a passenger automobile which is designed for purposes other than living or sleeping, commonly referred to as a “utility trailer”, is an example of a trailer taxable at the 7 percent rate set forth in paragraph (b)(4) of this section. The sale of a trailer or semitrailer chassis or body that is not suitable for use in combination with passenger automobiles is subject to tax as set forth in paragraph (b)(1) of this section.

(4) Passenger automobile chassis and bodies and related articles sold before December 11, 1971. With respect to the sale after December 31, 1958, and before December 11, 1971, of (i) automobile chassis and bodies not enumerated in paragraph (a)(1) of this section or (ii) trailer and semitrailer chassis and bodies suitable for use in combination with passenger automobiles, the tax imposed by section 4016(a) is computed in accordance with paragraph (b)(2) of this section at the rate of 10 percent for sales prior to June 22, 1965, and at the rate of 7 percent thereafter.

(c) Liability for tax. The tax imposed by section 4061(a) is payable by the manufacturer, producer, or importer making the sale.

(d) Highway vehicle—(1) Definition. For purposes of this subchapter, the term “highway vehicle” means any self-propelled vehicle, or any trailer or semitrailer, designed to perform a function of transporting a load over public highways, whether or not also designed to perform other functins, but does not include a vehicle described in paragraph (d)(2) of this section. For purposes of this definition, a vehicle consists of a chassis, or a chassis and a body if the vehicle has a body, but does not include the vehicle's load. Therefore, in determining whether a vehicle is a “highway vehicle”, it is immaterial that the vehicle is designed to perform a highway transportation function for only a particular kind of load, such as passengers, furnishings and personal effects (as in a house, office, or utility trailer), a special type of cargo, goods, supplies, or materials, or, except to the extent otherwise provided in paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section, machinery or equipment specially designed to perform some off-highway task unrelated to highway transportation. In the case of specially designed machinery or equipment, it is also immaterial, except as provided in paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section, that such machinery or equipment is permanently mounted on the vehicle. For purposes of paragraph (d) of this section, the term “transport” includes the term “tow”, and the term “public highway” includes any road (whether a Federal highway, State highway, city street, or otherwise) in the United States which is not a private roadway. A vehicle which is not a highway vehicle within the meaning of this paragraph shall be treated as a nonhighway vehicle for purposes of this subchapter. Examples of vehicles that are designed to perform a function of transporting a load over the public highways are passenger automobiles, motorcycles, buses, and highway-type trucks, truck tractors, trailers, and semi-trailers.

(2) Exceptions—(i) Certain specially designed mobile machinery for nontransportation functions. A self-propelled vehicle, or trailer or semi-trailer, is not a highway vehicle if it (A) consists of a chassis to which there has been permanently mounted (by welding, bolting, riveting, or other means) machinery or equipment to perform a construction, manufacturing, processing, farming, mining, drilling, timbering, or operation similar to any one of the foregoing enumerated operations if the operation of the machinery or equipment or equipment is unrelated to transportation on or off the public highways, (B) the chassis has been specially designed to serve only as a mobile carriage and mount (and a power source, where applicable) for the particular machinery or equipment involved, whether or not such machinery or equipment is in operation, and (C) by reason of such special design, such chassis could not, without substantial structural modification, be used as a component of a vehicle designed to perform a function of transporting any load other than that particular machinery or equipment or similar machinery or equipment requiring such a specially designed chassis.

(ii) Certain vehicles specially designed for offhighway transportation. A self-propelled vehicle, or a trailer or semitrailer, is not a highway vehicle if it is (A) specially designed for the primary function of transporting a particular type of load other than over the public highway in connection with a construction, manufacturing, processing, farming, mining, drilling, timbering, or operation similar to any one of the foregoing enumerated operations, and (B) if by reason of such special design, the use of such vehicle to transport such load over the public highways is substantially limited or substantially impaired. For purposes of applying the rule of (B) of this subdivision, account may be taken of whether the vehicle may travel at regular highway speeds, requires a special permit for highway use, is overweight, overheight or overwidth for regular use, and any other relevant considerations. Soley for purposes of determinations under this paragraph (d)(2)(ii), where there is affixed to the vehicle equiplment used for loading, unloading, storing, vending, handling, processing, preserving, or otherwise caring for a load transported by the vehicle over the public highways, the functions are related to the transportation of a load over the public highways even though such functions may be performed off the public highways.

(iii) Certain trailers and semi-trailers specially designed to perform non-transportation functions off the public highways. A trailer or semi-trailer is not a highway vehicle if it is specially designed to serve no purpose other than providing an enclosed stationary shelter for the carrying on of a function which is directly connected with and necessary to, and at the off-highway site of, a construction, manufacturing, processing, mining, drilling, farming, timbering, or operation similar to any one of the foregoing enumerated operations such as a trailer specially designed to serve as an office for such an operation.

(3) Optional application. For purposes of this subchapter, if any rules existing immediately prior to January 13, 1977 would, if applicable, unequivocally resolve an issue involving the definition of a highway vehicle with respect to a period prior to such date, at the option of the taxpayer, such rules existing prior to such date shall be applied to resolve the issue for all periods prior to such date, and the rules of paragraphs (d) (1) and (2) of this section, which define the term “highway vehicle”, shall not apply with respect to such issue for all periods prior to such date.

(4) Highway vehicles not subject to section 4061 tax. Although for purposes of this paragraph (d) passenger automobiles, automobile trailers and semitrailers, motor homes, motorcycles, light-duty trucks, etc., will be considered to be highway vehicles because they are designed to perform a function of transporting a load over public highways, the tax imposed under section 4061(a) does not apply to the sale of such vehicles because they either are not articles subject to tax under such section or are excluded from tax under section 4061 (a)(2). See also paragraphs (a)(4) and (f) of this section. Despite the fact that passenger automobiles, passenger automobile trailers and semi-trailers, motor homes, motorcycles, light-duty trucks, etc., are not subject to the manufacturers excise tax on highway vehicles imposed by section 4061(a), the fact that they are nevertheless considered highway vehicles for purposes of this subchapter can be of material significance in determining the applicability of such excise taxes as the tax imposed by section 4041 (relating to diesel and special motor fuels), the tax imposed by section 4071(a)(1) (relating to tires of the type used on highway vehicles), or the tax imposed by section 4481 (relating to highway use tax on highway motor vehicles). In addition, the definition of the term “highway vehicle” is material in determining the credits or refunds provided by section 6416(b)(2)(I) (relating to diesel fuel used in certain highway vehicles), section 6421(a) (relating to gasoline used for a nonhighway purpose), section 6424 (relating to lubricating oil used otherwise than in a highway motor vehicle), and section 6427(a) (relating to diesel or special motor fuel not used for a taxable purpose).

(e) Sale of a chassis or body for use as a component of a vehicle other than a highway vehicle—(1) In general. Except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (a)(4), (e)(2), or (f) of this section, the sale of a chassis or body shall be deemed to be a sale of a chassis or body enumerated in paragraph (a)(1) of this section if such chassis or body is, in any sense, reasonably suitable for use as a component part of a highway vehicle that is either an automobile truck or bus, a truck or bus trailer or semitrailer, or a tractor of the kind chiefly used for highway transportation in combination with a trailer or semitrailer.

(2) Exceptions based on unitary concept—(i) Completed vehicles not qualifying as highway vehicles. With respect to the sale of a vehicle after January 13, 1977 which would otherwise be treated under paragraph (e)(1) of this section as a sale of a chassis or body enumerated in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, the tax imposed under section 4061(a) shall not apply to such sale if the vehicle (considered as a completed unit) is not considered to be a highway vehicle within the meaning of paragraph (d) of this section.

(ii) Tax-free sales of chassis and bodies. With respect to the sale after January 13, 1977 of a chassis or body (not including the sale of a completed vehicle described in paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section) which would otherwise be treated under paragraph (e)(1) of this section as a sale of a chassis or body enumerated in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, the tax imposed under section 4061(a) shall not apply to such sale if the chassis or body is actually sold for use, or for resale for use, as a component part of a vehicle that is not a highway vehicle within the meaning of paragraph (d) of this section. For purposes of determining the liability of the manufacturer or reseller for the tax imposed under section 4061(a), the test of the preceding sentence will be considered to be met if (A) the purchaser furnishes the statement set forth in paragraph (e)(2)(iv) of this section to the seller before the manufacturer files a return covering excise taxes for the period in which the sale was made, and (B) the manufacturer or reseller complies with the requirements set forth in paragraph (e)(2)(iii) of this section. However, even though the purchaser and manufacturer (or reseller) have complied with the foregoing, the tax imposed under section 4061(a), shall apply to such sale if the manufacturer or reseller has received a written notification (applicable with respect to such sale) from the Internal Revenue Service that sales of a specified type or types of chassis or bodies may not be made tax free pursuant to this paragraph (e)(2)(ii) until further notification. Any such notification issued by the Internal Revenue Service shall be effective only with respect to sales after the manufacturer has received such notification.

(iii) Requirements to be met. In order for a manufacturer or reseller to sell free of tax under paragraph (e)(2)(ii) of this section an otherwise taxable chassis or body, the manufacturer or reseller must:

(A) Retain in his possession the statement required to be furnished by the purchaser and such other evidence as may be furnished by the purchaser to support the tax-free sale. Such evidence shall be retained for at least 3 years from the due date of the tax that would be due if the transaction in question had been a taxable sale; and

(B) Indicate on the invoice with respect to the sale of the chassis or body that the sale of such article is made free of tax under paragraph (e)(2)(ii) of this section.

(iv) Form of statement. In order for an otherwise taxable chassis or body to be sold free of tax under paragraph (e)(2)(ii) of this section, the purchaser must execute and furnish to the manufacturer or reseller a statement that substantially complies with the following form:

_____________, 19__

Under the penalty of perjury, the undersigned certifies that he, or the ______________, (Name of purchaser if other than the undersigned) of which he is _________ (Title), is in the business of ___________ (State nature of business), and that the chassis and/or bodies covered by the accompanying order or contract for purchase from __________ (Name and address of seller) are purchased for (check One) __ use, or for resale for use, as components of the following type or types of nonhighway vehicles:

1.
2.
3.

The undersigned understands that he must be prepared to establish by satisfactory evidence the actual use or disposition of such chassis or bodies and that, upon their use or disposition other than use as components of a nonhighway vehicle, he consents to be treated as the manufacturer of any such chassis or body purchased by him free of the tax imposed by section 4061(a).

The undersigned also understands that he and all guilty parties will, for use of this statement to willfully attempt to evade or defeat the tax imposed under section 4061, be subject, under section 7201, to a fine of not more than $10,000, or imprisonment for not more than 5 years, or both, together with the costs of prosecution.

The undersigned agrees to retain in his possession a copy of this statement for at least 3 years from its date.

 

(Signature)

 

(Address)

(v) Refund or credit of overpayment. If a purchaser furnished the manufacturer with the statement described in paragraph (e)(2)(iv) of this section after the time the manufacturer has filed a return covering excise taxes for the period in which the sale was made, the manufacturer must include the tax on the sale in his return for the period. However, in such case, if the conditions prescribed in paragraph (e)(2)(iii) of this section are met, a claim for refund of the tax paid on such sale may be filed by the manufacturer on Form 843, or a credit taken on a subsequent return, in accordance with the provisions of sections 6402(a) and 6416(a) and §48.6416(a)-1.

(vi) Cross reference. For special rules relating to the sale by a manufacturer of a vehicle consisting of a tax-paid chassis and a body manufactured by him, see §48.4061(a)-5.

(f) Exclusion of light-duty trucks, buses, and related articles from tax—(1) In general. (i) No tax is imposed by section 4061(a)(1) on the sale after December 10, 1971, of the following articles, if suitable for use with a vehicle having a gross vehicle weight of 10,000 pounds or less (as determined under paragraph (f)(3) of this section):

(A) Automobile truck and bus chassis and bodies, and

(B) Truck trailer and semitrailer chassis and bodies, suitable for use with a trailer or semitrailer having a gross vehicle weight of 10,000 pounds or less (as so determined).

(ii) For purposes of this part, a chassis or body is suitable for use with a vehicle having a gross vehicle weight of 10,000 pounds or less (hereafter referred to in this paragraph (f) as a “light-duty vehicle”) if such chassis or body is commonly used with such a vehicle or possesses actual, practical, and commercial fitness for such use. A truck or bus chassis, sold after December 10, 1971, which is suitable for use with a light-duty vehicle, is not subject to the tax imposed by section 4061(a)(1) regardless of the body actually mounted thereon. Similarly, a truck trailer or semitrailer chassis sold after such date, suitable for use with a trailer or semitrailer having a gross vehicle weight of 10,000 pounds or less, which trailer or semitrailer is suitable for use in connection with a light-duty towing vehicle, is not subject to such tax regardless of the body actually mounted thereon. A truck or bus body, sold after such date, which is suitable for use with a light-duty vehicle, is not subject to such tax even though it may also be suitable for use with (and is actually a component of) a vehicle having a gross vehicle weight in excess of 10,000 pounds. Similarly, a truck trailer or semitrailer body sold after such date, suitable for use with a trailer or semitrailer having a gross vehicle weight of 10,000 pounds or less, which trailer or semitrailer is suitable for use with a light-duty towing vehicle, is not subject to such tax even though it may also be suitable for use with (and is actually a component of) a trailer or semitrailer having a gross vehicle weight of more than 10,000 pounds, or is used in connection with a vehicle having a gross vehicle weight of more than 10,000 pounds.

(iii) Where an exempt body is mounted on a taxable chassis, or a taxable body is mounted on an exempt chassis, the taxable chassis or taxable body, as the case may be, nevertheless remains subject to such tax, if the resulting vehicle is a highway vehicle as defined in paragraph (d) of this section.

(iv) Where the modification of an article, exempt from tax when sold by the original manufacturer, constitutes further manufacture after the original manufacturer's sale, a tax may be imposed on the subsequent manufacturer's sale or use of the modified article.

(2) Parts and accessories. (i) The sale of a part or accessory which, if sold on December 10, 1971, would be subject to the tax imposed by section 4061(a)(1) as in effect at such time, is not subject to the tax imposed by section 4061(a)(1) as in effect after such date if:

(A) It is sold by the manufacturer on or in connection therewith, or with the sale of, a vehicle enumerated in paragraph (f)(1)(i) of this section which is not subject to such tax, and

(B) It is not a replacement part (as defined in paragraph (f)(2)(ii) of this section).

(ii) For purposes of this paragraph (f)(2), a part or accessory is considered sold with a vehicle if, as of the time the article is sold by the manufacturer, the part or accessory has been ordered from such manufacturer for use with the vehicle. Thus, for example, original equipment sold after December 10, 1971, with a light-duty vehicle, consisting of parts and accessories which are ordered from the manufacturer of the vehicle not later than the time at which such vehicle is sold by him (whether or not installed as of such time) are not subject to such tax. For purposes of this paragraph (f)(2), a part is a replacement part, regardless of when ordered,if its use with a vehicle is as a replacement for a part of such vehicle. Therefore, spare parts or accessories sold separately or ordered with a light-duty truck are subject to the tax imposed on sales of parts or accessories by section 4061(b)(1), unless they are excluded from tax as articles used interchangeably between truck and passenger vehicles under the provisions of section 4061(b)(2).

(3) Gross vehicle weight. (i) For purposes of paragraph (f)(1) of this section gross vehicle weight means the maximum total weight of a loaded vehicle. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (f)(3), such maximum total weight shall be the gross vehicle weight rating of the article (as manufactured) as secified or established by the manufacturer of the completed article, unless such rating is unreasonable in light of the facts and circumstances in a particular case.

(ii) A manufacturer must specify or establish a weight rating for each chassis, body, or vehicle sold by him after September 22, 1971, if such article requires no additional manufacture other than (A) the addition of readily attachable articles, such as tire or rim assemblies or minor accessories, (B) the performance of minor finishing operations, such as painting, or (C) in the case of a chassis, the addition of a body. If an article is specially manufactured to the purchaser's specifications, such specifications may be used to establish the gross vehicle weight of the article.

(iii) A manufacturer shall maintian a record of the gross vehicle weight rating of each truck, bus, trailer, and semitrailer sold by him and excluded from the tax imposed by section 4061(a)(1) by reason of section 4061(a)(2) and this paragraph (f). For this purpose, a record of the serial number of each such article shall be treated as a record of the gross vehicle weight rating of the article if such rating is indicated by the serial number.

(iv) If (A) the manufacturer's rating indicated in a label or identifying device affixed to an article, (B) the rating set forth in his sales invoice or warranty agreement, and (C) his advertised rating for that article (or two or more identical articles) are inconsistent, the highest of such ratings will be considered to be the manufacturer's gross vehicle weight rating specified or established for purposes of the tax imposed by section 4061(a)(1).

(v) With respect to articles sold after January 31, 1972, the manufacturer's gross vehicle weight rating must take into account the strength of the chassis frame, the axle capacity and placement, and the spring, brake, rim, and tire capacities. The component with the lowest weight rating ordinarily shall be considered determinative of the gross vehicle weight. If the capacity of any of the readily attachable components (springs, brakes, rims, or tires) would otherwise be determinative of a gross vehicle weight rating of 10,000 pounds or less, no readily attachable component will be taken into account in determining such rating unless the rating determined solely on the basis of the chassis frame or the total of the axle ratings is 12,000 pounds or less.

(vi) For purposes of paragraph (f)(3)(v) of ths section, the term “total of the axle ratings” means the sum of the maximum load carrying capability (capacity and placement) of the axles (without regard to springs, brakes, rims, and tires) and, in the case of a trailer or semitrailer, the weight, if any, that is to be borne by a vehicle used in combination with the trailer or semitrailer for which gross vehicle weight is determined.

[T.D. 7461, 42 FR 2672, Jan. 13, 1977, as amended by T.D. 7461, 42 FR 5695, Jan. 31, 1977; T.D. 7566, 43 FR 41389, Sept. 18, 1978]

§48.4061(a)-2   Bonding of importers.

(a) Authority for requiring bond. Section 623 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1623), provides as follows:

Sec. 623. Bonds and other security. (a) In any case in which bond or other security is not specifically required by law, the Secretary of the Treasury may by regulation or specific instruction require, or authorize collectors of customs to require, such bonds or other security as he, or they, may deem necessary for the protection of the revenue or to assure compliance with any provision of law, regulation, or instruction which the Secretary of the Treasury or the Customs Service may be authorized to enforce.

(b) Whenever a bond is required or authorized by a law, regulation, or instruction which the Secretary of the Treasury or the Customs Service is authorized to enforce, the Secretary of the Treasury may—

(1) Except as otherwise specifically provided by law, prescribe the conditions and form of such bond, and fix the amount of penalty thereof, whether for the payment of liquidated damages or of a penal sum: Provided, That when a consolidated bond authorized by paragraph 4 of this subsection is taken, the Secretary of the Treasury may fix the penalty of such bond without regard to any other provision of law, regulation, or instruction.

(2) Provide for the approval of the sureties on such bond, without regard to any general provision of law.

(3) Authorize the execution of a term bond the conditions of which shall extend to and cover similar cases of importations over such period of time, not to exceed one year, or such longer period as he may fix when in his opinion special circumstances existing in a particular instance require such longer period.

(4) Authorize, to the extent that he may deem necessary, the taking of a consolidated bond (single entry on term), in lieu of separate bonds to assure compliance with two or more provisions of law, regulations, or instructions which the Secretary of the Treasury or the Customs Service is authorized to enforce. A consolidated bond taken pursuant to the authority contained in this subsection shall have the same force and effect in respect of every provision of law, regulation, or instruction for the purposes for which it is required as though separate bonds had been taken to assure compliance with each such provision.

(c) The Secretary of the Treasury may authorize the cancellation of any bond provided for in this section, or of any charge that may have been made against such bond, in the event of a breach of any condition of the bond, upon the payment of such lesser amount or penalty or upon such other terms and conditions as he may deem sufficient.

(d) No condition in any bond taken to assure compliance with any law, regulation, or instruction which the Secretary of the Treasury or the Customs Service is authorized to enforce shall be held invalid on the ground that such condition is not specified in the law, regulation, or instruction authorizing or requiring the taking of such bond.

(e) The Secretary of the Treasury is authorized to permit the deposit of money or obligations of the United States, in such amount and upon such conditions as he may by regulation prescribe, in lieu of sureties on any bond required or authorized by a law, regulation, or instruction which the Secretary of the Treasury or the Customs Service is authorized to enforce.

(b) Application for determination whether bond required—(1) Requirement of application—(i) In general. Except as otherwise provided in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph, every importer of articles taxable under section 4061(a) shall make application for a determination whether the importer is required to give bond in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (c) of this section. Such application shall be submitted in writing to the district director for the district in which the importer will file returns of any tax under section 4061(a) for which he may incur liability.

(ii) Form of application. No form is prescribed for making the application required under subdivision (i) of this subparagraph, but such application shall include the following information:

(a) The name of the person making the application and the address of his principal place of business, and, if the principal place of business of such person is outside the United States, the address of his principal place of business, office, or agency in the United States.

(b) Information establishing that the person making the application is an importer of articles taxable under section 4061(a).

(c) The kind and approximate number of automobiles, trucks, buses, etc., which the importer may be expected to import during an average calendar quarter and the approximate amount of tax under section 4061(a) for which the importer may be expected to incur liability in respect of such articles.

(d) Whether the importer has filed returns of tax under chapter 31 or chapter 32 within the 2-year period immediately preceding the date on which the application is filed, and, if so, the internal revenue district in which such returns were filed.

(e) Facts pertaining to the importer's assets and liabilities which will aid the district director in determining whether a bond shall be required.

(2) Exceptions. The provisions of subparagraph (1) of this paragraph shall have no application in any case where an article taxable under section 4061(a) is:

(i) Incidentally imported by an individual for his personal use.

(ii) Brought into the United States for export to a foreign country or possession of the United States.

(iii) Admitted to the United States free of duty as an instrument of international traffic.

(iv) Admitted to the United States free of duty as a temporary importation under bond.

(v) Returned to the United States after having been sold in the United States and exported.

(c) Requirement of bond—(1) In general. If the district director determines that a bond is necessary in order to insure payment of the tax under section 4061(a), and to assure compliance with all provisions of the Code and regulations thereunder, with respect to articles imported by any importer required to make application for a determination under paragraph (b) of this section, such bond shall be given by such importer. Such bond shall be submitted, in duplicate, to the district director for the district in which the importer will file returns of any tax under section 4061(a) for which he may incur liability.

(2) Execution of bond—(i) In general. The bond required under this paragraph shall be executed with satisfactory surety. (For provisions as to what will be considered “satisfactory surety”, see subparagraph (3) of this paragraph.) Such bond shall be conditioned that the principal shall not engage in any attempt, by himself or by collusion with others, to defraud the United States of any tax under section 4061(a); that he shall render truly and completely all returns, statements, and other documents required of him by law or regulations in respect of such tax; that he shall timely pay all such tax for which he is liable; and, in the case of any such tax in respect of an article released from customs custody by reason of such bond that he shall pay such tax whether the liability therefor is incurred by him or by some other person as the importer of the articles covered by the bond, unless such other person makes payment of such tax on or before the due date. The bond shall be in an amount which the district director believes to be sufficient to protect the interests of the United States with respect to all articles taxable under section 4061(a) which are released from customs custody by reason of such bond, but in no event shall the bond be in an amount less than the approximate amount of tax under section 4061(a) for which the principal may be expected to incur liability during an average calendar quarter. Such bond shall be signed by the individual, if the principal is an individual; the president, vice president, or other principal officer, if the principal is a corporation; a responsible and duly authorized member or officer having knowledge of its affairs, if the principal is a partnership or other unincorporated organization; or the fiduciary, if the principal is a trust or estate.

(ii) Cancellation clause. The bond required under this paragraph may be accepted with a cancellation clause incorporated therein. Such cancellation clause shall provide that:

(a) Any surety on the bond may at any time give notice to the principal and the district director that he desires to be relieved of liability under said bond after a date named, which shall be at least 60 days after the receipt of notice by the district director.

(b) If the notice is not withdrawn in writing prior to the date named in the notice, the rights of the principal as supported by said bond shall be terminated on such date (unless supported by another bond or bonds). The surety shall, however, remain liable with respect to any tax under section 4061(a) (plus penalties and interest) the liability for which is incurred in respect of articles released from customs custody by reason of the bond.

(c) Said notice may not be given by an agent of the surety, unless it is accompanied by power of attorney duly executed by the surety authorizing the agent to give such notice or by a verified statement that such power of attorney is on file with the Treasury Department.

(iii) Changes in bond. After filing of the bond required under this paragraph, no change may be made in the terms thereof except with the consent of the surety or sureties and subject to the approval of the district director.

(3) Satisfactory surety—(i) Approved surety company or bonds or notes of the United States. For purposes of subparagraph (2) of this paragraph, a bond shall be considered executed with satisfactory surety if:

(a) It is executed by a surety company holding a certificate of authority from the Secretary as an acceptable surety on Federal bonds; or

(b) It is secured by bonds or notes of the United States as provided in 6 U.S.C. 15 (see 31 CFR Part 225).

(ii) Other surety acceptable in discretion of district director. For purposes of subparagraph (2) of this paragraph, a bond may, in the discretion of the district director, be considered executed with satisfactory surety if, in lieu of being executed or secured as provided in subdivision (i) of this subparagraph, it is:

(a) Executed by a corporate surety (other than a surety company), provided such corporate surety establishes that it is within its corporate powers to act as surety for another corporation or an individual;

(b) Executed by two or more individual sureties, provided such individual sureties meet the conditions contained in subdivision (iii) of this subparagraph;

(c) Secured by a mortgage on real or personal property;

(d) Secured by a certified, cashier's, or treasurer's check drawn on any bank or trust company incorporated under the laws of the United States or any State, Territory, or possession of the United States, or by a United States postal, bank, express, or telegraph money order;

(e) Secured by corporate bonds or stocks, or by bonds issued by a State or political subdivision thereof, of recognized stability; or

(f) Secured by any other acceptable collateral. Collateral shall be deposited with the district director or, in his discretion, with a responsible financial institution acting as escrow agent.

(iii) Conditions to be met by individual sureties. If a bond is executed by two or more individual sureties, the following conditions must be met by each such individual surety:

(a) He must reside within the State in which the principal place of business or legal residence of the primary obligor is located;

(b) He must have property subject to execution of a current market value, above all encumbrances, equal to at least the penalty of the bond;

(c) All real property which he offers as security must be located in the State in which the principal place of business or legal residence of the primary obligor is located;

(d) He must agree not to mortgage, or otherwise encumber, any property offered as security while the bond continues in effect without first securing the permission of the district director; and

(e) He must file with the bond, and annually thereafter so long as the bond continues in effect, an affidavit as to the adequacy of his security, executed on the appropriate form furnished by the district director.

Partners may not act as sureties upon bonds of their partnership. Stockholders of a corporate principal may be accepted as sureties provided their qualifications as such are independent of their holdings of the stock of the corporation.

(iv) Adequacy of surety. No surety or security shall be accepted if it does not adequately protect the interest of the United States.

(4) New or additional bond. The district director may require a new or additional bond under this section in any case where he deems it necessary or desirable in order to protect the interests of the United States.

(d) Termination of requirement—(1) Application for relief from requirement. Any importer who has given bond as required under paragraph (c) of this section may make application for relief from such requirement at any time after the last day of the first month following the close of the calendar quarter in which the bond was given. Any such application shall be submitted to the district director to whom the bond was furnished and shall set forth such facts as will be of assistance to the district director in determining whether the relief shall be granted.

(2) Relief from requirement. In any case where the district director determines that the bond required under paragraph (c) of this section to be given by an importer is no longer necessary to insure payment of any tax under section 4061(a) for which liability may be incurred by such importer, such importer shall no longer be required to give such bond.

(e) Evidence required for release of imported articles from customs custody—(1) In general. Each article taxable under section 4061(a) which arrives in the United States from any foreign country or possession of the United States on or after the first day of the first calendar quarter beginning more than 60 days after the date of publication of this Treasury decision in the Federal Register, and which is imported by any person required under paragraph (b) of this section to make application for a determination whether bond shall be given, shall not, if subject to customs examination and release, be released from customs custody until the evidence prescribed in subparagraph (2) (i) or (ii) of this paragraph has been furnished by such person to the collector of customs.

(2) Form of evidence. The evidence required under subparagraph (1) of this paragraph shall be in the form of a statement, executed, signed, and dated by the district director. Such statement shall show the following:

(i) Bond required. If the importer is required to give bond under this section the statement shall show:

(a) The total number of articles in respect of which the statement is given.

(b) The model number of each such article.

(c) The name and address of the importer of such articles.

(d) If the articles are to be released from customs custody to a person other than the importer, the name and address of such other person.

(e) That the importer has given a bond which the district director finds sufficient to protect the interests of the United States with respect to any tax under section 4061(a) for which liability may be incurred in respect of such articles.

A statement under this subdivision shall be furnished to the importer by the district director, upon request of the importer, in every case where such importer furnishes the district director with information which establishes to the satisfaction of the district director that the importer has given bond in an amount sufficient to protect the interests of the United States with respect to any tax under section 4061(a) which may become due in respect of the articles to which the request relates, and with such other information as is required under this subdivision to be shown in the statement. Such request, together with such information, shall be submitted by the importer immediately upon receipt by him of notice that articles taxable under section 4061(a) have been exported to his order. A separate request shall be made in respect of each shipment. Each statement given under this subdivision shall be executed in duplicate. The original of such statement shall be furnished by the district director to the importer and the copy shall be retained by the district director.

(ii) No bond required. If the importer is not required to give bond under this section, the statement shall show:

(a) The name and address of the importer.

(b) That bond under this section is not required of such importer.

A statement under this subdivision shall be furnished to the importer by the district director on the date on which the district director determines that the importer is not required to give a bond under this section. Such statement shall be executed in triplicate. The original of such statement and one signed copy shall be furnished by the district director to the importer, and one copy shall be retained by the district director. Additional signed copies of such statement will be furnished by the district director to the importer upon request of the importer. However, once such statement, or a signed copy thereof, has been furnished by the importer to a collector of customs, the requirements imposed by subparagraph (1) of this paragraph are deemed to be satisfied in respect of all articles taxable under section 4061(a) which thereafter arrive in the United States for release to or for the importer in a port under the jurisdiction of such collector of customs, until such time, if any, as such collector of customs receives written notification from the district director or the Commissioner of Customs that such statement has been withdrawn.

(46 Stat. 759; 19 U.S.C. 1623)

[T.D. 6499, 25 FR 10347, Oct. 28, 1960, as amended by T.D. 7517, 42 FR 58935, Nov. 14, 1977]

§48.4061(a)-3   Definitions.

For purposes of the tax imposed by section 4061, unless otherwise expressly indicated:

(a) Automobile truck. The term “automobile truck” includes automobile buses, and truck and bus trailers and semitrailers.

(b) Other automobile. The term “other automobile” means all automobiles other than automobile trucks, and includes trailers and semitrailers suitable for use in connection with passenger automobiles, but does not include house trailers.

(c) Tractor. The term “tractor” means any tractor chiefly used for highway transportation in combination with a trailer or semitrailer.

§48.4061(a)-4   Parts or accessories sold on or in connection with chasis, bodies, etc.

(a) In general. The tax attaches in respect of parts or accessories for articles specified in section 4061(a) sold on or in connection therewith or with the sale thereof at the rate applicable to the sale of the basic article. The tax attaches in such case whether or not the parts or accessories are billed separately. For the tax applicable to parts or accessories which are not sold on or in connection with the sale of a taxable chassis, body, or tractor, see §48.4061(b)-1.

(b) Essential equipment. If taxable chassis, bodies, or tractors are sold by the manufacturer, producer, or importer without parts or accessories which are considered equipment essential for the operation or appearance of such articles, the sale of such parts or accessories will be considered, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, to have been made in connection with the sale of the basic article even though they are shipped separately at the same time or on a different date. For example, if a manufacturer sells to any person a chassis and the bumpers for such chassis, or sells a taxable tractor and the fifth wheel and attachments, the tax applies to such parts or accessories at the same rate as on the chassis or tractor regardless of the method of billing or the time at which the shipments were made.

§48.4061(a)-5   Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis.

(a) Sale of completed vehicle. An automobile truck (as defined by §48.4061(a)-3(a)) for purposes of the tax imposed by section 4061(a) consists of two parts, namely, a body and a chassis. Generally, the tax applies to the sale by the manufacturer of each. Thus, if the purchaser of a tax-paid chassis attaches to it a taxable body manufactured by him and sells the completed vehicle, he is liable for tax based on the sale price of the body only. However, in such a case, the tax attaches to the selling price of the entire vehicle unless adequate records are available to show the portion of the total selling price attributable to the body.

(b) Cross references. For special rules relating to the sale of a chassis or body to a purchaser who will use it in the manufacture or assembly of a nonhighway vehicle, see §48.4061(a)-1(e). With respect to bodies sold to a chassis manufacturer, see also section 4063(b) and the regulations thereunder.

[T.D. 7461, 42 FR 2675, Jan. 13, 1977]

§48.4061(b)   [Reserved]

§48.4061(b)-1   Imposition of tax.

(a) In general. Section 4061(b) imposes a tax on the sale by the manufacturer, producer, or importer of parts or accessories (other than tires and inner tubes and other than automobile radio and television receiving sets) for any of the articles enumerated in section 4061 (a) (see paragraph (a) of §48.4061 (a)-1).

(b) Rates of tax. Tax is imposed on the sale of parts or accessories for any of the articles enumerated in section 4061(a) at the rates specified below:

   Percent
(1) Parts or accessories sold during the period January 1, 1959, to June 30, 1965, inclusive8
(2) Parts or accessories sold on or after July 1, 19655

The tax is computed by applying to the price for which the part or accessory is sold the rate in effect at the time of the sale. For definition of the term “price” see section 4216 and the regulations thereunder contained in Subpart M of this part.

(c) Liability for tax. The tax imposed by section 4061(b) is payable by the manufacturer, producer, or importer making the sale.

[T.D. 6648, 28 FR 3633, Apr. 13, 1963, as amended by T.D. 6753, 29 FR 12717, Sept. 9, 1964]

§48.4061(b)-2   Definition of parts or accessories.

(a) In general. The term “parts or accessories” includes (1) any article the primary use of which is to improve, repair, replace, or serve as a component part of an automobile truck or bus chasis or body, or other automobile chassis or body, or taxable tractor, (2) any article designed to be attached to or used in connection with such chassis, body, or tractor to add to its utility or ornamentation, and (3) any article the primary use of which is in connection with such chassis, body, or tractor, whether or not essential to its operation or use. The term “parts or accessories” includes all articles which have reached such a stage of manufacture as to be commonly known as parts or accessories whether or not fitting operations are required in connection with their installation. An article shall not be deemed to be a taxable part or accessory even though it is designed to be attached to the vehicle or to be primarily used in connection therewith if the article is in effect the load being transported and the primary function of the article is to serve a purpose unrelated to the vehicle as such. For example, a construction derrick attached to a truck is not a taxable part or accessory inasmuch as the derrick is the load of the truck and its use is in connection with construction work at a construction site rather than in connection with the transportation or loading or unloading function of the truck. On the other hand, an article such as a towing cradle or loading or unloading equipment designed to be attached to or to be primarily used in connection with a truck is a taxable part or accessory inasmuch as the articles contributes to the load-carrying function of the truck. The term “parts or accessories” does not include tires, inner tubes, or automobile radio or television receiving sets, since these articles are expressly exempted by section 4061(b) from the tax. However, the term “parts or accessories” includes tire valves designed for use on tires or tubes for articles taxable under section 4061(a).

(b) Articles of a general use. The term “parts or accessories” does not include articles which are not used primarily in the manufacture, repair, etc., of automobile trucks, other automobiles, or tractors, but have a general use in the manufacture, repair, etc., of various articles. For example, commodities such as ball and roller bearings, bolts, nuts, washers, screws, nails, tacks, rivets, pins, studs, cotters, pipe fittings such as plugs, tees, ells, and elbows, drain cocks, grease cups, oilers, and similar articles are not of themselves parts or accessories unless so constructed as to be used primarily in the manufacture, repair, etc., of automobile trucks, other automobiles, or tractors. On the other hand, parts for automobile parts or accessories are in themselves taxable unless they are articles of a type not specifically designed for use primarily in the automobile field. For example, the tax applies to the sale of gears, flexible shafts and flexible housings designed as replacement parts for automotive speedometers; as well as replacement parts for automobile engines, transmissions, differentials, steering mechanisms, timers, windshild-wiper motors, and other automobile parts or accessories.

(c) Materials of a general use—(1) General rule. The term “parts or accessories” also does not include material such as glass, cloth, leather, matting linoleum, and other materials sold in rolls or by the foot, such as brake lining, tape, binding, wire, cable, metal and rubber tubing, packing, conduit, and similar material. However, except as provided in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph, when any such material is cut or otherwise transformed by any person into an automobile part or accessory, tax attaches at the time such part or accessory is sold by such person.

(2) Articles made for immediate installation or repair. If in connection with an immediate installation in an automobile truck, other automobile, or tractor an article is produced through the use of special machinery or as a result of specialized skills from lengths or rolls of material, the person producing such article is considered to have manufactured an automobile part or accessory and the tax applies to his sale of such part or accessory. For example, tax applies to the sale of automobile glass cut to size to replace broken glass, or automobile seat covers, automobile floor mats, or fitted truck top covers produced to replace worn seat covers, floor mats, or truck top covers. However, if an article of a minor nature is produced by simple operation from lengths or rolls of material for immediate use by a repairman in the repair of an automobile truck, other automobile, or tractor on which he is then working, the person producing such article is not considered to have manufactured an automobile part or accessory and tax does not apply on his sale of such article. For example, tax does not apply where a wire, hose, or board is cut to size in order to replace a damaged wire, hose, or board of an automobile truck, other automobile, or tractor.

(d) Examples of articles taxable as parts or accessories. Examples of articles which are taxable as parts or accessories are: Automobile air conditioners; baby seats for automobiles; automobile beds; automobile hammocks; automobile clutches; bottle warmers and heating pads designed to operate from an automobile cigarette lighter; automobile radio antennae; automobile license plate frames; automobile clocks; automobile mirrors and mirror brackets; purses for carrying parking meter coins or cases for carrying registration cards when designed for attachment to an automobile; safes primarily designed for use in taxable motor vehicles; electric bulbs primarily designed and adapted for use on automobiles; automobile floor mats; jacks of the mechanical or hydraulic bumper, screw, ratchet, scissors, or other type primarily designed to be carried as accessories in automobiles as distinguished from jacks designed especially for use in garages and repair shops; dollies of the type commonly known as converter dollies which are used as connectors to convert semitrailers to full trailers; tool kits recommended for use with automobiles; automobile seat covers of any construction whether they are ready-made or custom fitted; fitted truck top covers; glass cut to size for installation in automobiles; and automobile bearings, such as automobile crankshaft or connecting rod bearings.

(e) Effective date. This section shall be effective with respect to sales made on or after January 1, 1964. For the definition of parts or accessories applicable to sales thereof prior to such date, see §40.4061(b)-2 of this chapter (Manufacturers and Retailers Excise Tax Regulations).

(f) Cross references. For provisions relating to the tax imposed upon:

(1) Tires and inner tubes, see section 4071 and the regulations thereunder contained in subpart H of this part;

(2) Automobile radio and television receiving sets, see section 4141 and the regulations thereunder contained in subpart J of this part; and

(3) Fare registers and fare boxes for use on buses and automobiles, see section 4191 and the regulations thereunder contained in subpart L of this part.

[T.D. 6648, 28 FR 3633, Apr. 13, 1963, as amended by T.D. 6655, 28 FR 5235, May 25, 1963]

§48.4061(b)-3   Rebuilt, reconditioned, or repaired parts or accessories.

(a) Rebuilt parts or accessories. Rebuilding of automobile parts or accessories, as distinguished from reconditioning or repairing, constitutes manufacturing, and the rebuilder of such parts or accessories is liable for the tax imposed by section 4061(b) with respect to his sales of such rebuilt parts or accessories. Reboring or other machining, rewinding, and comparable major operations constitute rebuilding. The person owning the part or accessory being rebuilt is the manufacturer of the article and is liable for the tax on his sale of the rebuilt part or accessory. The tax attaches whether the machining or other operation is performed by the rebuilder himself or by some other person in his behalf. For example, the tax attaches with respect to sales of (1) rebuilt batteries, (2) rebabbited or machined connecting rods, (3) reassembled clutches after operations such as the resurfacing of clutch plates, (4) rewound armatures, (5) reassembled generators with armatures rewound by or for the person reassembling the generator, (6) reground or remetalized crankshafts, and (7) engines in which blocks are machined (such as cylinders rebored or new sleeves inserted with or without cylinders being rebored) or new blocks installed. For provisions relating to the sale price of rebuilt parts or accessories, see §48.4062(b)-1.

(b) Reconditioned parts or accessories. The mere disassembling, cleaning, and reassembling (with any necessary replacements of worn parts) of automobile parts or accessories, such as fuel pumps, water pumps, carburetors, distributors, shock absorbers, windshield-wiper motors, brake shoes, clutch disks, voltage regulators, and other parts or accessories, are regarded as reconditioning operations rather than the manufacturing or production of rebuilt parts or accessories. The sale of a reconditioned part or accessory is not subject to tax if previous to the reconditioning there had been a prior sale of such part or accessory in the United States. Any new taxable parts or accessories produced, or purchased tax free for use in further manufacture, and used as replacements in reconditioning such units are subject to tax when used by the reconditioner.

(c) Repaired parts or accessories. The tax does not apply to the amount paid for the repair of automobile parts or accessories for the owner thereof. Repairing consists of the restoration, whether by rebuilding or reconditioning, of an owner's part or accessory to usable condition for his own use rather than for sale. The person who performs the repairing must retain in his possession evidence or documents from which the nontaxable nature of the operation can be ascertained. Any person engaged in rebuilding parts or accessories for purposes of sale incurs liability for tax with respect to his own use of any part or accessory rebuilt by him for sale.

§48.4061-1   Temporary regulations with respect to floor stock refunds or credits on cement mixers.

(a) In general—(1) Refund or credit. Pub. L. 91-678 (84 Stat. 2062, Jan. 12, 1971) provides that if:

(i) A manufacturer, producer, or importer paid the tax imposed by section 4061 (relating to imposition of tax on motor vehicles) on the sale of a cement mixer after June 30, 1968, and before January 1, 1970, and

(ii) Such cement mixer was held by a dealer on January 1, 1970, for purposes of resale and was not used,

the manufacturer, producer, or importer is entitled to a credit or refund (without interest) of the amount of tax he paid on his sale of such cement mixer.

(2) Time for filing claim. The manufacturer, producer, or importer entitled to a credit or refund under subparagraph (1) of this paragraph shall file his claim for credit or refund on or before October 31, 1971, based upon a request submitted to the manufacturer, producer, or importer on or before July 31, 1971, by the dealer who held the cement mixer in respect of which the credit or refund is claimed. Before he files his claim for credit or refund, the manufacturer, producer, or importer shall either reimburse the dealer for the amount of tax he is claiming with respect to the cement mixer or obtain written consent from the dealer to claim such tax.

(3) Other provisions applicable. All provisions of law, including penalties, applicable in respect of the taxes imposed by section 4061 of such Code shall, insofar as applicable and not inconsistent with Pub. L. 91-678 apply in respect of the credits and refunds provided for in this section to the same extent as if the credits or refunds constituted overpayments of the taxes.

(b) Definitions. For purposes of this section:

(1) Cement mixer. The term “cement mixer” means:

(i) Any article designed to be placed or mounted on an automobile truck chassis or truck trailer or semitrailer chassis and to be used to process or prepare concrete, and

(ii) Parts or accessories designed primarily for use on or in connection with an article described in subdivision (i) of this subparagraph.

(2) Dealer. The term “dealer” includes a wholesaler, jobber, distributor, or retailer.

(3) Held by a dealer. A cement mixer shall be considered as “held by a dealer” if title thereto has passed to the dealer (whether or not delivery to him has been made), and if for purposes of consumption title to the cement mixer or possession thereof had not at any time prior to January 1, 1970, been transferred to any person other than a dealer. For purposes of paragraph (a) of this section and notwithstanding the preceding sentence, a cement mixer shall be considered as “held by a dealer” and not to have been used, although possession of such cement mixer has been transferred to another person, if such cement mixer is returned to the dealer in a transaction under which any amount paid or deposited by the transferee for such cement mixer is refunded to him (other than amounts retained by the dealer to cover damage to the cement mixer). Moreover, such a cement mixer shall be considered as held by a dealer on January 1, 1970, even though it was in the possession of the transferee on such day, if it was returned to the dealer (in a transaction described in the preceding sentence) before January 31, 1970. The determination as to the time title passes or possession is obtained for purposes of consumption shall be made under applicable local law. (See subdivisions (iii), (iv), and (v) of paragraph (b)(4) of §145.2-1 of this subchapter for examples illustrating the provisions of this subparagraph.)

(c) Other requirements. All the requirements of paragraph (c) (relating to participation of dealers), paragraph (d) (relating to claim for credit or refund), paragraph (e) (relating to evidence to be retained), and paragraph (f) (relating to effect on other claims for refund or credit) of §48.6412-1 are applicable (to the extent they are not inconsistent with section 4061 and Pub. L. 91-678) with respect to a claim for credit or refund under this section. With respect to claims for credit or refund under this section, the term “dealer request limitation date” and “claim limitation date” used in paragraphs (c) and (d) of §48.6412-1 means July 31, 1971, and October 31, 1971, respectively.

[T.D. 7090, 36 FR 3893, Mar. 2, 1971]

§48.4062(a)   [Reserved]

§48.4062(a)-1   Specific parts or accessories.

Spark plugs, storage batteries, leaf springs, coils, timers, and tire chains, which are suitable for use on or in connection with, or as component parts of, automobile trucks, other automobiles, tractors, or other vehicles enumerated in section 4061(a), are considered parts of, or accessories for, such articles whether or not primarily designed or adapted for such use.

§48.4062(b)   [Reserved]

§48.4062(b)-1   Rebuilt parts or accessories sold on an exchange basis.

The sale price of a rebuilt part or accessory on which the tax is to be computed shall not include the value of a like part or accessory accepted in exchange. The total amount charged in excess of the amount allowed for a like article accepted in an exchange will be the basis for tax. For example, if a rebuilt automobile engine is sold for $100, plus another automobile engine, the tax on the rebuilt engine will be computed on the basis of $100.

§48.4063-1   Tax-free sales of bodies to chassis manufacturers.

Under the provisions of section 4063(b), the tax imposed by section 4061(a) shall not apply to bodies sold by the manufacturer thereof to a manufacturer (but not an importer) of automobile trucks (as defined by §48.4061(a)-3(a)) to be sold by the purchaser. Thus, a manufacturer of automobile truck bodies is permitted to sell such bodies tax free to manufacturers of automobile truck chassis. This section does not apply with respect to the sale of an automobile truck chassis to manufacturers of automobile truck bodies. However, see §48.4061(a)-1(e) with respect to the sale of an automobile truck chassis for use in the manufacture or assembly of a nonhighway vehicle (within the meaning of §48.4061(a)-1(d)). In order to effect a tax-free sale of a body as provided in this section, both the seller and purchaser must comply with the registration and other requirements of section 4222 and the regulations thereunder. A chassis manufacturer who purchases a body tax free as provided in this section shall, for purposes of application of the tax imposed by section 4061(a), be considered the manufacturer of such body.

[T.D. 7461, 42 FR 2675, Jan. 13, 1977]

§48.4063-2   Tax-free sales of parts or accessories sold for resale on or in connection with the first retail sale of a light-duty truck.

(a) In general. Under section 4063(e), the 8-percent manufacturers excise tax imposed by section 4061(b) on the sale of truck parts or accessories does not apply to the sale by the manufacturer, producer, or importer of any parts which are to be resold by the purchaser on or in connection with the first retail sale of a light-duty truck as defined in section 4061(a)(2), or which are to be resold by the purchaser to a second purchaser for resale by the second purchaser on or in connection with the first retail sale of a light-duty truck. A tax-free sale is also allowed under section 4063(e) if an ultimate purchaser makes a direct purchase from a manufacturer of a part or accessory for use on or in connection with a substantially contemporaneous purchase of a new light-duty truck.

(b) Evidence required for tax-free sales of light-duty truck parts and accessories—(1) In general. The provisions of section 4063(e) do not apply with respect to any sale unless the manufacturer, the first purchaser, and the second purchaser, if any, are all registered as required under section 4222, and unless they comply with all the requirements under that section relating to tax-free sales. To effectuate a tax-free sale directly from the manufacturer, first or second purchaser to an ultimate purchaser, the ultimate purchaser must, in every case, satisfy the provisions of paragraphs (b)(3)(i), (ii) and (iii) of this section. Persons not required to be registered under section 4222(b) may purchase articles tax free by following the same procedures that apply to them in the case of other tax-free sales. See §48.4222(b)-1.

(2) Revocation or suspension of registration or right to use exemption certificate. A person's registration and right to sell or purchase articles tax free through the use of an exemption certificate may be revoked or suspended. See §48.4222(c)-1. Such a revocation or suspension shall be in addition to any other penalties that may apply. Any person who purchases articles tax free and who sells or uses them for a non-exempt purpose shall notify its vendor of the taxable sale or use.

(3) Exemption certificate. (i) To establish exemption from tax under section 4061(b) in those instances where a sale is made directly to an ultimate purchaser, the manufacturer, first, or second purchaser must obtain (prior to or at the time of sale) from the ultimate purchaser and retain in its possession a properly executed exemption certificate in the form prescribed in paragraph (b)(3)(iii) of this section.

(ii) Where only occasional sales are made, a separate exemption certificate shall be furnished for each order. However, where sales are regularly or frequently made to a purchaser for such exempt use, a certificate covering all sales for a specified period not to exceed 12 calendar quarters will be acceptable. Such certificates and proper records of invoices, orders, etc. relative to tax-free sales must be kept for inspection by the district director as provided in section 6001 and the regulations thereunder.

(iii) The following form of exemption certificate will be acceptable for purposes of this section and must be adhered to in substance.

Exemption Certificate

(For use by ultimate purchaser who purchase parts or accessories from a manufacturer, producer, importer, first or second purchaser for use on or in connection with the first retail sale of a light-duty truck. (Section 4063 of the Internal Revenue Code.))

(Date) ___________ 19__.

1. I, the undersigned, certify that I am, or the (Name of company _________ of which I am (Position held _____, is purchasing from the manufacturer, producer, importer, first or second purchaser the parts or accessories specified in section 2 below (or in the purchase order or invoice attached hereto) for use on or in connection with a substantially contemporaneous purchase of a new light-duty truck specified in section 3 below. I also certify that (check applicable type of certificate) ___ the article or articles specified in the accompanying order, as described below, or _____ all orders placed by the purchaser for the period commencing (Date) ___ and ending (Date) ___ (period not to exceed 12 calendar quarters), will be used only for the above stated tax-exempt purposes and will not be used as a replacement part.

I understand that the willful use of this exemption certificate to evade or defeat the manufacturers excise tax otherwise applicable to these parts or accessories will subject me to a fine of not more than $10,000 or imprisonment for not more than 5 years, or both, together with cost of prosecution.

(Signature) __________.

(Address) __________.

2. Description of parts and accessories

TypeQuantityPriceTotal

3. Description of new light-duty truck

(a) Type: (b) Quantity, (c) Serial Number.

(d) GVWR: (e) Date of Sale, (f) Invoice Number.

(g) Name and Address of Vendor of Vehicle.

(c) Information; records—(1) Information to be furnished to vendee. A vendor (including the manufacturer) selling light-duty truck parts and accessories tax free under section 4063(e) shall indicate to its vendee that the vendee is obtaining the parts or accessories tax free for the purpose of resale (or use) on or in connection with the first retail sale of a light-duty truck. This information may be transmitted by any convenient means, such as coding of sales invoices, provided that the information is presented with sufficient particularity so that the purchaser is informed that the purchaser has obtained the light-duty truck parts or accessories tax free.

(2) Records of vendor. A manufacturer or vendor selling light-duty truck parts or accessories tax free under section 4063(e) shall maintain in its records the identity of the purchaser, a signed statement of the exempt purpose for purchasing the light-duty truck parts or accessories, and the quantity of light-duty truck parts or accessories sold tax free to each purchaser.

(3) Records of vendee. A person purchasing light-duty truck parts or accessories tax free under section 4063(e) must maintain sufficient records to establish that the parts or accessories purchased tax free have actually been resold (or used) on or in connection with the first retail sale of a light-duty truck or have been resold to a second purchaser for such a resale by the second purchaser.

(d) Duty of selling manufacturer to ascertain validity of tax-free sale. The selling manufacturer of light-duty truck parts is not relieved of liability under the provisions of section 4063(e) by reason of section 4221(c) for the tax imposed by section 4061(b) if at the time of sale the selling manufacturer has knowledge or reason to believe that the light-duty truck parts or accessories sold by it to the purchaser are not intended for resale (or use) on or in connection with the first retail sale of a light-duty truck. The selling manufacturer is also not relieved of liability if it has knowledge or reason to believe that the purchaser has failed to register, refused to execute an exemption certificate, or that its registration or its right to purchase tax free through the use of an exemption certificate has been revoked or suspended.

(e) Cross reference. For credit or refund, see section 6416(b)(2).

(f) Effective date. Section 4063(e) (relating to light-duty truck parts and accessories) applies to sales on or after December 1, 1978. Light-duty truck parts or accessories sold prior to that date are not exempt from tax under section 4061(b) by reason of section 4063(e).

[T.D. 7834, 47 FR 42344, Sept. 27, 1982]

§48.4063-3   Other tax-free sales.

For provisions relating to tax-free sales of articles referred to in section 4061, see:

(a) Section 4221, relating to certain tax-free sales;

(b) Section 4222, relating to registration; and

(c) Section 4223, relating to special rules pertaining to further manufacture;

and the regulations thereunder contained in Subpart N of this part.

[T.D. 7727, 28 FR 3633, Apr. 13, 1963. Redesignated by T.D. 7834, 47 FR 42344, Sept. 27, 1982]

§48.4064-1   Gas guzzler tax.

(a) General rule—(1) In general. Section 4064 imposes on the sale by the manufacturer of an automobile a tax determined in accordance with the tables in section 4064(a) (1) through (7), and in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. The tax is applicable to model types of 1980 and later model year automobiles that have a fuel economy level below the applicable tax-free fuel economy level. Paragraph (b) of this section defines the following terms: sale, manufacturer, automobile, model year, model type, fuel economy, and fuel. Paragraph (c) of this section contains rules relating to the determination of fuel economy. Paragraph (d) of this section contains a special rule for certain small manufacturers. Paragraph (e) of this section contains rules relating to the tax-free sales of emergency vehicles.

(2) Tables. (i) In the case of a 1980 model year automobile:

If the fuel economy of the model type in which the automobile falls is:

   The tax is—
Miles per gallon:
At least 150
At least 14 but less than 15$200
At least 13 but less than 14300
Less than 13550

(ii) In the case of a 1981 model year automobile:

If the fuel economy of the model type in which the automobile falls is:

   The tax is—
Miles per gallon:
At least 170
At least 16 but less than 17$200
At least 15 but less than 16350
At least 14 but less than 15450
At least 13 but less than 14550
Less than 13650

(iii) In the case of a 1982 model year automobile:

If the fuel economy of the model type in which the automobile falls is:

   The tax is—
Miles per gallon:
At least 18.50
At least 17.5 but less than 18.5$200
At least 16.5 but less than 17.5350
At least 15.5 but less than 16.5450
At least 14.5 but less than 15.5600
At least 13.5 but less than 14.5750
At least 12.5 but less than 13.5950
Less than 12.51,200

(iv) In the case of a 1983 model year automobile:

If the fuel economy of the model type in which the automobile falls is:

   The tax is—
Miles per gallon:
At least 190
At least 18 but less than 19$350
At least 17 but less than 18500
At least 16 but less than 17650
At least 15 but less than 16800
At least 14 but less than 151,000
At least 13 but less than 141,250
Less than 131,550

(v) In the case of a 1984 model year automobile:

If the fuel economy of the model type in which the automobile falls is:

   The tax is—
Miles per gallon:
At least 19.50
At least 18.5 but less than 19.5$450
At least 17.5 but less than 18.5600
At least 16.5 but less than 17.5750
At least 15.5 but less than 16.5950
At least 14.5 but less than 15.51,150
At least 13.5 but less than 14.51,450
At least 12.5 but less than 13.51,750
Less than 12.5.2,150

(vi) In the case of a 1985 model year automobile:

If the fuel economy of the model type in which the automobile falls is:

   The tax is—
Miles per gallon:
At least 210
At least 20 but less than 21$500
At least 19 but less than 20600
At least 18 but less than 19800
At least 17 but less than 181,000
At least 16 but less than 171,200
At least 15 but less than 161,500
At least 14 but less than 151,800
At least 13 but less than 142,200
Less than 132,650

(vii) In the case of a 1986 or later model year automobile:

If the fuel economy of the model type in which the automobile falls is:

   The tax is—
Miles per gallon:
At least 22.50
At least 21.5 but less than 22.5$500
At least 20.5 but less than 21.5650
At least 19.5 but less than 20.5850
At least 18.5 but less than 19.51,050
At least 17.5 but less than 18.51,300
At least 16.5 but less than 17.51,500
At least 15.5 but less than 16.51,850
At least 14.5 but less than 15.52,250
At least 13.5 but less than 14.52,700
At least 12.5 but less than 13.53,200
Less than 12.53,850

(3) Liability for tax. The tax imposed by section 4064 is payable by the manufacturer making the sale. An automobile sold before the time a determination of fuel economy is made for the model type (as defined in paragraph (b)(6) of this section) is subject to tax if it is subsequently determined that the fuel economy level of that model type of automobile is within the taxable range (see paragraph (a)(1) of this section).

(b) Definitions—(1) Sale. Sale includes the use (within the meaning of section 4218) or the first lease (within the meaning of section 4217(e)) of an automobile by the manufacturer.

(2) Manufacturer. The term “manufacturer” has the same meaning assigned to such term under §48.0-2(a)(4). The term “manufacturer” includes a producer or importer. An importer is a person who imports an automobile whether or not in connection with a trade or business.

(3) Automobile. The term “automobile” means any four-wheeled vehicle—

(i) Propelled by an engine powered by fuel;

(ii) Manufactured primarily for use on public streets, roads, and highways (except any vehicle operated exclusively on a rail or rails);

(iii) Rated at 6,000 pounds gross vehicle weight or less; and

(iv) Requiring no further manufacturing operations to perform its intended function, other than the addition of readily attachable components, such as mirrors or tire and rim assemblies, or minor finishing operations, such as painting. For this purpose, gross vehicle weight means the value specified by the manufacturer as the maximum design loaded weight of a single vehicle. An automobile does not include a nonpassenger automobile as defined in regulations in effect on November 9, 1978 (49 CFR 523.5 (1978)), which were prescribed by the Secretary of Transportation for section 501 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act (15 U.S.C. 2001). In addition, an automobile does not include the following: any vehicle sold for use and used primarily as an ambulance or combination ambulance-hearse; any vehicle sold for use and used by the United States or by a State or local government primarily for police or other law enforcement purposes; or any vehicle sold for use and used primarily for firefighting purposes.

(4) Model year. The term “model year” means the manufacturer's annual production period (as determined by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency) which includes January 1 of any particular calendar year. If the manufacturer has no annual production year, the model year is the calendar year.

(5) Model type. The term “model type” means a particular class of automobile, as determined by regulations in effect on November 9, 1978 (40 CFR 600.002-79(a)(19) (1978)), which were prescribed by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency.

(6) Fuel economy. The term “fuel economy” means the average number of miles traveled by an automobile per gallon of fuel consumed, rounded to the nearest .1 mile per gallon. The fuel economy for any model type is determined by the Environmental Protection Agency (as determined in accordance with the procedures provided in paragraph (c) of this section). For this purpose, the fuel economy is a combined (urban-highway weighted average) mileage figure estimated in connection with the determination (or redetermination) of general label value (fuel economy information displayed on a sticker that is affixed to new automobiles) mandated under section 506 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act (15 U.S.C. 2006) and regulations thereunder (40 CFR Part 600).

(7) Fuel. The term “fuel” means gasoline and diesel fuel.

(c) Determination of fuel economy. For purposes of this section, the fuel economy for any model type is determined (or redetermined) in accordance with the testing and calculation procedures utilized by the Environmental Protection Agency Administrator for model year 1975 (weighted 55 percent urban cycle and 45 percent highway cycle), or any other procedures (yielding comparable results) established by the Administrator. The Environmental Protection Agency's determination (or redetermination) of a model type's fuel economy is made at the time the general label fuel economy value is calculated (or recalculated). This determination (or redetermination) is conclusive for purposes of this section. A redetermination of a model type's fuel economy value shall be effective only with respect to those automobiles for which the manufacturer is required (or is permitted and chooses) under Environmental Protection Agency regulations to affix labels with the recalculated general label fuel economy value.

(d) Special rule for small manufacturers—(1) In general. A small manufacturer (as defined in subparagraph (2)(i) of this paragraph) may apply for a determination that it is not feasible for that manufacturer to meet the statutory tax-free fuel economy level for the model year, with respect to all automobiles produced by that manufacturer, or with respect to a particular model type. For this purpose, the Commissioner (or his delegate) will make a determination of maximum feasible fuel economy level with respect to the automobiles that are the subject of the determination, but only after consultation with the Secretary of Energy, the Secretary of Transportation, and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (or their delegates) to obtain their views. A finding that it is not feasible for the manufacturer to meet the statutory tax-free fuel economy level will be made by the Internal Revenue Service if the maximum feasible fuel economy level (as defined in subparagraph (3)(i) of this paragraph) of the automobiles that are the subject of the determination is lower than the statutory tax-free fuel economy level for those automobiles. If it is determined that it is not feasible for a small manufacturer to meet the statutory tax-free fuel economy level, the Secretary (or his delegate) has the discretion to grant to the manufacturer the alternate rate schedule prescribed in paragraph (d)(3)(iii) of this section in lieu of the applicable statutory tax table prescribed in section 4064(a). The decision whether to grant the alternate rate schedule shall be based on the consideration set forth in paragraph (d)(3)(ii) of this section. If a small manufacturer for which an alternate rate schedule under this paragraph (d) is applicable sells an automobile to an importer, the alternate rate schedule applies to the sale by the importer of such automobile if such automobile is of the model year and type to which such alternate schedule applies.

(2) Definitions—(i) Small manufacturer. A small manufacturer is any manufacturer who produced (whether or not in the United States) fewer than 10,000 automobiles in the second model year preceding the affected model year (the model year for which the determination under this paragraph is being made), and who can reasonably be expected to produce (whether or not in the United States) fewer than 10,000 automobiles in the affected model year.

(ii) Manufacturer. For purposes of this paragraph, the term “manufacturer” does not include a person who is only an importer, but does include a producer of automobiles outside the United States who is also an importer.

(iii) Members of a controlled group. For purposes of this paragraph, persons who are members of a controlled group of corporations (as defined in section 1563(a) of the Internal Revenue Code, except that “more than 50 percent” is substituted for “at least 80 percent” each place it appears in section 1563(a)) are treated as one manufacturer.

(3) Basis for determination—(i) Maximum feasible fuel economy level. For purposes of this paragraph, the maximum feasible fuel economy level is determined by taking into account the same factors used in determining the maximum feasible fuel economy level under section 502(e) of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act (as amended) and the regulations thereunder in effect on November 9, 1978. (Those regulations for small manufacturers are prescribed in 49 CFR Part 525 (1978).) In making this determination, the Commissioner (or his delegate) will consult with the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration of the Department of Transportation.

(ii) Decision to grant alternate rate schedule. In deciding whether to grant an alternate rate schedule, the Secretary (or his delegate) will consider whether the use (in the United States) of the automobile serves an important public policy (e.g., providing public transportation or transportation for the handicapped) that overrides the United States' need to conserve energy. The manufacturer has the burden of demonstrating that the public policy consideration involved overrides the United States' need to conserve energy. The Commissioner (or his delegate), after consultation with the Secretary of Energy, the Secretary of Transportation, and the Administratior of the Environmental Protection Agency (or their delegates), will review the information submitted by the manufacturer and report findings and recommendations to the Secretary (or his delegate).

(iii) Alternate rate schedule and tax. If an alternate rate schedule is granted, the maximum feasible fuel economy level shall be deemed to be the statutory tax-free fuel economy level. Accordingly, a tax is imposed only on automobiles sold that fail to meet the deemed tax-free fuel economy level. The alternate rate schedule shall be determined by substituting the maximum feasible fuel economy level for the tax-free fuel economy level in the applicable statutory tax table set forth in section 4064(a), and by substituting for the miles per gallon amount prescribed in that applicable table an amount that is the tax-free level decreased by one mile per gallon increments, while keeping the same corresponding tax amount prescribed in the applicable table. The rule for determining an alternate rate schedule may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. Manufacturer X, a small manufacturer of automobiles specifically designed to accommodate disabled passengers, applied for a determination that it is not feasible for X to meet the statutory tax-free fuel economy level for a particular model type of X's 1982 model year automobiles. It was determined that the maximum feasible fuel economy level for that model type was 15 miles per gallon. The Secretary decided to grant X an alternate rate schedule. The alternate rate schedule for the model type would be as follows:

If the fuel economy of the automobile is:

   The tax is—
Miles per gallon:
At least 150
At least 14 but less than 15$200
At least 13 but less than 14350
At least 12 but less than 13450
At least 11 but less than 12600
At least 10 but less than 11750
At least 9 but less than 10950
Less than 91,200

Thus, if X's 1982 automobiles of that model year and type attain only 12 miles per gallon (because X fails to modify them to reach the maximum feasible fuel economy level before they are sold), the tax imposed upon the sale of each automobile is $450 (instead of the $1,200 tax (see the applicable statutory tax table set forth in section 4064(a)(3)), which would have been imposed had no alternate rate schedule been prescribed).

(4) Duration of determination. A determination under this paragraph does not apply to more than three model years.

(5) Requirements for application. Each application for a determination under this section must—

(i) Identify the model year or years, and particular model type or types for which a determination is requested;

(ii) (A) In the case of an application for model year 1980, be submitted not later than May 8, 1980;

(B) In case of an application for model year 1981, be submitted not later than 9 months before the beginning of that model year or March 10, 1980, whichever is later;

(C) In the case of an application for model year 1982 or any subsequent model year, be submitted not later than 9 months before that model year;

(iii) Be submitted in three copies to: Commissioner of Internal Revenue, Attention: Associate Chief Counsel (Technical), 1111 Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20224;

(iv) Be written in the English language;

(v) Set forth the full name, address, and title of the official responsible for preparing the application;

(vi) State whether the applicant is a member of a controlled group of corporations (as defined in paragraph (d) (2) (iii) of this section);

(vii) State the total number of automobiles manufactured (whether or not in the United States) by the applicant (or the controlled group of corporations in the case where the applicant is a member of the group) in the second model year immediately preceding each affected model year and the total number of automobiles likely to be manufactured in the affected model year;

(viii) Set forth the same information required by an application pursuant to section 502 (c) of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act (as amended) and the regulations thereunder (see 49 CFR part 525 (1978)) and state whether or not the applicant under this paragraph has also made an application pursuant to such Act; and

(ix) Set forth the reasons why an alternate rate schedule should be granted under paragraph (d) (3) (ii) of this section.

(6) Update of application. A manufacturer making an application under this section must update the application when a material change of circumstances occurs or material information not available at the time of applying becomes available. The manufacturer must also furnish any further information that may be required by the Internal Revenue Service.

(7) Processing of applications. If a manufacturer's application is found not to contain the information required by this paragraph, the applicant will be informed of the areas of insufficiency. The application will not receive further consideration until the required information is submitted. Each applicant will be informed in writing whether an application has been granted or denied.

(e) Tax-free sales of emergency vehicles—(1) In general. The tax imposed by section 4064 (a) shall not apply to vehicles sold by a manufacturer for use and used (i) primarily as an ambulance or combination ambulance-hearse, (ii) by the United States or by a State or local government primarily for police or other law enforcement purposes, or (iii) primarily for fire-fighting purposes. A vehicle may be sold tax-free by the manufacturer under this paragraph only in those cases where the sale is made directly to a purchaser for an emergency use prescribed in this subparagraph. In order to effect a tax-free sale, the requirements of section 4222 and the regulations thereunder must be met.

(2) Credit or refund. Where tax is paid on the sale of a vehicle, but the vehicle is used or resold for an emergency use prescribed in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, a claim for refund of the tax paid on such sale may be filed by the manufacturer on Form 8849 (or on such other form as the Commissioner may designate), or a credit may be taken on a subsequent return, in accordance with the provisions of sections 6402 (a) and 6416 (a) and §48.6416 (a)-1.

[T.D. 8036, 50 FR 29960, July 23, 1985, as amended by T.D. 8659, 61 FR 10453, Mar. 14, 1996]

Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber

§48.4071-1   Imposition and rates of tax.

(a) Imposition of tax—(1) Imposition of tax before January 1, 1984. Section 4071 imposes a tax at the rates set forth in paragraph (b)(1) of this section on tires made wholly or in part of rubber, inner tubes (for tires) made wholly or in part of rubber and tread rubber which are sold by the manufacturer thereof before January 1, 1984.

(2) Imposition of tax after December 31, 1983. Section 4071 imposes a tax at the rates set forth in paragraph (b)(2) of this section on tires of the type used on highway vehicles and made wholly or in part of rubber which are sold by the manufacturer thereof after December 31, 1983.

(3) Definitions. For definitions of the terms “tires,” “inner tubes,” “tread rubber,” “rubber” and “manufacturer,” see §48.4072-1 of the regulations.

(b) Rates and computation of tax—(1) Rates of tax before January 1, 1984—(i) Tires:

(A) Of the type used on highway vehicles:

(1) For the period July 1, 1965 to December 31, 1980, inclusive—10 cents per pound.

(2) For the period January 1, 1981 to December 31, 1983, inclusive—9.75 cents per pound.

(B) Of the type used on other than highway vehicles:

(1) For the period July 1, 1965, to December 31, 1980, inclusive—5 cents per pound.

(2) For the period January 1, 1981 to December 31, 1983, inclusive—4.875 cents per pound.

(C) Laminated tires for the period July 1, 1965 to December 31, 1983, inclusive—1 cent per pound.

(ii) Inner tubes:

For the period July 1, 1965 to December 31, 1983, inclusive—10 cents per pound.

(iii) Tread Rubber:

For the period July 1, 1965 to December 31, 1983, inclusive—5 cents per pound.

(2) Rates of tax on or after January 1, 1984. Tires of the type used on highway vehicles:

(i) Tires weighing not more than 40 pounds—0 cents.

(ii) Tires weighing more than 40 pounds but not more than 70 pounds—15 cents for each pound in excess of 40 pounds.

(iii) Tires weighing more than 70 pounds but not more than 90 pounds—$4.50 plus 30 cents for each pound in excess of 70 pounds.

(iv) Tires weighing more than 90 pounds—$10.50 plus 50 cents for each pound in excess of 90 pounds.

(3) Computation of tax. The tax on tires, inner tubes, and tread rubber is computed by applying to the total weight (including a fractional part of a pound) of the article the rate in effect at the time the article is sold. See §48.4071-2, relating to determination of weight.

(c) Liability for tax. The tax imposed by section 4071 is payable by the manufacturer when the manufacturer makes a sale of a taxable article, or as provided in section 4071 (b) and §48.4071-3 for a manufacturer who sells at retail, when the manufacturer delivers a taxable article to a retail store, or to a retail outlet, of the manufacturer.

(d) Recapped or retreaded tires. The recapping or retreading of a tire, whether from shoulder-to-shoulder or bead-to-bead, does not constitute manufacture of a taxable tire. The tax on tires imposed by section 4071 does not apply to the sale of a recapped or retreaded tire, except that a used tire or carcass not previously sold in the United States that is recapped or retreaded from shoulder-to-shoulder or bead-to-bead in a foreign country and imported into the United States is subject to the tax imposed by section 4071 when such tire is sold or used by the importer. This paragraph (d) is effective for recapped and retreaded tires sold on or after January 1, 1984.

(Secs. 4071(b), 4071(c), 4073(c), and 7805, Internal Revenue Code of 1954. (80 Stat. 331, 26 U.S.C. 4071(b); 68A Stat. 482, 26 U.S.C. 4071(c); 70 Stat. 389, 26 U.S.C. 4073(c); 68A Stat. 917, 26 U.S.C. 7805))

[T.D. 7809, 47 FR 6005, Feb. 10, 1982, as amended by T.D. 8057, 50 FR 41491, Oct. 11, 1985; T.D. 8152, 52 FR 31618, Aug. 21, 1987]

§48.4071-2   Determination of weight.

(a) In general—(1) Tires. (i) Metal rims or rim bases are not to be included in determining the total weight of a tire. However, the wire, staples, darts, clips, and other material or fastening devices which form a part of the tire or are required for its use must be included in determining the total weight of the tire. Studs are considered to be part of a tire and are to be included when determining the weight of a tire. In the case of a tubeless tire, the total weight includes the weight of the air valve and stem or any other mechanism that functions as a part of the tire and is used in connection with inflating the tire or maintaining its air pressure.

(ii) When tires are sold with metal rims or rim bases attached, the manufacturer must maintain records that will establish what portion of the total weight of the finished product represents the tire exclusive of the metal rim or rim base.

(2) Inner tubes. The total weight of an inner tube includes the weight of the air valve and stem or any other mechanism attached to the inner tube that is used in connection with inflating the tube or maintaining its air pressure.

(b) Alternative method of determining weight of tires after December 31, 1983. A manufacturer who has received permission from the Commissioner may, subject to such conditions as the Commissioner may prescribe, determine total weight of tires manufactured and sold by the manufacturer on the basis of the average weight for each type, size, grade, and classification. The average weights must be established in accordance with the method approved by the Commissioner and apply for such periods as the Commissioner may prescribe. The Commissioner may terminate the approval granted any manufacturer. In the case of the termination of the approval granted any manufacturer, the termination becomes effective 10 days from the date of the receipt by the manufacturer of the notice of termination. A manufacturer may effect termination, as of a specified date, of the privilege to determine total weight in accordance with provisions of this paragraph by giving no less than 10 days written notice of such intention to the Commissioner. The termination of the approval given a manufacturer does not affect a manufacturer's tax liability for tires sold prior to the effective date of the notice of termination.

(Secs. 4071(b), 4071(c), 4073(c), and 7805, Internal Revenue Code of 1954. (80 Stat. 331, 26 U.S.C. 4071(b); 68A Stat. 482, 26 U.S.C. 4071(c); 70 Stat. 389, 26 U.S.C. 4073(c); 68A Stat. 917, 26 U.S.C. 7805))

[T.D. 7809, 47 FR 6005, Feb. 10, 1982, as amended by T.D. 8152, 52 FR 31618, Aug. 21, 1987]

§48.4071-3   Imposition of tax on tires and tubes delivered to manufacturer's retail outlet.

(a) General rule. If, on or after October 1, 1966, a tire or inner tube is delivered by the manufacturer thereof to a retail outlet of the manufacturer, the manufacturer is liable for tax in respect of the tire or tube at the rate set forth in section 4071 in the same manner as if the tire or tube had been sold at the time it was delivered to the retail outlet. The amount of tax payable shall be computed in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (b)(2) of §48.4071-1, and of §48.4071-2.

(b) Definition of retail outlet. For purposes of this section, the term “retail outlet” includes the term “retail store.” A retail outlet is a facility maintained by a manufacturer for selling tires or tubes at retail. A facility may be a retail outlet even though some sales are made at wholesale at such facility; see paragraph (d)(1) of this section. A facility may also be considered to a retail outlet for the purposes of this section notwithstanding that its main activity is in another area than selling tires or inner tubes. For example, if a manufacturer operates a facility for both automotive repair and the selling of tires at retail, the facility is considered a retail outlet for the purposes of this section even if the primary activity of the facility is automotive repair. No facility is considered a retail outlet for the purposes of this section if it is determined that less than 15 percent of the taxable tires and inner tubes removed from such facility are sold at retail by such facility. The determination described in the preceding sentence is made on the basis of the experience of a representative period, of at least 12 consecutive calendar months during the 2-year period immediately preceding the first day included in the return period for which tax under section 4071(b) is reported. If a facility has not been in existence during such a 12-month period, the determination is made on the basis of the available experience of the manufacturer. See also paragraph (c)(3) of this section, relating to imposition of tax where a retail outlet is maintained as an adjunct to a production facility or distribution center.

(c) Delivery—(1) In general. A manufacturer of tires or inner tubes may, at its option, treat either of the following events as constituting delivery to a retail outlet:

(i) Delivery of tires or inner tubes to a common carrier (or, where the tires or tubes are transported by the manufacturer, the placing of the tires or tubes into the manufacturer's over-the-road vehicle) for shipment from the plant in which the tires or tubes are manufactured, or from a regional distribution center of tires and inner tubes, to a retail outlet or to a location in the immediate vicinity of a retail outlet primarily for future delivery to the retail outlet.

(ii) Arrival of the tires or tubes at the retail outlet, or, where shipment is to a location in the immediate vicinity of a retail outlet primarily for future delivery to the retail outlet, the arrival of the tires or tubes at such location.

In its excise tax return for the first return period beginning after September 30, 1966, a manufacturer of tires or inner tubes must elect to determine the date of delivery to retail outlets in accordance with one of the two subdivisions of this paragraph (c)(1) and must determine the dates of all deliveries made to all retail outlets in accordance with the subdivision which the manufacturer has elected to apply. The election may be made in a statement attached to the return for such period. Having elected to treat one of the events listed in subdivision (i) or (ii) of this paragraph (c)(1) as constituting delivery to a retail outlet for purposes of its return for the first return period after September 30, 1966, the manufacturer may not use a different criterion for a subsequent return period unless permission of the district director is obtained in advance.

(2)  Deliveries made in the immediate vicinity of a retail outlet primarily for future delivery to the retail outlet. (i) For purposes of this section, any delivery which is made in the immediate vicinity of a retail outlet primarily for future delivery to the retail outlet is deemed to be a delivery to the retail outlet. For the purpose of the preceding sentence, a location is considered to be in the immediate vicinity of a retail outlet if the distance between the location and the retail outlet is sufficiently small so that it is feasible to transport tires and inner tubes between the location and the retail outlet by means of dollies, fork lift trucks, pushcarts, and similar vehicles of the type normally used around the premises of factories and similar establishments, as opposed to highway motor vehicles. For the purpose of the preceding sentence, it is immaterial that a public thoroughfare must be used in order to transport tires or inner tubes to a retail outlet from another location. Tires and inner tubes delivered to a location in the immediate vicinity of a retail outlet are considered to be delivered to the location “primarily for future delivery” to the retail outlet if it is determined that a majority (by number) of the tires and tubes removed from the location are delivered to the retail outlet. The determination described in the preceding sentence is made on the basis of the experience of a representative period of at least 12 consecutive calendar months during the 2-year period immediately preceding the first day included in the return period for which tax under section 4071(b) is reported. If a facility has not been in existence during such a 12-month period, the determination is made on the basis of the available experience of the manufacturer. If it is determined that the majority of all tires and inner tubes removed from a given location are delivered to a retail outlet of the manufacturer in the immediate vicinity of the location, tax is imposed upon all tires and tubes delivered by the manufacturer to the location, even though all or part of the tires or tubes comprising a particular shipment to the location may be intended for further transportation to a location other than the retail outlet. If it is determined that a majority of all tires and inner tubes removed from a given location are not delivered to a retail outlet of the manufacturer in the immediate vicinity of the location, tax is imposed upon the removal of a tire or inner tube from the location to the premises of the retail outlet. See also paragraph (d)(2) of this section, relating to sales by the manufacturer at facilities other than retail outlets.

(ii) The provisions of this paragraph (c)(2) may be illustrated by the following examples.

Example. A manufacturer of tires and tubes whose plant is located in City X operates two facilities in City Y; Warehouse A and Store Q. Store Q is a retail outlet within the meaning of paragraph (b) of this section, and Warehouse A is in the immediate vicinity of Store Q. During the 12-month period ending September 30, 1966, 60 percent of the tires and inner tubes removed from Warehouse A were delivered to Store Q. All tires or inner tubes delivered by the manufacturer to Warehouse A are subject to a tax under section 4071(b) and this section (unless, before such delivery, tax was imposed on the same tires and tubes).

(3) Retail outlet maintained as adjunct of production or distribution facility. If a retail outlet is maintained as an adjunct to and in the immediate vicinity of a facility which is not a retail outlet (as, for example, a production plant or a regional distribution center), delivery to the retail outlet is deemed to occur at the earlier of:

(i) The date when a tire or inner tube is removed from the general storage facilities in the facility which is not a retail outlet for transfer to the premises of the retail outlet, or

(ii) The date when a tire or inner tube is designated to be sold by or at the retail outlet.

(d) Special rules—(1) Retail outlets which also sell at wholesale. Tax applies to all shipments of tires and inner tubes delivered to a retail outlet as defined in paragraph (b)(2) of this section. Thus, for the purposes of section 4071(b) and this section, it is immaterial that all or part of the tires or inner tubes of a particular delivery to a retail outlet are intended for sale at wholesale. See also paragraph (d)(3) of this section.

(2) Sales by manufacturer at facilities other than retail outlets. Sales by the manufacturer of tires and inner tubes at facilities other than retail outlets are subject to tax under section 4071(a).

(3) Deliveries of tires or tubes on which tax has been previously imposed. (i) Tax is not imposed under section 4071(b) and this section on any tire or inner tube in respect of which there was previously imposed a tax under section 4071(a). Similarly, a tire or inner tube is taxed only once under section 4071(b) and this section.

(ii) The provisions of this paragraph (d)(3) may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. A manufacturer has two selling facilities, Store No. 1 and Store No. 2. Only retail sales are made at Store No. 2, which obtains its merchandise from Store No. 1. Assume that, although wholesaling and distribution activities are conducted at Store No. 1, the sale of tires and tubes at retail is conducted at Store No. 1 to the extent that Store No. 1 is a retail outlet within the meaning of paragraph (b) of this section, with the result that tax is imposed on deliveries by the manufacturer of tires and tubes to Store No. 1. Tax is not imposed on a delivery of tires or inner tubes from Store No. 1 to Store No. 2.

(Secs. 4071(b), 4071(c), 4073(c), and 7805, Internal Revenue Code of 1954. (80 Stat. 331, 26 U.S.C. 4071(b); 68A Stat. 482, 26 U.S.C. 4071(c); 70 Stat. 389, 26 U.S.C. 4073(c); 68A Stat. 917, 26 U.S.C. 7805))

[T.D. 7809, 47 FR 6005, Feb. 10, 1982]

§48.4071-4   Original equipment tires on imported articles.

The tax imposed by section 4071(a) applies with respect to tires and inner tubes (other than bicycle tires and inner tubes) that are original equipment for an imported article upon which no tax is imposed under section 4061 if the article is sold on or after December 11, 1971. In such a case, the importer of the article is treated as the manufacturer and vendor of the tires and inner tubes with which the article is equipped. However, the tax imposed by section 4071(a) is not imposed with respect to tires and inner tubes if the imported article is an automobile bus chassis or an automobile bus body. Solely for purposes of this section, the provisions of section 4218 (relating to use by a manufacturer or importer considered a sale) do not apply in cases where an individual imports an article having original equipment tires and tubes and on which article no tax is imposed under section 4061 if the article is imported solely for the individual's personal use and is so used.

(Secs. 4071(b), 4071(c), 4073(c), and 7805, Internal Revenue Code of 1954. (80 Stat. 331, 26 U.S.C. 4071(b); 68A Stat. 482, 26 U.S.C. 4071(c); 70 Stat. 389, 26 U.S.C. 4073(c); 68A Stat. 917, 26 U.S.C. 7805))

[T.D. 7809, 47 FR 6006, Feb. 10, 1982]

§48.4072-1   Definitions.

For purposes of the regulations in this part, unless otherwise expressly indicated:

(a) Rubber. The term “rubber” includes synthetic and substitute rubber.

(b) Tread rubber. The term “tread rubber” means any material (1) which is commonly or commercially known as tread rubber or camelback, or (2) which is a substitute for any material commonly or commercially known as tread rubber or camelback and is of a type used in recapping or retreading tires. The term includes, for example, strips of material, wholly or partially of rubber, natural or synthetic, intended to be vulcanized or otherwise affixed to a tire casing to form the outside perimeter of the tire, smooth or treaded. It also includes treading material produced by reprocessing scrap, salvage, or junk rubber and a continuous rubber ribbon produced through an extrusion process for direct application in recapping or retreading a tire casing. The term does not include rubber in various forms such as strip, slab, pellet, etc. which is used as raw material for the extrusion process. Tread rubber loses its identity as such when it has been used in the recapping or retreading of a tire of a type used on a highway vehicle (without regard to the actual use ultimately made of the tire) or has deteriorated in quality to the point where it is no longer suitable for use in recapping or retreading of a tire. (In the case of such deterioration, see section 6416(b)(2) and §48.6416(b)-2 to secure a refund or credit of the tax paid.)

(c) Tires of the type used on highway vehicles. (1) The term “tires of the type used on highway vehicles”, for purposes of §§48.4071-1 through 48.4073-3 means tires of the type used on:

(i) Motor vehicles that are highway vehicles (within the meaning of §48.4061(a)-1(d)), or

(ii) Vehicles of the type used in connection with motor vehicles that are highway vehicles (within the meaning of §48.4061(a)-1(d)).

The term “tires of the type used on highway vehicles” does not include bicycle tires. Bicycle tires, however, are included in the term “other tires” as used in section 4071(a)(2).

(2) For purposes of paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section, tires of the type used on motor vehicles that are highway vehicles include tires used on motor trucks, buses, passenger automobiles, motor homes, highway tractors, trolley buses or coaches, and motorcycles.

(3) For purposes of paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section, tires of the type used on vehicles of the type used in connection with motor vehicles that are highway vehicles include tires used on truck or bus trailers, truck semitrailers, mobile homes, housetrailers, or utility trailers.

(d) Inner tubes. The term “inner tubes” includes air containers of all types made wholly or in part of rubber and designed and manufactured for use in pneumatic tires.

(e) Tires. The term “tires” includes rubber casings, hoops, and strips or bands of all kinds designed and shaped or built to form the tread of or to fit a vehicle wheel. Tires of either the pneumatic or solid type which fit or form the tread for wheels of any article which is capable of use as a means of transporting a person or burden are taxable as tires. Examples of articles which may be equipped with taxable tires are motor scooters, minibikes, industrial trucks, farm tractors, wheelbarrows, and similar articles. See section 4073(a) and §48.4073-1 with respect to the exemption of tires of certain sizes, and section 4073(b) and §48.4073-2 with respect to the exemption for tires with internal wire fastening.

(f) Laminated tires. For purposes of the tax imposed by section 4071, the term “laminated tires” means tires (1) which are not “tires of the type used on highway vehicles” within the meaning of paragraph (c) of this section, and (2) which consist wholly of scrap rubber from used tire casings with an internal metal fastening agent.

(g) Manufacturer. The term “manufacturer” means manufacturer, producer, or importer. A person who converts, by any process, a new tire taxable under section 4071 at one rate of tax into a tire taxable under section 4071 at a different rate (as for example, an off highway-type tire converted into a highway-type tire) is considered to be a manufacturer of the converted tire. If a conversion results in a reduced rate of tax for the converted tire, see section 6416(b)(2) and §48.6416(b)-2 to secure a credit or refund of part of the tax paid. The term “manufactured” includes “produced” and “imported”.

(h) Cross references. For other definitions, see §48.0-2.

(Secs. 4071(b), 4071(c), 4073(c), and 7805, Internal Revenue Code of 1954. (80 Stat. 331, 26 U.S.C. 4071(b); 68A Stat. 482, 26 U.S.C. 4071(c); 70 Stat. 389, 26 U.S.C. 4073(c); 68A Stat. 917, 26 U.S.C. 7805))

[T.D. 7809, 47 FR 6007, Feb. 10, 1982]

§48.4073   [Reserved]

§48.4073-1   Exemption of tires of certain sizes.

The tax does not apply to sales of tires of all-rubber construction (whether hollow center or solid) if they have no fabric or metal reinforcement and do not exceed either of these measurements: (a) 20 inches in diameter measured to the outside circumferences, and (b) 134 inches in cross-section. The exemption provided by section 4073(a) is to be determined solely on the measurements of the tire and not on the purpose for which it is designed or used.

(Secs. 4071(b), 4071(c), 4073(c), and 7805, Internal Revenue Code of 1954. (80 Stat. 331, 26 U.S.C. 4071(b); 68A Stat. 482, 26 U.S.C. 4071(c); 70 Stat. 389, 26 U.S.C. 4073(c); 68A Stat. 917, 26 U.S.C. 7805))

[T.D. 7809, 47 FR 6007, Feb. 10, 1982]

§48.4073-2   Exemption of tires with internal wire fastening.

The tax does not apply to sales of tires of any size or dimension manufactured from extruded tiring that is fastened or held together by means of internal wire or other metallic material.

(Secs. 4071(b), 4071(c), 4073(c), and 7805, Internal Revenue Code of 1954. (80 Stat. 331, 26 U.S.C. 4071(b); 68A Stat. 482, 26 U.S.C. 4071(c); 70 Stat. 389, 26 U.S.C. 4073(c); 68A Stat. 917, 26 U.S.C. 7805))

[T.D. 7809, 47 FR 6007, Feb. 10, 1982]

§48.4073-3   Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping nonhighway tires.

(a) Sold direct by manufacturer for nontaxable use. The tax does not apply to the sale of tread rubber by the manufacturer to any person for use by that person otherwise than in the recapping or retreading of tires of the type used on highway vehicles. In determining whether tread rubber is sold for a taxable or nontaxable use, the type of vehicle on which the recapped or retreaded tire is to be used, or the actual or intended use of the recapped or retreaded tire, is immaterial. The controlling factor is whether the tire resulting from the recapping or retreading is of a type that is used otherwise than on a highway vehicle. For definition of “tires of the type used on highway vehicles”, see paragraph (c) of §48.4072-1.

(b) Sales for resale for nontaxable use. No sale of tread rubber may be made tax free for resale even though it is known at the time of the sale that the tread rubber will be resold for use otherwise than in the recapping or retreading of tires of the type used on highway vehicles. However, where the tread rubber is resold for such use, the manufacturer who paid the tax on a sale of the tread rubber may secure a refund or credit in accordance with the provisions of section 6416(b)(2) and §48.6416(b)-2.

(c) Evidence required to establish exemption. (1) To establish the right to sell tread rubber tax free under section 4073(c), the manufacturer must obtain from the purchaser and retain in its possession a properly executed exemption certificate.

(2) Where only occasional sales of tread rubber for exempt use are made to a purchaser, a separate exemption certificate should be furnished for each order. However, where sales are regularly and frequently made to a purchaser for exempt use, a certificate covering all purchases during the period not to exceed 12 calendar quarters is acceptable. The certificates and proper records of invoices, orders, etc., relative to tax-free sales must be kept for inspection by the district director as provided in section 6001 and the regulations in subpart Q.

(d) Acceptable form of exemption certificate. The following form of exemption certificate is acceptable for the purposes of this section and must be adhered to in substance:

Exemption Certificate

(For use by persons who purchase tread rubber from the manufacturer, producer, or importer thereof for use otherwise than in recapping or retreading tires of the type used on highway vehicles (section 4073(c) of the Internal Revenue Code).)

(Date) ____________, 19__

I, the undersigned, certify that I am the purchaser, or the (Title) ___ of (Name of purchaser if other than the undersigned) _____ who is the purchaser of: __ The tread rubber specified in the accompanying order or contract, or __ All tread rubber specified in contracts or orders entered into or placed with (Name of seller) ___ for the period commencing ___ and ending ___ (period not to exceed 12 calendar quarters), and that such tread rubber will not be used in the recapping or retreading of tires of the type used on highway vehicles, but will be used for the following purposes:

 
 
 

The undersigned understands that if the tread rubber is used for the recapping or retreading of tires of the type used on highway vehicles, or is sold or otherwise disposed of, such fact must be promptly reported to the manufacturer. The undersigned also understands that the fraudulent use of this certificate for the purpose of securing this exemption will subject the undersigned or any other party making such fraudulent use to a fine of not more than $10,000, or to imprisonment for not more than 5 years, or both, together with costs of prosecution. The purchaser also understands that the purchaser must be prepared to establish by satisfactory evidence the purpose for which the tread rubber was used.

(Signature)
(Address)

(e) Exemption certificate not obtained prior to filing of manufacturer's excise tax return. If the sale is otherwise exempt but the exemption certificate is not obtained prior to the time the manufacturer files a return covering taxes due for the period during which the sale was made, the manufacturer must include the tax on the sale in its return for that period. However, if the certificate is later obtained, a claim for refund of the tax paid on the sale may be filed, or a credit for the amount may be taken upon a subsequent return, as provided by section 6416(b)(2) and §48.6416(b)-2.

(Secs. 4071(b), 4071(c), 4073(c), and 7805, Internal Revenue Code of 1954. (80 Stat. 331, 26 U.S.C. 4071(b); 68A Stat. 482, 26 U.S.C. 4071(c); 70 Stat. 389, 26 U.S.C. 4073(c); 68A Stat. 917, 26 U.S.C. 7805))

[T.D. 7809, 47 FR 6007, Feb. 10, 1982]

§48.4073-4   Other tax-free sales.

(a) Cross references. For provisions relating to tax-free sales of articles referred to in section 4071, see:

(1) Section 4221, relating to certain tax-free sales, and the regulations thereunder in subpart H;

(2) Section 4222, relating to registration, and the regulations thereunder in subpart H;

(3) Section 4223, relating to special rules pertaining to further manufacture, and the regulations thereunder in subpart H; and

(4) 28 FR 348, January 12, 1963, relating to the authorization of an exemption from the tax imposed by section 4071 by the Secretary of the Treasury under section 4293 for sales of certain tires and inner tubes sold to the American Red Cross on or after March 1, 1963.

(Secs. 4071(b), 4071(c), 4073(c), and 7805, Internal Revenue Code of 1954; 80 Stat. 331, 26 U.S.C. 4071(b); 68A Stat. 482, 26 U.S.C. 4071(c); 70 Stat. 389, 26 U.S.C. 4073(c); 68A Stat. 917, 26 U.S.C. 7805)

[T.D. 7809, 47 FR 6008, Feb. 10, 1982]

Taxable Fuel

Source: T.D. 8421, 57 FR 32424, July 22, 1992, unless otherwise noted.

§48.4081-1   Taxable fuel; definitions.

(a) Overview. This section provides definitions for purposes of the tax on taxable fuel imposed by section 4081.

(b) Definitions.

Approved terminal or refinery means a terminal or refinery that is operated, respectively, by a taxable fuel registrant that is a terminal operator, or by a taxable fuel registrant that is a refiner.

Aviation gasoline means all special grades of gasoline that are suitable for use in aviation reciprocating engines and covered by ASTM specification D 910 or military specification MIL-G-5572. For availability of ASTM and military specifications, see paragraph (d) of this section.

Blender means any person that produces blended taxable fuel.

Bulk transfer means any transfer of taxable fuel by pipeline or vessel.

Bulk transfer/terminal system means the taxable fuel distribution system consisting of refineries, pipelines, vessels, and terminals. Thus, taxable fuel in a refinery, pipeline, vessel, or terminal is in the bulk transfer/terminal system. Taxable fuel in the fuel supply tank of any engine, or in any tank car, rail car, trailer, truck, or other equipment suitable for ground transportation is not in the bulk transfer/terminal system.

Bus means automobile bus.

Diesel-powered bus means any bus that is propelled by a diesel-powered engine.

Diesel-powered highway vehicle means a highway vehicle, as defined in §48.4061(a)-1(d), that is propelled by a diesel-powered engine.

Diesel-powered train means any diesel-powered equipment or machinery that rides on rails. Thus, for example, the term includes a locomotive, work train, switching engine, and track maintenance machine.

Enterer generally means the importer of record (under customs law) with respect to the taxable fuel, except that—

(1) If the importer of record is a customs broker engaged by the owner of the taxable fuel, the person for whom the broker is acting is the enterer; and

(2) If there is no importer of record for taxable fuel entered into the United States, the owner of the taxable fuel at the time it is brought into the United States is the enterer.

Entry of taxable fuel into the United States occurs when—

(1) The taxable fuel is brought into the United States and applicable customs law requires that the taxable fuel be entered into the United States for consumption, use, or warehousing; or

(2) The taxable fuel is brought into the United States from Puerto Rico and applicable customs law would require that the taxable fuel be entered into the United States for consumption, use, or warehousing if the taxable fuel were brought into the United States from somewhere other than Puerto Rico.

Excluded liquid means any liquid that—

(1) Contains less than four percent normal paraffins; or

(2) Has a—

(i) Distillation range of 125 °F. or less;

(ii) Sulfur content of 10 ppm or less; and

(iii) Minimum color of + 27 Saybolt.

Finished gasoline means all products (including gasohol (as defined in §48.4081-6(b)(2))) that are commonly or commercially known or sold as gasoline and are suitable for use as a motor fuel, other than products that have an ASTM octane number of less than 75 as determined by the motor method.

Gasoline means finished gasoline and gasoline blendstocks.

Industrial user means any person that receives gasoline blendstocks by bulk transfer for its own use in the manufacture of any product other than finished gasoline.

Kerosene means any liquid that meets the specifications for kerosene or would meet those specifications but for the presence in the liquid of a dye of the type described in §48.4082-1(b). A liquid meets the specifications for kerosene if it is one of the two grades of kerosene (No. 1-K and No. 2-K) covered by ASTM specification D 3699, or kerosene-type jet fuel covered by ASTM specification D 1655 or military specification MIL-DTL-5624T (Grade JP-5) or MIL-DTL-83133E (Grade JP-8). For availability of ASTM and military specifications, see paragraph (d) of this section. However, the term does not include excluded liquid.

Position holder means, with respect to taxable fuel in a terminal, the person that holds the inventory position in the taxable fuel, as reflected on the records of the terminal operator. A person holds the inventory position in taxable fuel when that person has a contractual agreement with the terminal operator for the use of storage facilities and terminaling services at a terminal with respect to the taxable fuel. The term also includes a terminal operator that owns taxable fuel in its terminal.

Rack means a mechanism capable of delivering taxable fuel into a means of transport other than a pipeline or vessel.

Refiner means any person that owns, operates, or otherwise controls a refinery.

Refinery means a facility used to produce taxable fuel and from which taxable fuel may be removed by pipeline, by vessel, or at a rack. However, the term does not include a facility where only blended fuel or gasohol (as defined in §48.4081-6(b)(2)), and no other type of taxable fuel, is produced. For this purpose blended fuel is any mixture that, if produced outside the bulk transfer/terminal system, would be blended taxable fuel.

Removal means any physical transfer of taxable fuel, and any use of taxable fuel other than as a material in the production of taxable fuel or special fuels. However, taxable fuel is not removed when it evaporates or is otherwise lost or destroyed.

Sale means—

(1) The transfer of title to, or substantial incidents of ownership in, taxable fuel (other than taxable fuel in a terminal) to the buyer for a consideration, which may consist of money, services, or other property; or

(2) The transfer of the inventory position in the taxable fuel in a terminal if the transferee becomes the position holder with respect to the taxable fuel.

State includes any State, any political subdivision of a State, the District of Columbia, the American Red Cross, and, to the extent provided by section 7871, any Indian tribal government.

Taxable fuel means gasoline, diesel fuel, and kerosene.

Taxable fuel registrant means an enterer, industrial user, refiner, terminal operator, or throughputter that is registered as such under section 4101.

Terminal means a taxable fuel storage and distribution facility that is supplied by pipeline or vessel and from which taxable fuel may be removed at a rack. However, the term does not include any facility at which gasoline blendstocks are used in the manufacture of products other than finished gasoline and from which no gasoline is removed. Also, effective January 2, 1998, the term does not include any facility where finished gasoline, undyed diesel fuel, or undyed kerosene is stored if the facility is operated by a taxable fuel registrant and all such taxable fuel stored at the facility has been previously taxed under section 4081 upon removal from a refinery or terminal.

Terminal operator means any person that owns, operates, or otherwise controls a terminal.

Throughputter means any person that—

(1) Owns taxable fuel within the bulk transfer/terminal system (other than in a terminal); or

(2) Is a position holder.

Vessel means a waterborne taxable fuel transporting vessel.

(c) Blended taxable fuel, diesel fuel, and gasoline blendstocks; definitions—(1) Blended taxable fuel—(i) In general. Except as provided in paragraphs (c)(1)(ii) and (c)(1)(iii) of this section, blended taxable fuel means any taxable fuel that is produced outside the bulk transfer/terminal system by mixing—

(A) Taxable fuel with respect to which tax has been imposed under section 4041(a)(1) or 4081(a) (other than taxable fuel for which a credit or payment has been allowed); and

(B) Any other liquid on which tax has not been imposed under section 4081.

(ii) Exclusion; minor blending. A mixture described in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section is not blended taxable fuel if, during the calendar quarter in which the blender removes or sells the mixture, all such mixtures removed or sold by the blender contain, in the aggregate, less than 400 gallons of liquid described in paragraph (c)(1)(i)(B) of this section.

(iii) Exclusion; gasohol. Blended taxable fuel does not include any gasohol (as defined in §48.4081-6(b)(2)) if, disregarding the alcohol, the gasohol is not blended taxable fuel and contains, in addition to permitted amounts of liquids described in paragraph (c)(1)(i)(B) of this section, only gasoline with respect to which—

(A) Tax was imposed under section 4081(a) at a rate described in §48.4081-6(e) (relating to the gasohol production tax rate and the gasohol tax rate); or

(B) A valid claim is made under section 6427(f).

(2) Diesel fuel—(i) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section, diesel fuel means any liquid that, without further processing or blending, is suitable for use as a fuel in a diesel-powered highway vehicle or diesel-powered train. A liquid is suitable for this use if the liquid has practical and commercial fitness for use in the propulsion engine of a diesel-powered highway vehicle or diesel-powered train. A liquid may possess this practical and commercial fitness even though the specified use is not the liquid's predominant use. However, a liquid does not possess this practical and commercial fitness solely by reason of its possible or rare use as a fuel in the propulsion engine of a diesel-powered highway vehicle or diesel-powered train.

(ii) Exclusion. Diesel fuel does not include gasoline, kerosene, excluded liquid, No. 5 and No. 6 fuel oils covered by ASTM specification D 396, or F-76 (Fuel Naval Distillate) covered by military specification MIL-F-16884. For availability of ASTM and military specifications, see paragraph (d) of this section.

(3) Gasoline blendstocks—(i) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (c)(3)(ii) of this section, gasoline blendstocks means—

(A) Alkylate;

(B) Butane;

(C) Butene;

(D) Catalytically cracked gasoline;

(E) Coker gasoline;

(F) Ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE);

(G) Hexane;

(H) Hydrocrackate;

(I) Isomerate;

(J) Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE);

(K) Mixed xylene (not including any separated isomer of xylene);

(L) Natural gasoline;

(M) Pentane;

(N) Pentane mixture;

(O) Polymer gasoline;

(P) Raffinate;

(Q) Reformate;

(R) Straight-run gasoline;

(S) Straight-run naphtha;

(T) Tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME);

(U) Tertiary butyl alcohol (gasoline grade) (TBA);

(V) Thermally cracked gasoline;

(W) Toluene; and

(X) Transmix containing gasoline.

(ii) Exclusion. Gasoline blendstocks does not include any product that cannot, without further processing, be used in the production of finished gasoline. For example, a mixed hydrocarbon stream that is produced in a natural gas processing plant is not a gasoline blendstock if the stream cannot be used to produce finished gasoline without further processing.

(d) ASTM and military specifications. ASTM specifications may be obtained from the American Society for Testing and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428. Military specifications may be obtained from the Standardization Document Order Desk, Building 4, Section D, 700 Robbins Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19111.

(e) Other definitions. For other definitions relating to taxable fuel, see §§48.4081-6(b), 48.4082-5(b), 48.4082-6(b), 48.4082-7(b), 48.4101-1(b), 48.6427-9(b), 48.6427-10(b), and 48.6427-11(b).

(f) Effective date. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (f)(2) of this section, this section is applicable after December 31, 1993.

(2) In paragraph (b) of this section the definition of aviation gasoline and the third sentence in the definition of terminal are applicable after January 1, 1998, the definition of kerosene, excluded liquid, and taxable fuel are applicable after June 30, 1998, and the definition of enterer is applicable to entries of taxable fuel after September 27, 2004. Paragraph (c)(2) of this section is applicable after December 31, 1997.

[T.D. 8659, 61 FR 10453, Mar. 14, 1996, as amended by T.D. 8748, 63 FR 25, Jan. 2, 1998; T.D. 8879, 65 FR 17155, Mar. 31, 2000; T.D. 9051, 68 FR 15940, Apr. 2, 2003; T.D. 9145, 69 FR 45588, July 30, 2004; T.D. 9346, 72 FR 41223, July 27, 2007]

§48.4081-2   Taxable fuel; tax on removal at a terminal rack.

(a) Overview. This section provides the general rule that all removals of taxable fuel at a terminal rack are subject to tax and the position holder with respect to the fuel is liable for the tax.

(b) Imposition of tax. Tax is imposed on the removal of taxable fuel from a terminal if the taxable fuel is removed at the rack.

(c) Liability for tax—(1) In general. The position holder with respect to the taxable fuel is liable for the tax imposed under paragraph (b) of this section.

(2) Joint and several liability of terminal operator; unregistered position holder—(i) In general. The terminal operator is jointly and severally liable for the tax imposed under paragraph (b) of this section if—

(A) The position holder with respect to the taxable fuel is a person other than the terminal operator and is not a taxable fuel registrant; and

(B) The terminal operator has not met the conditions of paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section.

(ii) Conditions for avoidance of liability. A terminal operator is not liable for tax under this paragraph (c)(2) if, at the time of the removal, the terminal operator—

(A) Is a taxable fuel registrant;

(B) Has an unexpired notification certificate (as described in §48.4081-5) from the position holder; and

(C) Has no reason to believe that any information in the notification certificate is false.

(3) Joint and several liability of terminal operator; incorrect information provided. The terminal operator is jointly and severally liable for the tax imposed under paragraph (b) of this section if, in connection with the removal of diesel fuel or kerosene that is not dyed and marked in accordance with §48.4082-1, the terminal operator provides any person (including the position holder with respect to the fuel) with any bill of lading, shipping paper, record, or similar document indicating that the diesel fuel or kerosene is dyed and marked in accordance with §48.4082-1.

(4) Example. The following example illustrates this paragraph (c) and §48.4082-1:

Example. (i) TO is a terminal operator and PH is the position holder with respect to, and owner of, 8,000 gallons of diesel fuel stored in TO's terminal. TO and PH are taxable fuel registrants. When the fuel is removed from the terminal at the rack, the fuel is not dyed and marked in accordance with §48.4082-1, and TO does not provide any person with any paperwork indicating that the fuel is dyed and marked. After the removal from the terminal, PH sells the fuel to individuals for use as heating oil, a nontaxable use.

(ii) Because PH is the position holder of the fuel at the time of the removal from the terminal, PH is liable for the tax imposed by section 4081. The removal is subject to tax because the fuel is not dyed and marked in accordance with §48.4082-1, and later use of the fuel in a nontaxable use does not make the removal from the terminal exempt from tax.

(iii) Because PH is a taxable fuel registrant and TO did not provide any person with any paperwork indicating that the fuel is dyed and marked, TO is not jointly and severally liable for tax under paragraph (c) (2) or (3) of this section.

(d) Rate of tax. For the rate of tax generally, see section 4081(a). For the rate of tax on gasohol and on gasoline removed for gasohol production, see §48.4081-6.

(e) Exemptions. For exemptions from the tax imposed under this section, see §§48.4081-4 (relating to gasoline blendstocks), 48.4082-1 (relating to dyed diesel fuel and dyed kerosene), 48.4082-5 (relating to diesel fuel and kerosene used in Alaska), 48.4082-6 (relating to aviation-grade kerosene), and 48.4082-7 (relating to kerosene used for a feedstock purpose).

(f) Effective date. This section is applicable after December 31, 1993.

[T.D. 8659, 61 FR 10455, Mar. 14, 1996, as amended by T.D. 8879, 65 FR 17156, Mar. 31, 2000]

§48.4081-3   Taxable fuel; taxable events other than removal at the terminal rack.

(a) Overview. Although tax is imposed when taxable fuel is removed from the terminal at the rack, tax also is imposed in certain other situations described in this section.

(b) Tax on removal from a refinery—(1) Imposition of tax. Tax is imposed on the following removals from a refinery:

(i) A removal of taxable fuel by bulk transfer if the refiner or the owner of the taxable fuel immediately before the removal is not a taxable fuel registrant.

(ii) A removal of taxable fuel at the rack.

(iii) After September 30, 1995, a removal of a batch of gasohol from an approved refinery by bulk transfer if the refiner treats itself with respect to the removal as a person that is not registered under section 4101. See §48.4101-1(a). For the rule providing that no deposit is required in the case of the tax imposed under this paragraph (b)(1)(iii), see §40.6302(c)-1(f)(4) of this chapter. For the rule allowing inspections of facilities where gasohol is produced, see section 4083.

(2) Exception for certain refineries. The tax imposed under paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section does not apply to a removal of taxable fuel if—

(i) The taxable fuel is removed from an approved refinery that is not served by pipeline (other than a pipeline for the receipt of crude oil) or vessel;

(ii) The taxable fuel is received at a facility that is operated by a taxable fuel registrant and is located within the bulk transfer/terminal system;

(iii) The removal from the refinery is by—

(A) Rail car; or

(B) In the case of diesel fuel, a trailer or semi-trailer that is used exclusively for the transport service described in paragraphs (b)(2)(i) and (b)(2)(ii) of this section;

(iv) In the case of taxable fuel removed by rail car, the facility at which the fuel is received is operated by the same person that operates the refinery from which the fuel was removed; and

(v) In the case of diesel fuel removed by a trailer or semi-trailer, the facility at which the fuel is received is less than 20 miles from the refinery from which the diesel fuel was removed.

(3) Liability for tax. The refiner is liable for the tax imposed under paragraph (b)(1) of this section.

(c) Tax on entry into the United States—(1) Imposition of tax. Tax is imposed on the entry of taxable fuel into the United States if—

(i) The entry is by bulk transfer and the enterer is not a taxable fuel registrant; or

(ii) The entry is not by bulk transfer.

(2) Liability for tax—(i) In general. The enterer is liable for the tax imposed under paragraph (c)(1) of this section.

(ii) Joint and several liability of the importer of record. The importer of record with respect to the taxable fuel is jointly and severally liable with the enterer for the tax imposed under paragraph (c)(1) of this section if—

(A) The importer of record is not the enterer of the taxable fuel; and

(B) The enterer is not a taxable fuel registrant.

(iii) Conditions for avoidance of liability. The importer of record is not liable for the tax under paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section if, at the time of the entry, the importer of record—

(A) Has an unexpired notification certificate (as described in §48.4081-5) from the enterer; and

(B) Has no reason to believe that any information in the notification certificate is false.

(iv) Customs bond. The Customs bond posted with respect to the importation of the fuel will not be charged for the tax imposed on the entry of the fuel if the enterer is a taxable fuel registrant. A Customs bond will not be charged for the tax imposed on the entry of the fuel covered by the bond, if at the time of entry, the surety—

(A) Has an unexpired notification certificate (as described in §48.4081-5) from the enterer; and

(B) Has no reason to believe that any information in the notification certificate is false.

(d) Tax on bulk transfers from a terminal by an unregistered position holder—(1) Imposition of tax. Tax is imposed on the removal by bulk transfer of taxable fuel from a terminal if the position holder with respect to the taxable fuel is not a taxable fuel registrant.

(2) Liability for tax—(i) In general. The position holder with respect to the taxable fuel is liable for the tax imposed under paragraph (d)(1) of this section.

(ii) Joint and several liability of terminal operator. The terminal operator is jointly and severally liable for the tax imposed under paragraph (d)(1) of this section if—

(A) The position holder with respect to the taxable fuel is a person other than the terminal operator; and

(B) The terminal operator has not met the conditions of paragraph (d)(2)(iii) of this section.

(iii) Conditions for avoidance of liability. A terminal operator is not liable for tax under this paragraph (d)(2) if, at the time of the bulk transfer, the terminal operator—

(A) Is a taxable fuel registrant;

(B) Has an unexpired notification certificate (described in §48.4081-5) from the position holder; and

(C) Has no reason to believe that any information in the notification certificate is false.

(e) Tax on bulk transfers not received at an approved terminal or refinery—(1) Imposition of tax. Tax on taxable fuel is imposed if—

(i) Taxable fuel is removed by bulk transfer from a refinery or terminal, or entered by bulk transfer into the United States;

(ii) No tax was imposed on such removal or entry under paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section; and

(iii) Upon removal from the pipeline or vessel, the taxable fuel is not received at an approved terminal or refinery (or at another pipeline or vessel).

(2) Liability for tax—(i) In general. The owner of the taxable fuel when it is removed from the pipeline or vessel is liable for the tax imposed under paragraph (e)(1) of this section if the owner has not met the conditions of paragraph (e)(2)(ii) of this section.

(ii) Conditions for avoidance of liability. An owner of taxable fuel is not liable for tax under paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section if, at the time the taxable fuel is removed from the pipeline or vessel, the owner of the taxable fuel—

(A) Is a taxable fuel registrant;

(B) Has an unexpired notification certificate (described in §48.4081-5) from the operator of the terminal or refinery where the taxable fuel is received; and

(C) Has no reason to believe that any information in the notification certificate is false.

(iii) Liability of the operator of the facility where the taxable fuel is received. The operator of the facility where the taxable fuel is received is liable for the tax imposed under paragraph (e)(1) of this section if the owner of the taxable fuel has met the conditions of paragraph (e)(2)(ii) of this section and is jointly and severally liable for the tax if the owner has not met such conditions.

(f) Tax on sales within the bulk transfer/terminal system—(1) Imposition of tax. Tax is imposed on the sale of taxable fuel located within the bulk transfer/terminal system if the sale is to a person that is not a taxable fuel registrant and tax has not been imposed on such taxable fuel under §48.4081-2, or paragraph (b), (c), (d), or (e) of this section.

(2) Exception for certain sales of taxable fuel for export. The tax imposed under paragraph (f)(1) of this section does not apply to a sale of taxable fuel if—

(i) The buyer's principal place of business is not within the United States;

(ii) The sale of the fuel occurs as the fuel is delivered into a transport vessel;

(iii) The vessel has a capacity of at least 20,000 barrels of fuel;

(iv) The seller is a taxable fuel registrant and the exporter of record of the fuel; and

(v) The fuel was exported in due course.

(3) Liability for tax—(i) In general. The seller of the taxable fuel is liable for the tax imposed under paragraph (f)(1) of this section if the seller has not met the conditions of paragraph (f)(3)(ii) of this section.

(ii) Conditions for avoidance of liability. A seller is not liable for tax under paragraph (f)(3)(i) of this section if, at the time of the sale, the seller—

(A) Is a taxable fuel registrant;

(B) Has an unexpired notification certificate (described in §48.4081-5) from the buyer; and

(C) Has no reason to believe that any information in the certificate is false.

(iii) Liability of the buyer. The buyer of the taxable fuel is liable for the tax imposed under paragraph (f)(1) of this section if the seller of the taxable fuel has met the conditions of paragraph (f)(3)(ii) of this section and is jointly and severally liable for the tax if the seller has not met such conditions.

(4) Example. The following example illustrates this paragraph (f) and the definition of the term sale in §48.4081-1:

Example. PH owns one million gallons of untaxed gasoline that is stored in TO's terminal. PH also is the position holder with respect to the gasoline. While the gasoline remains stored in the terminal, PH transfers title to 200,000 gallons of the gasoline to A, a person that is not a taxable fuel registrant. PH continues to hold the inventory position on TO's records with respect to the one million gallons. Because PH continues as the position holder with respect to the gasoline, the transfer of title to the gasoline from PH to A is not a sale of gasoline. Because this transfer of title from PH to A is not a sale of gasoline, the tax imposed under paragraph (f) of this section does not apply to the transfer.

(g) Tax on removal or sale of blended taxable fuel by the blender—(1) Imposition of tax. A tax is imposed on the removal or sale of blended taxable fuel by the blender thereof. Tax is computed on the difference between the total number of gallons of blended taxable fuel removed or sold and the number of gallons of previously taxed taxable fuel used to produce the blended taxable fuel. For this purpose, the alcohol in gasohol is treated as previously taxed taxable fuel.

(2) Liability for tax—(i) Liability of the blender. The blender is liable for the tax imposed under paragraph (g)(1) of this section.

(ii) Liability of seller of untaxed liquid. On and after April 2, 2003, a person that sells any liquid that is used to produce blended taxable fuel is jointly and severally liable for the tax imposed under paragraph (g)(1) of this section on the removal or sale of that blended taxable fuel if the liquid—

(A) Is described in §48.4081-1(c)(1)(i)(B) (relating to liquids on which tax has not been imposed under section 4081); and

(B) Is sold by that person as gasoline, diesel fuel, or kerosene that has been taxed under section 4081.

(3) Examples. The following examples illustrate the provisions of this paragraph (g) and the definitions of blended taxable fuel and diesel fuel in §48.4081-1(c):

Example 1. (i) Facts. W is a wholesale distributor of petroleum products and R is a retailer of petroleum products. W sells to R 1,000 gallons of an untaxed liquid (a liquid described in §48.4081-1(c)(1)(i)(B)) and delivers the liquid into a storage tank (tank) at R's retail facility. However, W's invoice to R states that the liquid is undyed diesel fuel. At the time of the delivery, the tank contains 4,000 gallons of undyed diesel fuel, a taxable fuel that has been taxed under section 4081. The resulting 5,000 gallon mixture is suitable for use as a fuel in a diesel-powered highway vehicle because it has practical and commercial fitness for use in the propulsion engine of a diesel-powered highway vehicle. The mixture does not satisfy the dyeing requirements of §48.4082-1. R sells the mixture from the tank to a construction company for off-highway business use.

(ii) Analysis—(A) Production of blended taxable fuel. R is a blender within the meaning of §48.4081-1 because R has produced blended taxable fuel, as defined in §48.4081-1, by mixing 1,000 gallons of a liquid that has not been taxed under section 4081 with 4,000 gallons of diesel fuel that has been taxed under section 4081. The mixing occurs outside of the bulk transfer/terminal system and the resulting product is diesel fuel because it is suitable for use as a fuel in a diesel-powered highway vehicle.

(B) Imposition of tax. Under paragraph (g)(1) of this section, tax is imposed on R's sale of the 5,000 gallons of blended taxable fuel to the construction company. Even though the blended taxable fuel is sold for off-highway business use, which is a nontaxable use as defined in section 4082(b), the sale is not exempt from tax because the blended taxable fuel does not satisfy the dyeing requirements of §48.4082-1. Tax is computed on 1,000 gallons, which is the difference between the number of gallons of blended taxable fuel R sells (5,000) and the number of gallons of previously taxed taxable fuel used to produce the blended taxable fuel (4,000).

(C) Liability for tax. R, as the blender, is liable for this tax under paragraph (g)(2)(i) of this section. W is jointly and severally liable for this tax under paragraph (g)(2)(ii) of this section because the blended taxable fuel is produced using an untaxed liquid that W sold as undyed diesel fuel (that is, as diesel fuel that was taxed under section 4081).

Example 2. (i) Facts. W, a wholesale distributor of petroleum products, buys 7,000 gallons of diesel fuel at a terminal rack. The diesel fuel is delivered into a tank trailer. Tax is imposed on the diesel fuel under §48.4081-2 when the diesel fuel is removed at the rack. W then goes to another location where X, the operator of a chemical plant, sells W 1,000 gallons of an untaxed liquid (a liquid described in §48.4081-1(c)(1)(i)(B)). However, X's invoice to W states that the liquid is undyed diesel fuel. This liquid is delivered into the tank trailer already containing the 7,000 gallons of diesel fuel. The resulting 8,000 gallon mixture is suitable for use as a fuel in a diesel-powered highway vehicle because it has practical and commercial fitness for use in the propulsion engine of a diesel-powered highway vehicle. The mixture does not satisfy the dyeing requirements of §48.4082-1. W sells the mixture to R, a retailer of petroleum products, and delivers the mixture into a storage tank at R's retail facility. R sells the mixture to its customers.

(ii) Analysis—(A) Production of blended taxable fuel. W is a blender within the meaning of §48.4081-1 because W has produced blended taxable fuel, as defined in §48.4081-1, by mixing 1,000 gallons of a liquid that has not been taxed under section 4081 with 7,000 gallons of diesel fuel that has been taxed under section 4081. The mixing occurs outside of the bulk transfer/terminal system and the resulting product is diesel fuel because it is suitable for use as a fuel in a diesel-powered highway vehicle. Thus, R has bought blended taxable fuel.

(B) Imposition of tax. Under paragraph (g)(1) of this section, tax is imposed on W's sale of the 8,000 gallons of blended taxable fuel to R. Tax is computed on 1,000 gallons, which is the difference between the number of gallons of blended taxable fuel W sells (8,000) and the number of gallons of previously taxed taxable fuel used to produce the blended taxable fuel (7,000). No tax is imposed on R's subsequent sale of the blended taxable fuel because tax is imposed only with respect to a removal or sale by the blender.

(C) Liability for tax. W, as the blender, is liable for this tax under paragraph (g)(2)(i) of this section. X is jointly and severally liable for this tax under paragraph (g)(2)(ii) of this section because the blended taxable fuel is produced using an untaxed liquid that X sold as undyed diesel fuel (that is, as diesel fuel that was taxed under section 4081). R has no liability for tax because R is not a blender and did not sell any untaxed liquid as a taxed taxable fuel. R only sold taxed taxable fuel, the blended taxable fuel bought from W.

(h) Rate of tax. For the rate of tax generally imposed under this section, see section 4081(a). For the rate of tax on gasohol and on gasoline removed or entered for gasohol production, see §48.4081-6.

(i) Exemptions. For exemptions from the taxes imposed under this section, see §§48.4081-4 (relating to gasoline blendstocks), 48.4082-1 (relating to dyed diesel fuel and dyed kerosene), 48.4082-5 (relating to diesel fuel and kerosene used in Alaska), 48.4082-6 (relating to aviation-grade kerosene), and 48.4082-7 (relating to kerosene used for a feedstock purpose).

(j) Effective/applicability date: This section is applicable January 1, 1994, except that paragraphs (c)(2)(ii) through (iv) of this section are applicable to entries of taxable fuel after September 27, 2004.

[T.D. 8659, 61 FR 10455, Mar. 14, 1996, as amended by T.D. 8879, 65 FR 17156, Mar. 31, 2000; T.D. 9051, 68 FR 15941, Apr. 2, 2003; T.D. 9145, 69 FR 45588, July 30, 2004; T.D. 9346, 72 FR 41223, July 27, 2007]

§48.4081-4   Gasoline; special rules for gasoline blendstocks.

(a) Overview. This section provides rules exempting from tax certain removals, entries, and sales of gasoline blendstocks. Generally, under prescribed conditions, tax is not imposed on gasoline blendstocks that are not used to produce finished gasoline or that are received at an approved terminal or refinery.

(b) Nonbulk removals and entries of gasoline blendstocks not used to produce gasoline—(1) Removals and entries not in connection with sales. Tax is not imposed under §48.4081-2(b), §48.4081-3(b)(1)(ii), or §48.4081-3(c)(1)(ii) on the removal or entry of gasoline blendstocks not in connection with a sale if—

(i) The person otherwise liable for tax under §48.4081-2(c)(1) (the position holder), §48.4081-3(b)(3) (the refiner), or §48.4081-3(c)(2) (the enterer) is a taxable fuel registrant; and

(ii) Such person does not use the gasoline blendstocks to produce finished gasoline.

(2) Removals and entries in connection with sales. Tax is not imposed under §48.4081-2(b), §48.4081-3(b)(1)(ii), or §48.4081-3(c)(1)(ii) on the removal or entry of gasoline blendstocks in connection with a sale if—

(i) The person otherwise liable for tax under §48.4081-2(c)(1) (the position holder), §48.4081-3(b)(3) (the refiner), or §48.4081-3(c)(2) (the enterer) is a taxable fuel registrant; and

(ii) At the time of the sale, such person has an unexpired certificate (described in paragraph (e) of this section) from the buyer and has no reason to believe any information in the certificate is false.

(3) Tax on sales after certain nonbulk removals or entries—(i) In general. If paragraph (b) (1) or (2) of this section applies to the removal or entry of gasoline blendstocks, tax is imposed on any sale of such blendstocks unless, at the time of the sale, the seller—

(A) Has an unexpired certificate (described in paragraph (e) of this section) from its buyer; and

(B) Has no reason to believe any information in the certificate is false.

(ii) Liability for tax. The seller is liable for the tax imposed under this paragraph (b)(3).

(iii) Rate of tax. For the rate of tax, see section 4081.

(c) Nonbulk removals and entries of gasoline blendstocks received at an approved terminal or refinery. Tax is not imposed under §48.4081-2(b), §48.4081-3(b)(1)(ii), or §48.4081-3(c)(1)(ii) on the removal or entry of gasoline blendstocks that are received at a terminal or refinery if the person otherwise liable for tax under §48.4081-2(c)(1) (the position holder), §48.4081-3(b)(3) (the refiner), or §48.4081-3(c)(2) (the enterer)—

(1) Is a taxable fuel registrant;

(2) Has an unexpired notification certificate (described in §48.4081-5) from the operator of the terminal or refinery where the gasoline blendstocks are received; and

(3) Has no reason to believe that any information in the certificate is false.

(d) Bulk transfer to a registered industrial user. Tax is not imposed under §48.4081-3(e)(1) if, upon the removal of gasoline blendstocks from a pipeline or vessel, the gasoline blendstocks are received by a taxable fuel registrant that is an industrial user.

(e) Certificate—(1) In general. The certificate to be provided by a buyer of gasoline blendstocks consists of a statement that is signed under penalties of perjury by a person with authority to bind the buyer, is in substantially the same form as the model certificate provided in paragraph (e)(3) of this section, and contains all information necessary to complete such model certificate. A new certificate must be given if any information in the current certificate changes. The certificate may be included as part of any business records normally used to document a sale. The certificate expires on the earliest of the following dates:

(i) The date one year after the effective date of the certificate (which may be no earlier than the date it is signed).

(ii) The date a new certificate is provided to the seller.

(iii) The date the seller is notified by the Internal Revenue Service or the buyer that the buyer's right to provide a certificate has been withdrawn.

(2) Withdrawal of right to provide certificate. The Internal Revenue Service may withdraw the right of a buyer of gasoline blendstocks to provide a certificate under this paragraph (e) if such buyer uses gasoline blendstocks to which a certificate applies in the production of finished gasoline or resells the gasoline blendstocks without obtaining a certificate from its buyer. The Internal Revenue Service may notify any seller to whom the buyer has provided a certificate that the buyer's right to provide a certificate has been withdrawn.

(3) Model certificate.

Certificate of Person Buying Gasoline Blendstocks for use Other Than in the Production of Finished Gasoline

(To support tax-free sales under section 4081 of the Internal Revenue Code)

 
 

Name, address, and employer identification number of seller

The undersigned buyer (“Buyer”) hereby certifies the following under penalties of perjury:

The gasoline blendstocks to which this certificate relates will not be used to produce finished gasoline.

This certificate applies to the following (complete as applicable):

If this is a single purchase certificate, check here ___ and enter:

1. Invoice or delivery ticket number ___

2. ___ (number of gallons) of ___ (type of gasoline blendstocks)

If this is a certificate covering all purchases under a specified account or order number, check here ___ and enter:

1. Effective date ___

2. Expiration date ___

(period not to exceed 1 year after the effective date)

3. Type (or types) of gasoline blendstocks ___

4. Buyer account or order number ___

Buyer will not claim a credit or refund under section 6427(h) of the Internal Revenue Code for any gasoline blendstocks covered by this certificate.

Buyer will provide a new certificate to the seller if any information in this certificate changes.

If Buyer resells the gasoline blendstocks to which this certificate relates, Buyer will be liable for tax unless Buyer obtains a certificate from the purchaser stating that the gasoline blendstocks will not be used to produce finished gasoline and otherwise complies with the conditions of §48.4081-4(b)(3) of the Manufacturers and Retailers Excise Tax Regulations.

Buyer understands that if Buyer violates the terms of this certificate, the Internal Revenue Service may withdraw Buyer's right to provide a certificate.

Buyer has not been notified by the Internal Revenue Service that its right to provide a certificate has been withdrawn. In addition, the Internal Revenue Service has not notified Buyer that the right to provide a certificate has been withdrawn from a purchaser to which Buyer sells gasoline blendstocks tax free.

Buyer understands that the fraudulent use of this certificate may subject Buyer and all parties making such fraudulent use of this certificate to a fine or imprisonment, or both, together with the costs of prosecution.

 

Signature and date signed

 

Printed or typed name of person signing

 

Title of person signing

 

Name of Buyer

 

Employer identification number

 

Address of Buyer

(f) Effective date. This section is effective January 1, 1994.

[T.D. 8421, 57 FR 32424, July 22, 1992; 57 FR 39421, Aug. 31, 1992, as amended by T.D. 8659, 61 FR 10457, Mar. 14, 1996]

§48.4081-5   Taxable fuel; notification certificate of taxable fuel registrant.

(a) Overview. This section sets forth requirements for the notification certificate under §§48.4081-2(c)(2)(ii), 48.4081-3(c)(2)(iii) and (iv), 48.4081-3(d)(2)(iii), 48.4081-3(e)(2)(iii), 48.4081-3(f)(2)(ii), and 48.4081-4(c) to notify another person of the taxable fuel registrant's registration status.

(b) Certificate—(1) In general. The certificate to be provided by a taxable fuel registrant consists of a statement that is signed under penalties of perjury by a person with authority to bind the registrant, is in substantially the same form as the model provided in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, and contains all information necessary to complete such model. A new certificate must be given if any information in the most recently provided certificate changes. The certificate may be included as part of any business records normally used to document a sale. The certificate expires on the earlier of the following dates:

(i) The date the registrant provides a new certificate.

(ii) The date the recipient of the certificate is notified by either the Internal Revenue Service or the registrant that the registrant's registration has been revoked or suspended.

(2) Model certificate.

Notification Certificate of Taxable Fuel Registrant

 
 

Name, address, and employer identification number of person receiving certificate

The undersigned taxable fuel registrant (“Registrant”) hereby certifies under penalties of perjury that Registrant is registered by the Internal Revenue Service with registration number ___ and that Registrant's registration has not been revoked or suspended by the Internal Revenue Service.

Registrant understands that the fraudulent use of this certificate may subject Registrant and all parties making such fraudulent use of this certificate to a fine or imprisonment, or both, together with the cost of prosecution.

 

Signature and date signed

 

Printed or typed name of person signing

 

Title of person signing

 

Name of registrant

 

Employer identification number

 

Address of registrant

(3) Use of Form 637 or letter of registration as a notification certificate prohibited. A copy of the certificate of registry (Form 637) or letter of registration issued to a registrant by the Internal Revenue Service is not a notification certificate described in paragraph (b)(2) of this section.

(c) Effective date. This section is effective January 1, 1994.

[T.D. 8421, 57 FR 32424, July 22, 1992; 57 FR 39422, Aug. 31, 1992, as amended by T.D. 8659, 61 FR 10457, Mar. 14, 1996; T.D. 9145, 69 FR 45588, July 30, 2004; T.D. 9346, 72 FR 41224, July 27, 2007]

§48.4081-6   Gasoline; gasohol.

(a) Overview. This section provides rules for determining the applicability of reduced rates of tax on a removal or entry of gasohol or of gasoline used to produce gasohol. Rules are also provided for the imposition of tax on the separation of gasoline from gasohol and the failure to use gasoline that has been taxed at a reduced rate to produce gasohol.

(b) Explanation of terms—(1) Alcohol—(i) In general; source of the alcohol. Except as provided in paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section, alcohol means any alcohol that is not a derivative product of petroleum, natural gas, or coal (including peat). Thus, the term includes methanol and ethanol that are not derived from petroleum, natural gas, or coal (including peat). The term also includes alcohol produced either within or outside the United States.

(ii) Proof and denaturants. Alcohol does not include alcohol with a proof of less than 190 degrees (determined without regard to added denaturants). If the alcohol added to a fuel/alcohol mixture (the added alcohol) includes impurities or denaturants, the volume of alcohol in the mixture is determined under the following rules:

(A) The volume of alcohol in the mixture includes the volume of any impurities (other than added denaturants and any fuel with which the alcohol is mixed) that reduce the purity of the added alcohol to not less than 190 proof (determined without regard to added denaturants).

(B) The volume of alcohol in the mixture includes the volume of any approved denaturants that reduce the purity of the added alcohol, but only to the extent that the volume of the approved denaturants does not exceed five percent of the volume of the added alcohol (including the approved denaturants). If the volume of the approved denaturants exceeds five percent of the volume of the added alcohol, the excess over five percent is considered part of the nonalcohol content of the mixture.

(C) For purposes of this paragraph (b)(1)(ii), approved denaturants are any denaturants (including gasoline and nonalcohol fuel denaturants) that reduce the purity of the added alcohol and are added to such alcohol under a formula approved by the Secretary.

(iii) Products derived from alcohol. If alcohol described in paragraphs (b)(1)(i) and (ii) of this section has been chemically transformed in producing another product (that is, the alcohol is no longer present as a separate chemical in the other product) and there is no significant loss in the energy content of the alcohol, any mixture containing the product includes the volume of alcohol used to produce the product. Thus, for example, a mixture of gasoline and ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), or of gasoline and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), includes any alcohol described in paragraphs (b)(1)(i) and (ii) of this section that is used to produce the ETBE or MTBE, respectively, in a chemical reaction in which there is no significant loss in the energy content of the alcohol.

(2) Gasohol—(i) In general—(A) Gasohol is a mixture of gasoline and alcohol that is 10 percent gasohol, 7.7 percent gasohol, or 5.7 percent gasohol. The determination of whether a particular mixture is 10 percent gasohol, 7.7 percent gasohol, or 5.7 percent gasohol is made on a batch-by-batch basis. A batch of gasohol is a discrete mixture of gasoline and alcohol.

(B) If a particular mixture is produced within the bulk transfer/terminal system (for example, at a refinery), the determination of whether the mixture is gasohol is made at the time of the taxable removal or entry of the mixture.

(C) If a particular mixture is produced outside of the bulk transfer/terminal system (for example, by splash blending after the gasoline has been removed from the terminal at the rack), the determination of whether the mixture is gasohol is made immediately after the mixture is produced. In such a case, the contents of the batch typically correspond to a gasoline meter delivery ticket and an alcohol meter delivery ticket, each of which shows the number of gallons of liquid delivered into the mixture. The volume of each component in a batch (without adjustment for temperature) ordinarily is determined by the number of metered gallons shown on the delivery tickets for the gasoline and alcohol delivered. However, if metered gallons of gasoline and alcohol are added to a tank already containing more than a minor amount of liquid, the determination of whether a batch satisfies the alcohol-content requirement will be made by taking into account the amount of alcohol and non-alcohol fuel contained in the liquid already in the tank. Ordinarily, any amount in excess of 0.5 percent of the capacity of the tank will not be considered minor.

(ii) 10 percent gasohol—(A) In general. A batch of gasoline/alcohol mixture is 10 percent gasohol if it contains at least 9.8 percent alcohol by volume, without rounding.

(B) Batches containing less than 10 percent but at least 9.8 percent alcohol. If a batch of mixture contains less than 10 percent alcohol but at least 9.8 percent alcohol, without rounding, only a portion of the batch is considered to be 10 percent gasohol. That portion equals the number of gallons of alcohol in the batch multiplied by 10. Any remaining liquid in the mixture is excess liquid.

(iii) 7.7 percent gasohol—(A) In general. A batch of gasoline/alcohol mixture is 7.7 percent gasohol if it contains less than 9.8 percent alcohol but at least 7.55 percent alcohol by volume, without rounding.

(B) Batches containing less than 7.7 percent but at least 7.55 percent alcohol. If a batch of mixture contains less than 7.7 percent alcohol but at least 7.55 percent alcohol, without rounding, only a portion of the batch is considered to be 7.7 percent gasohol. That portion equals the number of gallons of alcohol in the batch multiplied by 12.987. Any remaining liquid in the mixture is excess liquid.

(iv) 5.7 percent gasohol—(A) In general. A batch of gasoline/alcohol mixture is 5.7 percent gasohol if it contains less than 7.55 percent alcohol but at least 5.59 percent alcohol by volume, without rounding.

(B) Batches containing less than 5.7 percent but at least 5.59 percent alcohol. If a batch of mixture contains less than 5.7 percent alcohol but at least 5.59 percent alcohol, without rounding, only a portion of the batch is considered to be 5.7 percent gasohol. That portion equals the number of gallons of alcohol in the batch multiplied by 17.544. Any remaining liquid in the mixture is excess liquid.

(v) Tax on excess liquid. If tax was imposed on the excess liquid in any gasohol at the gasohol production tax rate (as defined in paragraph (e)(1) of this section), the excess liquid in the batch is considered to be gasoline with respect to which there is a failure to blend into gasohol for purposes of paragraph (f) of this section. If tax was imposed on the excess liquid at the rate of tax described in section 4081(a), a credit or refund under section 6427(f) is not allowed with respect to the excess liquid.

(vi) Examples. The following examples illustrate this paragraph (b)(2). In these examples, a gasohol blender creates a gasoline/alcohol mixture by pumping a specified amount of gasoline into an empty tank and then adding a specified amount of alcohol.

Example 1. Mixtures containing exactly 10 percent alcohol. The applicable delivery tickets show that the mixture is made with 7200 metered gallons of gasoline and 800 metered gallons of alcohol. Accordingly, the mixture contains 10 percent alcohol (as determined based on the delivery tickets provided to the blender) and qualifies as 10 percent gasohol.

Example 2. Mixtures containing less than 10 percent alcohol but at least 9.8 percent alcohol. The applicable delivery tickets show that the mixture is made with 7205 metered gallons of gasoline and 795 metered gallons of alcohol. Because the mixture contains less than 10 percent alcohol, but more than 9.8 percent alcohol (as determined based on the delivery tickets provided to the blender), 7950 gallons of the mixture qualify as 10 percent gasohol. If tax was imposed on the gasoline in the mixture at the gasohol production rate applicable to 10 percent gasohol, the remaining 50 gallons of the mixture (the excess liquid) are treated as gasoline with respect to which there was a failure to blend into gasohol for purposes of paragraph (f) of this section. If tax was imposed on the gasoline in the mixture at the rate of tax described in section 4081(a), a credit or refund under section 6427(f) is allowed only with respect to 7155 gallons of gasoline.

Example 3. Mixtures containing less than 5.59 percent alcohol. The applicable delivery tickets show that the mixture is made with 7568 metered gallons of gasoline and 436 metered gallons of alcohol. Because the mixture contains only 5.45 percent alcohol (as determined based on the delivery tickets provided to the blender), the mixture does not qualify as gasohol.

(3) Gasohol blender. Gasohol blender means any person that regularly produces gasohol outside of the bulk transfer/terminal system for sale or use in its trade or business.

(4) Registered gasohol blender. Registered gasohol blender means a person that is registered under section 4101 as a gasohol blender.

(c) Rate of tax on gasoline removed or entered for gasohol production—(1) In general. The rate of tax imposed on gasoline under §48.4081-2(b) (relating to tax imposed at the terminal rack), §48.4081-3(b)(1) (relating to tax imposed at the refinery), or §48.4081-3(c)(1) (relating to tax imposed on entries) is the gasohol production tax rate if—

(i) The person liable for tax under §48.4081-2(c)(1) (the position holder), §48.4081-3(b)(3) (the refiner), or §48.4081-3(c)(2) (the enterer) is a taxable fuel registrant and a registered gasohol blender, and such person produces gasohol with the gasoline within 24 hours after removing or entering the gasoline; or

(ii) The gasoline is sold in connection with the removal or entry, the person liable for tax under §48.4081-2(c)(1) (the position holder), §48.4081-3(b)(3) (the refiner), or §48.4081-3(c)(2) (the enterer) is a taxable fuel registrant and the person, at the time of the sale,—

(A) Has an unexpired certificate (as described in paragraph (c)(2) of this section) from the buyer; and

(B) Has no reason to believe that any information in the certificate is false.

(2) Certificate—(i) In general. The certificate referred to in paragraph (c)(1)(ii)(A) of this section is a statement that is to be provided by a registered gasohol blender that is signed under penalties of perjury by a person with authority to bind the registered gasohol blender, is in substantially the same form as the model certificate provided in paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section, and contains all information necessary to complete such model certificate. A new certificate must be given if any information in the current certificate changes. The certificate may be included as part of any business records normally used to document a sale. The certificate expires on the earliest of the following dates:

(A) The date one year after the effective date of the certificate (which may be no earlier than the date it is signed).

(B) The date the registered gasohol blender provides a new certificate to the seller.

(C) The date the seller is notified by the Internal Revenue Service or the gasohol blender that the gasohol blender's registration has been revoked or suspended.

(ii) Model certificate.

Certificate of Registered Gasohol Blender

(To support sales of gasoline at the gasohol production tax rate under section 4081(c) of the Internal Revenue Code)

 

Name, address, and employer identification number of seller

__________ (Buyer) certifies the following under penalties of perjury:

Buyer is registered as a gasohol blender with registration number ________. Buyer's registration has not been suspended or revoked by the Internal Revenue Service.

The gasoline bought under this certificate will be used by Buyer to produce gasohol (as defined in §48.4081-6(b) of the Manufacturers and Retailers Excise Tax Regulations) within 24 hours after buying the gasoline.

Type of gasohol Buyer will produce (check one only):

___ 10% gasohol

___ 7.7% gasohol

___ 5.7% gasohol

If the gasohol the Buyer will produce will contain ethanol, check here: ___

This certificate applies to the following (complete as applicable):

If this is a single purchase certificate, check here ___ and enter:

1. Account number ________

2. Number of gallons ________

If this is a certificate covering all purchases under a specified account or order number, check here ___ and enter:

1. Effective date ________

2. Expiration date ________ (period not to exceed 1 year after the effective date)

3. Buyer account or order number ________

Buyer will not claim a credit or refund under section 6427(f) of the Internal Revenue Code for any gasoline covered by this certificate.

Buyer agrees to provide seller with a new certificate if any information on this certificate changes.

Buyer understands that Buyer's registration may be revoked if the gasoline covered by this certificate is resold or is used other than in Buyer's production of the type of gasohol identified above.

Buyer will reduce any alcohol mixture credit under section 40(b) by an amount equal to the benefit of the gasohol production tax rate under section 4081(c) for the gasohol to which this certificate relates.

Buyer understands that the fraudulent use of this certificate may subject Buyer and all parties making any fraudulent use of this certificate to a fine or imprisonment, or both, together with the costs of prosecution.

 

Printed or typed name of person signing

 

Title of person signing

 

Employer identification number

 

Address of Buyer

 

Signature and date signed

(iii) Use of Form 637 or letter of registration as a gasohol blender's certificate prohibited. A copy of the certificate of registry (Form 637) or letter of registration issued to a gasohol blender by the Internal Revenue Service is not a gasohol blender's certificate described in paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section.

(d) Rate of tax on gasohol removed or entered. The rate of tax imposed on removals or entries of any gasohol under §§48.4081-2(b), 48.4081-3(b)(1), and 48.4081-3(c)(1) is the gasohol tax rate. The rate of tax imposed on removals and entries of excess liquid described in paragraph (b)(2) of this section is the rate of tax applicable to gasoline under section 4081(a).

(e) Tax rates—(1) Gasohol production tax rate. The gasohol production tax rate is the applicable rate of tax determined under section 4081(c)(2)(A).

(2) Gasohol tax rate. The gasohol tax rate is the applicable alcohol mixture rate determined under section 4081(c)(4)(A).

(f) Later separation and failure to blend—(1) Later separation—(i) Imposition of tax. A tax is imposed on the removal or sale of gasoline separated from gasohol with respect to which tax was imposed at a rate described in paragraph (e) of this section or with respect to which a credit or payment was allowed or made by reason of section 6427(f)(1).

(ii) Liability for tax. The person that owns the gasohol at the time gasoline is separated from the gasohol is liable for the tax imposed under paragraph (f)(1)(i) of this section.

(iii) Rate of tax. The rate of tax imposed under paragraph (f)(1)(i) of this section is the difference between the rate of tax applicable to gasoline not described in this section and the applicable gasohol production tax rate.

(2) Failure to blend—(i) Imposition of tax. Tax is imposed on the entry, removal, or sale of gasoline (including excess liquid described in paragraph (b)(2) of this section) with respect to which tax was imposed at a gasohol production tax rate if—

(A) The gasoline was not blended into gasohol; or

(B) The gasoline was blended into gasohol but the gasohol production tax rate applicable to the type of gasohol produced is greater than the rate of tax originally imposed on the gasoline.

(ii) Liability for tax. (A) In the case of gasoline with respect to which tax was imposed at the gasohol production tax rate under paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section, the person liable for the tax imposed by paragraph (f)(2)(i) of this section is the person that was liable for tax on the entry or removal.

(B) In the case of gasoline with respect to which tax was imposed at the gasohol production tax rate under paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section, the person that bought the gasoline in connection with the entry or removal is liable for the tax imposed under paragraph (f)(2)(i) of this section.

(iii) Rate of tax. The rate of tax imposed on gasoline described in paragraph (f)(2)(i)(A) of this section is the difference between the rate of tax applicable to gasoline not described in this section and the rate of tax previously imposed on the gasoline. The rate of tax imposed on gasoline described in paragraph (f)(2)(i)(B) of this section is the difference between the gasohol production tax rate applicable to the type of gasohol produced and the rate of tax previously imposed on the gasoline.

(iv) Example. The following example illustrates this paragraph (f)(2):

Example. (i) A registered gasohol blender bought gasoline in connection with a removal described in paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section. Based on the blender's certification (described in paragraph (c)(2) of this section) that the blender would produce 10 percent gasohol with the gasoline, tax at the gasohol production tax rate applicable to 10 percent gasohol was imposed on the removal.

(ii) The blender then produced a mixture by splash blending in a tank holding approximately 8000 gallons of mixture. The applicable delivery tickets show that the mixture was blended by first pumping 7220 metered gallons of gasoline into the empty tank, and then pumping 780 metered gallons of alcohol into the tank. Because the mixture contains 9.75 percent alcohol (as determined based on the delivery tickets provided to the blender) the entire mixture qualifies as 7.7 percent gasohol, rather than 10 percent gasohol.

(iii) Because the 7220 gallons of gasoline were taxed at the gasohol production tax rate applicable to 10 percent gasohol but the gasoline was blended into 7.7 percent gasohol, a failure to blend has occurred with respect to the gasoline. As the person that bought the gasoline in connection with the taxable removal, the blender is liable for the tax imposed under paragraph (f)(2)(i) of this section. The amount of tax imposed is the difference between—

(A) 7220 gallons times the gasohol production tax rate applicable to 7.7 percent gasohol; and

(B) 7220 gallons times the gasohol production tax rate applicable to 10 percent gasohol.

(iv) Because the gasohol does not contain exactly 7.7 percent alcohol, the benefit of the gasohol production tax rate with respect to the alcohol is less than the amount of the alcohol mixture credit under section 40(b) (determined before the application of section 40(c)). Accordingly, the blender may be entitled to claim an alcohol mixture credit for the alcohol used in the gasohol. Under section 40(c), however, the amount of the alcohol mixture credit must be reduced to take into account the benefit provided with respect to the alcohol by the gasohol production tax rate.

(g) Effective date. This section is effective August 7, 1995.

[T.D. 8609, 60 FR 40082, Aug. 7, 1995, as amended by T.D. 8659, 61 FR 10457, Mar. 14, 1996; T.D. 8879, 65 FR 17157, Mar. 31, 2000]

§48.4081-7   Taxable fuel; conditions for refunds of taxable fuel tax under section 4081(e).

(a) Overview. This section provides reporting requirements and other conditions that a person paying tax to the government under section 4081 must satisfy to receive a refund (but not a credit) under section 4081(e) with respect to taxable fuel on which a prior tax was paid to the government under section 4081. No credit against any tax imposed under the Internal Revenue Code is allowed under this section.

(b) Conditions to allowance of refund. A claim for refund of tax imposed by section 4081 with respect to taxable fuel is allowed under section 4081(e) and this section only if—

(1) A tax imposed by section 4081 with respect to the taxable fuel was paid to the government and not credited or refunded (the “first tax”);

(2) After imposition of the first tax, another tax was imposed by section 4081 with respect to the same taxable fuel and was also paid to the government (the “second tax”);

(3) The person that paid the second tax to the government has filed a timely claim for refund that contains the information required under paragraph (d) of this section; and

(4) The person that paid the first tax to the government has met the reporting requirements of paragraph (c) of this section.

(c) Reporting requirements—(1) Reporting by persons paying the first tax. Except as provided in paragraph (c)(3) of this section, the person that paid the first tax under §48.4081-3 (the first taxpayer) must file a report that is in substantially the same form as the model report provided in paragraph (c)(2) of this section (or such other model report as the Commissioner may prescribe) and contains all information necessary to complete such model report (the first taxpayer's report). A first taxpayer's report must be filed with the return to which the report relates (or at such other time, or in such other manner, as prescribed by the Commissioner).

(2) Model first taxpayer's report.

First Taxpayer's Report

1.
 

First Taxpayer's name, address, and employer identification number

2.
 

Name, address, and employer identification number of the buyer of the taxable fuel subject to tax

3.

Date and location of removal, entry, or sale

4.

Volume and type of taxable fuel removed, entered, or sold

5. Check type of taxable event:

_____ Removal from refinery

_____ Entry into United States

_____ Bulk transfer from terminal by unregistered position holder

_____ Bulk transfer not received at an approved terminal

_____ Sale within the bulk transfer/terminal system

_____ Removal at the terminal rack

_____ Removal or sale by the blender

6.

Amount of Federal excise tax paid on account of the removal, entry, or sale

The undersigned taxpayer (the “Taxpayer”) has not received, and will not claim, a credit with respect to, or a refund of, the tax on the taxable fuel to which this form relates.

Under penalties of perjury, the Taxpayer declares that Taxpayer has examined this statement, including any accompanying schedules and statements, and, to the best of Taxpayer's knowledge and belief, they are true, correct and complete.

 

Signature and date signed

 

Printed or typed name of person signing this report

 

Title

(3) Optional reporting for certain taxable events. Paragraph (c)(1) of this section does not apply with respect to a tax imposed under §48.4081-2 (removal at a terminal rack), §48.4081-3(c)(1)(ii) (nonbulk entries into the United States), or §48.4081-3(g) (removals or sales by blenders). However, if the person liable for the tax expects that another tax will be imposed under section 4081 with respect to the taxable fuel, that person should (but is not required to) file a first taxpayer's report.

(4) Information provided to subsequent owners, etc.—(i) By person required to file first taxpayer's report. A first taxpayer required to file a first taxpayer's report under paragraph (c)(1) of this section must give a copy of the report to—

(A) The person to whom the first taxpayer sells (within the meaning of §48.4081-1)) the taxable fuel within the bulk transfer/terminal system; or

(B) The owner of the taxable fuel immediately before the imposition of the first tax, if the first taxpayer is not the owner at that time.

(ii) By person filing optional first taxpayer's report. A first taxpayer filing a first taxpayer's report under paragraph (c)(3) of this section should (but is not required to) give a copy of the report to—

(A) The person to whom the first taxpayer sells the taxable fuel; or

(B) The owner of the taxable fuel immediately before the imposition of the first tax, if the first taxpayer is not the owner at that time.

(iii) By person receiving first taxpayer's report. A person that receives a copy of the first taxpayer's report and subsequently sells (within the meaning of §48.4081-1)) the taxable fuel within the bulk transfer/terminal system must give the copy and a statement that satisfies the requirements of paragraph (c)(4)(iv) of this section to the buyer. A person that receives a copy of the first taxpayer's report and subsequently sells the taxable fuel outside the bulk transfer/terminal system should (but is not required to) give the copy and a statement that satisfies the requirements of paragraph (c)(4)(iv) of this section to the buyer, if that person expects that another tax will be imposed under section 4081 with respect to the taxable fuel.

(iv) Form of statement—(A) In general. A statement satisfies the requirements of this paragraph (c)(4)(iv) if it is provided at the bottom or on the back of the copy of the first taxpayer's report (or in an attached document). This statement must contain all information necessary to complete the model statement provided in paragraph (c)(4)(iv)(B) of this section (or such other model statement as the Commissioner may prescribe) but need not be in the same format.

(B) Model statement describing subsequent sale.

Statement of Subsequent Seller

1.
 

Name, address, and employer identification number of seller in subsequent sale

2.
 

Name, address, and employer identification number of buyer in subsequent sale

3.

Date and location of subsequent sale

4.

Volume and type of taxable fuel sold

The undersigned seller (the “Seller”) has received the copy of the first taxpayer's report provided with this statement in connection with Seller's purchase of the taxable fuel described in this statement.

Under penalties of perjury, Seller declares that Seller has examined this statement, including any accompanying schedules and statements, and, to the best of Seller's knowledge and belief, they are true, correct and complete.

 

Signature and date signed

 

Printed or typed name of person signing this statement

 

Title

(v) Sale to multiple buyers. If the first taxpayer's report relates to taxable fuel divided among more than one buyer, multiple copies of the first taxpayer's report must be made at the stage that the taxable fuel is divided and each buyer must be given a copy of the report.

(d) Form and content of claim—(1) In general. The following rules apply to claims for refund under section 4081(e):

(i) The claim must be made by the person that paid the second tax to the government and must include all the information described in paragraph (d)(2) of this section.

(ii) The claim must be made on Form 8849 (or such other form as the Commissioner may designate) in accordance with the instructions on the form. The form should be marked Section 4081(e) Claim at the top. Section 4081(e) claims must not be included with a claim for a refund under any other provision of the Internal Revenue Code.

(2) Information to be included in the claim. Each claim for a refund under section 4081(e) must contain the following information with respect to the taxable fuel covered by the claim:

(i) Volume and type of taxable fuel.

(ii) Date on which the claimant incurred the tax liability to which this claim relates (the second tax).

(iii) Amount of second tax that claimant paid to the government and a statement that claimant has not included the amount of this tax in the sales price of the taxable fuel to which this claim relates and has not collected that amount from the person that bought the taxable fuel from claimant.

(iv) Name, address, and employer identification number of the person that paid the first tax to the government.

(v) A copy of the first taxpayer's report that relates to the taxable fuel covered by the claim.

(vi) If the taxable fuel covered by the claim was bought other than from the first taxpayer, a copy of the statement of subsequent seller that the claimant received with respect to that taxable fuel.

(e) Time for filing claim. A claim for refund under section 4081(e) may be filed any time after the claimant has filed the return of the second tax and before the end of the period prescribed by section 6511 for the filing of a claim for a refund.

(f) Examples. The following examples illustrate the provisions of this section.

Example 1. (i) A is a taxable fuel registrant that owns 10,000 gallons of gasoline, and on April 5, 1996, is transporting the gasoline by barge on a waterway in the United States. That day, A sells the gasoline to B, a person that is not a taxable fuel registrant. A is liable for tax on the sale under §48.4081-3(f). A pays this tax to the government and attaches to its return of the gasoline tax for the 2nd quarter of 1996 the first taxpayer's report described in paragraph (c) of this section. A also gives a copy of this report to B.

(ii) On April 9, 1996, B sells the gasoline to C, a taxable fuel registrant. B also gives C a copy of the first taxpayer's report and the statement of subsequent seller (required under paragraph (c)(4) of this section). On April 14, 1996, the gasoline is removed from a terminal at the rack. C is the position holder of the gasoline at the time of the removal and thus is liable for tax on the removal under §48.4081-2(c)(1). C pays this tax to the government.

(iii) After C has filed a return of the second tax and before the end of the period prescribed by section 6511 for filing a claim for a refund, C files a claim for a refund of the second tax. The claim is in the form prescribed in paragraph (d)(2) of this section. C includes with its claim a copy of the first taxpayer's report and statement of subsequent seller. Because the conditions to allowance of a refund under paragraph (b) of this section have been met, C is allowed a refund of the second tax.

Example 2. The facts are the same as in Example 1 except that A does not pay the tax to the government. Because the first tax was not paid to the government as required by paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the conditions to allowance of a refund under paragraph (b) of this section have not been met. Therefore, C is not allowed a refund of the second tax.

(g) Effective date. This section is effective in the case of taxable fuel with respect to which the first tax is imposed after September 30, 1995.

[T.D. 8421, 57 FR 32424, July 22, 1992, as amended by T.D. 8609, 60 FR 40086, Aug. 7, 1995; T.D. 8659, 61 FR 10457, Mar. 14, 1996; T.D. 8879, 65 FR 17157, Mar. 31, 2000]

§48.4081-8   Taxable fuel; measurement.

(a) In general. Volumes of taxable fuel may be measured on the basis of actual volumetric gallons or gallons adjusted to 60 degrees Fahrenheit.

(b) Effective date. This section is applicable January 1, 1994.

[66 FR 27597, May 18, 2001]

§48.4082-1   Diesel fuel and kerosene; exemption for dyed fuel.

(a) Exemption. Tax is not imposed by section 4081 on the removal, entry, or sale of any diesel fuel or kerosene if—

(1) The person otherwise liable for tax is a taxable fuel registrant;

(2) In the case of a removal from a terminal, the terminal is an approved terminal; and

(3) The diesel fuel or kerosene satisfies the dyeing and marking requirements of paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section.

(b) Dyeing requirements. Diesel fuel or kerosene satisfies the dyeing requirement of this paragraph (b) only if the diesel fuel or kerosene contains—

(1) The dye Solvent Red 164 (and no other dye) at a concentration spectrally equivalent to at least 3.9 pounds of the solid dye standard Solvent Red 26 per thousand barrels of diesel fuel or kerosene; or

(2) Any dye of a type and in a concentration that has been approved by the Commissioner.

(c) Marking requirements. [Reserved]

(d) [Reserved]. For further guidance, see §48.4082-1T(d).

(e) Effective date—(1) Except as provided in paragraph (e)(2) of this section, this section is applicable March 14, 1996.

(2) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §48.4082-1T(e)(2).

[T.D. 8659, 61 FR 10457, Mar. 14, 1996, as amended by T.D. 8879, 65 FR 17157, Mar. 31, 2000; T.D. 9199, 70 FR 21333, Apr. 26, 2005]

§48.4082-1T   Diesel fuel and kerosene; exemption for dyed fuel (temporary).

(a) through (c) [Reserved]. For further guidance, see §48.4082-1(a) through (c).

(d) Time and method for adding dye—(1) In general. Except as provided by paragraph (d)(6) of this section, diesel fuel or kerosene satisfies the dyeing requirements of this paragraph (d) only if the dye required by §48.4082-1(b) is combined with the diesel fuel or kerosene by means of a mechanical injection system that is approved by the Commissioner for use at the facility where the dyeing occurs. Application for approval must be made in the form and manner required by the Commissioner. Rules similar to the rules of §48.4101-1(g) apply to the Commissioner's action on the applications.

(2) Mechanical injection system; requirements. The Commissioner will approve a mechanical injection system only if—

(i) The system has features that automatically inject an amount of dye that satisfies the concentration requirements of §48.4082-1(b) into diesel fuel or kerosene as the diesel fuel or kerosene is delivered from the bulk transfer/terminal system into the transport compartment of a truck, trailer, railroad car, or other means of nonbulk transfer;

(ii) The system has calibrated devices that accurately measure and record the amount of dye and the amount of diesel fuel and kerosene that is dispensed for each removal;

(iii) The system has automatic shut-off devices that prevent the removal of more than 100 gallons of undyed diesel fuel or kerosene in the case of a system malfunction;

(iv) The system is secured by either—

(A) Unbroken seals that are issued, installed, and maintained by the terminal operator and secure the measurement devices, shut-off devices, and other access points to the injection system; or

(B) A secured container that controls access to the measurement devices, shut-off devices, and other access points and is secured by an unbroken seal issued, installed, and maintained by the terminal operator;

(v) Each seal securing the system bears a unique identifying number or code and is produced in a manner that provides adequate assurance against duplication; and

(vi) The operator of the facility has written procedures in place for complying with its duty, described in paragraph (d)(4) of this section, to maintain the system's security standards.

(3) Mechanical injection system; basis for approval. In determining whether to approve a mechanical injection system, the Commissioner will take into account the individual circumstances of each facility, including local fire and safety codes, to ensure that the cost of acquiring and maintaining the appropriate levels of security are reasonable for that facility.

(4) Mechanical injection system; duty of the operator of a mechanical injection system to maintain the system's security standards. Each operator of a mechanical injection system must—

(i) Maintain a record for each seal, including its identifying number or code, the location of the seal, the date(s) on which the seal was issued and installed, and the reason for the installation;

(ii) Visually inspect each installed seal not less than once during every 24 hour period to ascertain that each seal and lock mechanism, if applicable, has not been physically altered;

(iii) Check the identifying number or code for each seal against the records maintained by the terminal operator no less frequently than once during each seven day period and record each inspection and verification;

(iv) Promptly notify the Commissioner if inspection of a seal reveals any inconsistency in the records pertaining to that seal, or if the seal has been damaged or removed (other than a removal authorized by the operator for testing or maintenance);

(v) Maintain a record of each seal that has been replaced to include the seal number or code, the date the seal was issued, the location of the seal, the date the seal was replaced, and the reason the seal was replaced;

(vi) Promptly destroy and replace seals that have been removed from the system;

(vii) Restrict access to unused seal inventory to individuals specifically designated by the operator and maintain a record of such individuals;

(viii) Maintain a record of each installation, inspection, and destruction described in this paragraph (d)(4), including the name of the individual who conducts the installation, inspection, or destruction;

(ix) Make available for the Commissioner's immediate inspection the seals and records described in this paragraph (d)(4); and

(x) Promptly notify the Commissioner if, and when, the dye injection system is placed out of service.

(5) Mechanical injection system; revocation or suspension of approval. The Commissioner may revoke or suspend its approval of a dye injection system if the Commissioner determines that the system does not meet the standards of paragraph (d)(2) of this section or if the operator of the system has not complied with the requirements of paragraph (d)(4) of this section.

(6) Sales and entries. For purposes of determining whether tax is imposed by section 4081 on a sale or entry of diesel fuel or kerosene, such fuel satisfies the dyeing requirements of this paragraph (d) only if the dye required by §48.4082-1(b) is combined with the fuel before the sale or entry and the seller or enterer has in its records evidence (such as a certificate from the terminal operator providing the fuel) establishing that the dye was combined with the fuel by means of a mechanical injection system. Thus, for example, diesel fuel or kerosene that is entered into the United States by means of nonbulk transfer (such as a railroad car) does not satisfy the requirements of this paragraph (d) if the required dye and marker are combined with diesel fuel or kerosene after the diesel fuel or kerosene has been entered into the United States.

(7) Cross reference. For the penalty relating to mechanical dye injection systems, see section 6715A.

(e) and (e)(1) [Reserved]. For further guidance, see §48.4082-1(e) and (e)(1).

(2) This section is applicable on October 24, 2005.

[T.D. 9199, 70 FR 21333, Apr. 26, 2005]

§48.4082-2   Diesel fuel and kerosene; notice required for dyed fuel.

(a) In general. A legible and conspicuous notice stating “DYED DIESEL FUEL, NONTAXABLE USE ONLY, PENALTY FOR TAXABLE USE” must be posted by a seller on any retail pump or other delivery facility where it sells dyed diesel fuel for use by its buyer. A legible and conspicuous notice stating “DYED KEROSENE, NONTAXABLE USE ONLY, PENALTY FOR TAXABLE USE” must be posted by a seller on any retail pump or other delivery facility where it sells dyed kerosene for use by its buyer. Any seller that fails to post the required notice on any retail pump or other delivery facility where it sells dyed fuel is, for purposes of the penalty imposed by section 6715, presumed to know that the fuel will not be used for a nontaxable use.

(b) Cross reference; terminal operators. For the requirement that terminal operators provide a notice with respect to dyed fuel, see §48.4101-1(h)(3) (relating to terms and conditions of registration for terminal operators).

(c) Effective date. This section is applicable with respect to diesel fuel after December 31, 1993, and with respect to kerosene after June 30, 1998.

[T.D. 8879, 65 FR 17157, Mar. 31, 2000]

§48.4082-3   Diesel fuel and kerosene; visual inspection devices. [Reserved]

§48.4082-4   Diesel fuel and kerosene; back-up tax.

(a) Imposition of tax—(1) In general. Tax is imposed by section 4041 on the delivery into the fuel supply tank of the propulsion engine of a diesel-powered highway vehicle (other than a diesel-powered bus) of—

(i) Any diesel fuel or kerosene on which tax has not been imposed by section 4081;

(ii) Any diesel fuel or kerosene for which a credit or payment has been allowed under section 6427; or

(iii) Any liquid (other than taxable fuel) for use as fuel.

(2) Liability for tax—(i) In general. The operator of the highway vehicle into which the fuel is delivered is liable for the tax imposed under paragraph (a)(1) of this section.

(ii) Joint and several liability of the seller. The seller of the fuel is jointly and severally liable for the tax imposed under paragraph (a)(1) of this section if the seller knows or has reason to know that the fuel will not be used in a nontaxable use.

(3) Rate of tax. The rate of tax is the rate imposed on diesel fuel by section 4081(a).

(b) Tax on diesel fuel and kerosene; buses and trains—(1) In general. Tax is imposed by section 4041 on the delivery into the fuel supply tank of the propulsion engine of a diesel-powered bus or a diesel-powered train of—

(i) Any diesel fuel or kerosene on which tax has not been imposed by section 4081;

(ii) Any diesel fuel or kerosene for which a credit or payment has been allowed under section 6427; or

(iii) Any liquid (other than taxable fuel) for use as fuel.

(2) Liability for tax—(i) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section, the operator of the bus or train into which the fuel is delivered is liable for the tax imposed under paragraph (b)(1) of this section.

(ii) Special rule for certain train operators. The person that delivers the fuel into the fuel supply tank of a train, rather than the train operator, is liable for the tax imposed under paragraph (b)(1) of this section if, at the time of the delivery—

(A) The deliverer of the fuel and the operator of the train are both registered as train operators under §48.4101-1; and

(B) A written agreement between the deliverer of the fuel and the operator requires the deliverer to pay the tax imposed under paragraph (b)(1) of this section.

(3) Rate of tax—(i) Buses—(A) In general. The rate of tax under paragraph (b)(1) of this section is the sum of the rates described in sections 4041(a)(1)(C)(iii)(I) and 4041(d)(1) (the bus rate) if the bus is used to furnish (for compensation) passenger land transportation available to the general public and either such transportation is scheduled and along regular routes or the seating capacity of the bus is at least 20 adults (not including the driver). A bus is available to the general public if the bus is available for hire to more than a limited number of persons, groups, or organizations.

(B) Other uses. The rate of tax under paragraph (b)(1) of this section is the rate of tax imposed on diesel fuel by section 4081(a) if the bus is used for a purpose other than that described in paragraph (b)(3)(i)(A) of this section.

(ii) Trains. The rate of tax under paragraph (b)(1) of this section is the rate prescribed in section 4041 for diesel fuel sold for use in a train (the train rate).

(4) Cross reference. For the registration requirement relating to certain bus and train operators, see §48.4101-1(c)(2).

(c) Exemptions. The taxes imposed under paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section do not apply to a delivery of any liquid for—

(1) Use on a farm for farming purposes as that term and related terms are defined in §48.6420-4 (a) through (g);

(2) The exclusive use of a State;

(3) Use described in section 4041(h) (relating to use in a vehicle owned by an aircraft museum);

(4) Use in a bus while the bus is engaged in the transportation of students and employees of schools (as defined in the last sentence of section 4221(d)(7)(C));

(5) Use in a qualified local bus (as defined in section 6427(b)(2)(D)) while the bus is engaged in furnishing (for compensation) intracity passenger land transportation that is available to the general public and is scheduled and along regular routes;

(6) Use in a highway vehicle that—

(i) Is not registered (and is not required to be registered) for highway use under the laws of any State or foreign country; and

(ii) Is used in the operator's trade or business or in an activity of the operator described in section 212 (relating to the production of income);

(7) The exclusive use of a nonprofit educational organization, as defined in §48.4221-6(b); or

(8) Use in a highway vehicle that is owned by the United States and is not used on the highway.

(d) Effective date. This section is applicable after December 31, 1993, except that references to kerosene are applicable after June 30, 1998.

[T.D. 8659, 61 FR 10458, Mar. 14, 1996, as amended by T.D. 8879, 65 FR 17157, Mar. 31, 2000]

§48.4082-5   Diesel fuel and kerosene; Alaska.

(a) Application. This section applies to diesel fuel or kerosene removed, entered, or sold in Alaska for ultimate sale or use in an exempt area of Alaska.

(b) Definitions.

Exempt area of Alaska means the area of Alaska in which the sulfur content requirements for diesel fuel (see section 211(i) of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7545(i))) do not apply because the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency has granted an exemption under section 211(i)(4) of that Act.

Nontaxable use means a use described in section 4082(b).

Qualified dealer means any person that holds a qualified dealer license from the state of Alaska or has been registered by the district director as a qualified retailer. The district director will register a person as a qualified retailer only if the district director—

(1) Determines that the person, in the course of its trade or business, regularly sells diesel fuel or kerosene for use by its buyer in a nontaxable use; and

(2) Is satisfied with the filing, deposit, payment, and claim history for all federal taxes of the person and any related person.

(c) Tax-free removals and entries. Notwithstanding §48.4082-1, tax is not imposed by section 4081 on the removal or entry of any diesel fuel or kerosene in an exempt area of Alaska if—

(1) The person that would be liable for tax under §48.4081-2 or 48.4081-3 is a taxable fuel registrant and satisfies the requirements of paragraph (e) of this section;

(2) In the case of a removal from a terminal, the terminal is an approved terminal; and

(3) The owner of the diesel fuel or kerosene immediately after the removal or entry holds the fuel for its own use in a nontaxable use or is a qualified dealer.

(d) Sales after removals and entries—(1) In general. Paragraph (c) of this section does not apply with respect to diesel fuel or kerosene that is subsequently sold by a qualified dealer unless—

(i) The fuel is sold in an exempt area of Alaska;

(ii) The buyer purchases the fuel for its own use in a nontaxable use or is a qualified dealer; and

(iii) The seller satisfies the requirements of paragraph (e) of this section.

(2) Tax imposed at time of sale; liability for tax. Notwithstanding §§48.4081-2 and 48.4081-3, in any case in which paragraph (c) of this section does not apply with respect to diesel fuel or kerosene because of a subsequent sale by a qualified dealer, the tax with respect to that fuel is imposed at the time of the subsequent sale and the qualified dealer is liable for the tax.

(3) Rate of tax. For the rate of tax, see section 4081.

(e) Evidence of tax-free transactions. The requirements of section 4082(c)(2) (relating to certification) and this paragraph (e) are satisfied if the person otherwise liable for tax is able to show the district director satisfactory evidence of the exempt nature of the transaction and has no reason to believe that the evidence is false. Satisfactory evidence may include copies of qualified dealer licenses or exemption certificates obtained for state tax purposes.

(f) Registration. With respect to each person that has been registered as a qualified retailer by the district director, the rules of §48.4101-1(g), (h), and (i) apply.

(g) Cross reference. For the tax on previously untaxed diesel fuel or kerosene that is used for a taxable purpose, see §48.4082-4.

(h) Effective date. This section is applicable with respect to diesel fuel removed or entered after December 31, 1996, and with respect to kerosene removed or entered after June 30, 1998. A person registered by the district director as a qualified retailer before April 2, 1998 may be treated, to the extent the district director determines appropriate, as a qualified dealer for the period before that date.

[T.D. 8693, 61 FR 66216, Dec. 17, 1996. Redesignated and amended by T.D. 8748, 63 FR 25, Jan. 2, 1998; T.D. 8879, 65 FR 17157, Mar. 31, 2000]

§48.4082-6   Kerosene; exemption for aviation-grade kerosene.

(a) Overview. This section prescribes the conditions under which tax does not apply to the removal or entry of aviation-grade kerosene that is destined for use as a fuel in an aircraft.

(b) Definition. For purposes of this section, aviation-grade kerosene means kerosene-type jet fuel covered by ASTM specification D 1655 or military specification MIL-DTL-5624T (Grade JP-5) or MIL-DTL-83133E (Grade JP-8). For availability of ASTM and military specifications, see §48.4081-1(d).

(c) Exemption for certain removals and entries. Tax is not imposed under §48.4081-2(b), 48.4081-3(b)(1)(ii), or 48.4081-3(c)(1)(ii) on the removal or entry of aviation-grade kerosene if—

(1) The person otherwise liable for tax is a taxable fuel registrant;

(2) In the case of a removal from a terminal, the terminal is an approved terminal; and

(3)(i) The person otherwise liable for tax delivers the kerosene into the fuel supply tank of an aircraft and this delivery is not in connection with a sale; or

(ii) The kerosene is sold for use as a fuel in an aircraft and, at the time of the sale, the person otherwise liable for tax has an unexpired certificate (described in paragraph (e) of this section) from the buyer and has no reason to believe any information in the certificate is false.

(d) Certain later sales—(1) In general. Paragraph (c) of this section does not apply with respect to kerosene that is sold as described in paragraph (c)(3)(ii) of this section if there is a later disqualifying sale of the kerosene. A later disqualifying sale is any later sale other than a later sale—

(i) By a person that, at the time of the sale, has an unexpired certificate (described in paragraph (e) of this section) from the buyer and has no reason to believe that any information in the certificate is false; or

(ii) In connection with the delivery of the kerosene into the fuel supply tank of an aircraft.

(2) Imposition of tax; liability for tax. Notwithstanding §§48.4081-2 and 48.4081-3, in any case in which paragraph (d)(1) of this section applies, tax is imposed with respect to that kerosene at the time of the first later disqualifying sale and the seller in that sale is liable for the tax.

(3) Rate of tax. For the rate of tax, see section 4081.

(e) Certificate—(1) In general. The certificate described in this paragraph (e) is a statement by a buyer that is signed under penalties of perjury by a person with authority to bind the buyer, is in substantially the same form as the model certificate provided in paragraph (e)(3) of this section, and contains all information necessary to complete the model certificate. A new certificate or notice that the current certificate is invalid must be given if any information in the current certificate changes. The certificate may be included as part of any business records normally used to document a sale. The certificate expires on the earliest of the following dates:

(i) The date one year after the effective date of the certificate (which may be no earlier than the date it is signed).

(ii) The date the buyer provides the seller a new certificate or notice that the current certificate is invalid.

(iii) The date the Internal Revenue Service or the buyer notifies the seller that the buyer's right to provide a certificate has been withdrawn.

(2) Withdrawal of the right to provide a certificate. The Internal Revenue Service may withdraw the right of a buyer of aviation-grade kerosene to provide a certificate under this section if the buyer uses the aviation-grade kerosene to which a certificate relates other than as a fuel in an aircraft or sells the kerosene without first obtaining a certificate from its buyer. The Internal Revenue Service may notify any seller to whom the buyer has provided a certificate that the buyer's right to provide a certificate has been withdrawn.

(3) Model certificate.

CERTIFICATE OF PERSON BUYING AVIATION-GRADE KEROSENE FOR USE AS A FUEL IN AN AIRCRAFT

(To support tax-free removals and entries of aviation-grade kerosene under section 4082 of the Internal Revenue Code.)

___________________(Buyer) certifies the following

Name of Buyer

under penalties of perjury:

The aviation-grade kerosene to which this certificate applies will be used by Buyer as a fuel in an aircraft or resold by Buyer for that use.

This certificate applies to ____ percent of Buyer's purchases from ____________ (name, address, and employer identification number of seller) as follows (complete as applicable):

1. A single purchase on invoice or delivery ticket number ______.

2. All purchases between ______ (effective date) and ______ (expiration date) (period not to exceed one year after the effective date) under account or order number(s) ______. If this certificate applies only to Buyer's purchases for certain locations, check here ____ and list the locations.

   
   
   

Buyer is buying the kerosene for (check either or both as applicable): __ Buyer's use as a fuel in an aircraft. __ Resale for use as a fuel in an aircraft.

Buyer will provide a new certificate to the seller if any information in this certificate changes.

If Buyer sells the aviation-grade kerosene to which this certificate relates and does not deliver it into the fuel supply tank of an aircraft, Buyer will be liable for tax unless Buyer obtains a certificate from its buyer stating that the aviation-grade kerosene will be used as a fuel in an aircraft.

If Buyer violates the terms of this certificate, the Internal Revenue Service may withdraw Buyer's right to provide a certificate.

Buyer has not been notified by the Internal Revenue Service that its right to provide a certificate has been withdrawn.

The fraudulent use of this certificate may subject Buyer and all parties making any fraudulent use of this certificate to a fine or imprisonment, or both, together with the costs of prosecution.

 

Printed or typed name of person signing

 

Title of person signing

 

Employer identification number

 

Address of Buyer

 

Signature and date signed

(f) Effective date. This section is applicable after March 30, 2000, except that paragraph (d) of this section is applicable after June 30, 2000.

[T.D. 8879, 65 FR 17158, Mar. 31, 2000]

§48.4082-7   Kerosene; exemption for feedstock purposes.

(a) Overview. This section prescribes the conditions under which tax does not apply to the removal or entry of kerosene for use for a feedstock purpose.

(b) Definitions. The following definitions apply to this section:

Feedstock purpose means the use of kerosene for nonfuel purposes in the manufacture or production of any substance other than gasoline, diesel fuel, or special fuels referred to in section 4041. Thus, for example, kerosene is used for a feedstock purpose when it is used as an ingredient in the production of paint and is not used for a feedstock purpose when it is used to power machinery at a factory where paint is produced.

Feedstock user means a person that uses kerosene for a feedstock purpose.

Registered feedstock user means a feedstock user that is—

(1) Registered under section 4101 as a feedstock user; or

(2) With respect to removals and entries before October 1, 2000, a taxable fuel registrant.

(c) Exemption for removals and entries. Tax is not imposed on the removal or entry of kerosene if—

(1) The person otherwise liable for tax is a taxable fuel registrant;

(2) In the case of a removal from a terminal, the terminal is an approved terminal; and

(3)(i) The person otherwise liable for tax uses the kerosene for a feedstock purpose; or

(ii) The kerosene is sold for use by the buyer for a feedstock purpose and, at the time of the sale, the person otherwise liable for tax has an unexpired certificate (described in paragraph (e) of this section) from the buyer and has no reason to believe any information in the certificate is false.

(d) Later sale—(1) In general. Paragraph (c) of this section does not apply with respect to kerosene that is sold as described in paragraph (c)(3)(ii) of this section if the buyer in that sale (the certifying buyer) sells the kerosene.

(2) Imposition of tax; liability for tax. Notwithstanding §§48.4081-2 and 48.4081-3, in any case in which paragraph (d)(1) of this section applies, tax with respect to that kerosene is imposed at the time of the sale by the certifying buyer and the certifying buyer is liable for the tax.

(3) Rate of tax. For the rate of tax, see section 4081.

(e) Certificate—(1) In general. The certificate described in this paragraph (e) is a statement by a buyer that is signed under penalties of perjury by a person with authority to bind the buyer, is in substantially the same form as the model certificate provided in paragraph (e)(2) of this section, and contains all information necessary to complete the model certificate. A new certificate or notice that the current certificate is invalid must be given if any information in the current certificate changes. The certificate may be included as part of any business records normally used to document a sale. The certificate expires on the earliest of the following dates:

(i) The date one year after the effective date of the certificate (which may be no earlier than the date it is signed).

(ii) The date the buyer provides the seller a new certificate or notice that the current certificate is invalid.

(iii) The date the seller is notified by the Internal Revenue Service or the buyer that the buyer's registration has been revoked or suspended.

(2) Model certificate.

CERTIFICATE OF REGISTERED FEEDSTOCK USER

(To support tax-free removals and entries of kerosene under section 4082 of the Internal Revenue Code.)

___________________(Buyer) certifies the following

Name of Buyer

under penalties of perjury:

Buyer is a registered feedstock user with registration number ____. Buyer's registration has not been revoked or suspended.

The kerosene to which this certificate applies will be used by Buyer for a feedstock purpose.

This certificate applies to ____ percent of Buyer's purchases from ____________ (name, address, and employer identification number of seller as follows (complete as applicable):

1. A single purchase on invoice or delivery ticket number ______.

2. All purchases between ______ (effective date) and ______ (expiration date) (period not to exceed one year after the effective date) under account or order number(s) ______. If this certificate applies only to Buyer's purchases for certain locations, check here ____ and list the locations.

   
   
   

If Buyer sells the kerosene to which this certificate relates, Buyer will be liable for tax on that sale.

Buyer will provide a new certificate to the seller if any information in this certificate changes.

If Buyer violates the terms of this certificate, the Internal Revenue Service may revoke Buyer's registration.

Buyer understands that the fraudulent use of this certificate may subject Buyer and all parties making any fraudulent use of this certificate to a fine or imprisonment, or both, together with the costs of prosecution.

 

Printed or typed name of person signing

 

Title of person signing

 

Employer identification number

 

Address of Buyer

 

Signature and date signed

 

(f) Effective date. This section is applicable after March 30, 2000, except that paragraph (d) of this section is applicable after June 30, 2000.

[T.D. 8879, 65 FR 17158, Mar. 31, 2000]

§48.4083-1   Taxable fuel; administrative authority.

(a) In general—(1) Authority to inspect. Officers or employees of the IRS designated by the Commissioner, upon presenting appropriate credentials and a written notice to the owner, operator, or agent in charge, are authorized to enter any place and to conduct inspections in accordance with paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section.

(2) Reasonableness. Inspections will be performed in a reasonable manner and at times that are reasonable under the circumstances, taking into consideration the normal business hours of the place to be entered.

(b) Place of inspection—(1) In general. Inspections may be at any place at which taxable fuel is (or may be) produced or stored or at any inspection site where evidence of activities described in section 6715(a) may be discovered. These places may include, but are not limited to—

(i) Any terminal;

(ii) Any fuel storage facility that is not a terminal;

(iii) Any retail fuel facility; or

(iv) Any designated inspection site.

(2) Designated inspection sites. A designated inspection site is any State highway inspection station, weigh station, agricultural inspection station, mobile station, or other location designated by the Commissioner to be used as a fuel inspection site. A designated inspection site will be identified as a fuel inspection site.

(c) Scope of inspection—(1) Inspection. Officers or employees may physically inspect, examine or otherwise search any tank, reservoir, or other container that can or may be used for the production, storage, or transportation of fuel, fuel dyes, or fuel markers. Inspection may also be made of any equipment used for, or in connection with, production, storage, or transportation of fuel, fuel dyes, or fuel markers. This includes any equipment used for the dyeing or marking of fuel. This also includes books and records, if any, that are maintained at the place of inspection and are kept to determine excise tax liability under section 4081.

(2) Detainment. Officers or employees may detain any vehicle or train for the purpose of inspecting its fuel tanks and storage tanks. Detainment will be either on the premises under inspection or at a designated inspection site. Detainment may continue for such reasonable period of time as is necessary to determine the amount and composition of the fuel.

(3) Removal of samples. Officers or employees may take and remove samples of fuel in such quantities as are reasonably necessary to determine the composition of the fuel.

(d) Refusal to submit to inspection. For the penalty for any refusal to permit an entry or inspection authorized by this section, see section 4083(c)(3). This penalty is in addition to any tax that may be imposed by section 4041 or 4081 and any penalty that may be imposed by section 6715.

(e) Effective date. This section is effective January 1, 1994.

[T.D. 8659, 61 FR 10458, Mar. 14, 1996, as amended by T.D. 8685, 61 FR 58007, Nov. 12, 1996; T.D. 8879, 65 FR 17159, Mar. 31, 2000]

§48.4091-3   {Reserved]

§48.4101-1   Taxable fuel; registration.

(a) In general. (1) This section provides rules relating to registration under section 4101 for purposes of the federal excise tax on taxable fuel imposed by sections 4041(a)(1) and 4081 and the credit or payment allowed to certain ultimate vendors of diesel fuel and kerosene under section 6427.

(2) A person is registered under section 4101 only if the district director has issued a registration letter to the person and the registration has not been revoked or suspended. However, the United States is treated as registered under section 4101.

(3) A refiner that is registered under section 4101 may, with respect to the bulk removal of any batch of gasohol from its refinery, treat itself as a person that is not registered. See §48.4081-3(b)(1)(iii).

(4) Each business unit that has, or is required to have, a separate employer identification number is treated as a separate person. Thus, two business units (for example, a parent corporation and a subsidiary corporation, or a proprietorship and a related partnership), each of which has a different employer identification number, are two persons.

(5) A registration in effect on December 31, 1993, with respect to the tax on gasoline or diesel fuel is subject to the district director's review, and to revocation or suspension, under the standards set forth in this section, but remains in effect until the earlier of—

(i) The effective date of a registration issued under paragraph (g)(3) of this section; or

(ii) The effective date of the revocation or suspension of the registration under paragraph (i) of this section.

(6)(i) A person is treated as a taxable fuel registrant if on June 30, 1998, the person—

(A) Is an enterer, refiner, terminal operator, or throughputter with respect to kerosene and is registered under section 4101 as a producer or importer of aviation fuel;

(B) Operates one or more terminals that store kerosene (and no other type of taxable fuel); or

(C) Is a commercial airline, an operator of aircraft in noncommercial aviation, or a fixed base operator and is also a position holder with respect to kerosene.

(ii) A person treated as registered under paragraph (a)(6)(i) of this section is treated as registered from July 1, 1998, until the earlier of—

(A) The date of a subsequent denial of an application for registration under paragraph (g)(2) of this section;

(B) The effective date of a subsequent registration issued under paragraph (g)(3) of this section;

(C) The effective date of a subsequent revocation or suspension of registration under paragraph (i) of this section; or

(D) July 1, 1999.

(b) Definitions—(1) Applicant. An applicant is a person that has applied for registration under paragraph (e) of this section.

(2) Bonded registrant. A bonded registrant is a person that has given a bond to the district director under paragraph (j) of this section as a condition of registration.

(3) Gasohol bonding amount. The gasohol bonding amount is the product of—

(i) The rate of tax applicable to later separation, as described in §48.4081-6(f)(1)(iii); and

(ii) The total number of gallons of gasoline expected to be bought at the gasohol production tax rate by the gasohol blender during a representative 6-month period (as determined by the district director).

(4) Penalized for a wrongful act. A person has been penalized for a wrongful act if the person has—

(i) Been assessed any penalty under chapter 68 of the Internal Revenue Code (or similar provision of the law of any State) for fraudulently failing to file any return or pay any tax, and the penalty has not been wholly abated, refunded, or credited;

(ii) Been assessed any penalty under chapter 68 of the Internal Revenue Code, such penalty has not been wholly abated, refunded, or credited, and the district director determines that the conduct resulting in the penalty is part of a consistent pattern of failing to deposit, pay, or pay over a substantial amount of tax;

(iii) Been convicted of a crime under chapter 75 of the Internal Revenue Code (or similar provision of the law of any State), or of conspiracy to commit such a crime, and the conviction has not been wholly reversed by a court of competent jurisdiction;

(iv) Been convicted, under the laws of the United States or any State, of a felony for which an element of the offense is theft, fraud, or the making of false statements, and the conviction has not been wholly reversed by a court of competent jurisdiction;

(v) Been assessed any tax under section 4103 and the tax has not been wholly abated, refunded, or credited; or

(vi) Had its registration under section 4101 or 4222 revoked.

(5) Related person. A related person is a person that—

(i) Directly or indirectly exercises control over an activity of the applicant if the activity is described in paragraph (c)(1) or (d) of this section;

(ii) Owns, directly or indirectly, five percent or more of the applicant;

(iii) Is under a duty to assure the payment of a tax for which the applicant is responsible;

(iv) Is a member, with the applicant, of a group of organizations (as defined in §1.52-1(b) of this chapter) that would be treated as a group of trades or businesses under common control for purposes of §1.52-1 of this chapter; or

(v) Distributed or transferred assets to the applicant in a transaction in which the applicant's basis in the assets is determined by reference to the basis of the assets in the hands of the distributor or transferor.

(6) Registrant. A registrant is a person that the district director has, in accordance with paragraph (g)(3) of this section, registered under section 4101 and whose registration has not been revoked or suspended.

(7) Pipeline operator. A pipeline operator is any person that operates a pipeline within the bulk transfer/terminal system.

(8) Vessel operator. A vessel operator is any person that operates a vessel within the bulk transfer/terminal system. However, for purposes of this definition, vessel does not include a deep draft ocean-going vessel (as defined in §48.4042-3(a)).

(9) Other definitions. For other definitions relating to taxable fuel, see §§48.4081-1, 48.4081-6(b), 48.4082-5(b), 48.4082-6(b), 48.4082-7(b), 48.6427-9(b), 48.6427-10(b), and 48.6427-11(b).

(c) Persons required to be registered—(1) In general. A person is required to be registered under section 4101 if the person is—

(i) A blender;

(ii) An enterer;

(iii) A pipeline operator;

(iv) A position holder;

(v) A refiner;

(vi) A terminal operator; or

(vii) A vessel operator.

(2) Bus and train operators. Every operator of a bus or train is required to be registered under section 4101 at any time it incurs any liability for tax under section 4041 at the bus rate (as described in §48.4082-4(b)(3)(i)) or the train rate (as described in §48.4082-4(b)(3)(ii)).

(3) Consequences of failing to register. For the criminal penalty imposed for failure to register, see section 7232. For the civil penalty imposed for failure to register, see section 7272.

(d) Persons that may, but are not required to, be registered. A person may, but is not required to, be registered under section 4101 if the person is—

(1) A feedstock user;

(2) A gasohol blender;

(3) An industrial user;

(4) A throughputter that is not a position holder;

(5) An ultimate vendor; or

(6) An ultimate vendor (blocked pump).

(e) Application instructions. Application for registration under section 4101 must be made in accordance with the instructions for Form 637 (or such other form as the Commissioner may designate).

(f) Registration tests—(1) In general—(i) Persons other than ultimate vendors, pipeline operators, and vessel operators. Except as provided in paragraph (f)(1)(ii) of this section, the district director will register an applicant only if the district director determines that the applicant meets the following three tests (collectively, the registration tests):

(A) The activity test of paragraph (f)(2) of this section.

(B) The acceptable risk test of paragraph (f)(3) of this section.

(C) The adequate security test of paragraph (f)(4) of this section.

(ii) Ultimate vendors, pipeline operators, and vessel operators. The district director will register an applicant as an ultimate vendor, ultimate vendor (blocked pump), pipeline operator, or vessel operator only if the district director—

(A) Determines that the applicant meets the activity test of paragraph (f)(2) of this section; and

(B) Is satisfied with the filing, deposit, payment, and claim history for all federal taxes of the applicant and any related person.

(2) The activity test. An applicant meets the activity test of this paragraph (f)(2) only if the district director determines that the applicant—

(i) Is, in the course of its trade or business, regularly engaged as an operator of a bus or train or in the characteristic activity of a person described in paragraph (c)(1) or (d) of this section; or

(ii) Is likely to be (because of such factors as the applicant's business experience, financial standing, or trade connections), in the course of its trade or business, regularly engaged as an operator of a bus or train or in the characteristic activity of a person described in paragraph (c)(1) or (d) of this section within a reasonable time after becoming registered under section 4101.

(3) Acceptable risk test—(i) In general. An applicant meets the acceptable risk test of this paragraph (f)(3) only if—

(A) Neither the applicant nor a related person has been penalized for a wrongful act; or

(B) Even though the applicant or a related person has been penalized for a wrongful act, the district director determines, after review of evidence offered by the applicant, that the registration of the applicant does not create a significant risk of nonpayment or late payment of the tax imposed by sections 4041(a)(1) and 4081.

(ii) Significant risk of nonpayment or late payment of tax. In making the determination described in paragraph (f)(3)(i)(B) of this section, the district director may consider factors such as the following:

(A) The time elapsed since the applicant or related person was penalized for a wrongful act.

(B) The present relationship between the applicant and any related person that was penalized for any wrongful act.

(C) The degree of rehabilitation of the person penalized for any wrongful act.

(D) The amount of bond given by the applicant. In this regard, the district director may accept a bond under paragraph (j) of this section, without regard to the limits on the amount of the bond set by paragraph (j)(2) of this section.

(4) Adequate security test—(i) In general. An applicant meets the adequate security test of this paragraph (f)(4) only if the district director determines that the applicant has both adequate financial resources and a satisfactory tax history, or the applicant gives the district director a bond (under the provisions of paragraph (j) of this section).

(ii) Adequate financial resources—(A) In general. An applicant has adequate financial resources only if the district director determines that the applicant is financially capable of paying—

(1) Its expected tax liability under sections 4041(a)(1) and 4081 for a representative 6-month period (as determined by the district director);

(2) In the case of a terminal operator, the expected tax liability under section 4081 of persons other than the terminal operator with respect to taxable fuel removed at the racks of its terminals during a representative 1-month period (as determined by the district director); and

(3) In the case of a gasohol blender, the gasohol bonding amount.

(B) Basis for determination. The determination under §48.4101-1(f)(4)(ii) must be based on all information relevant to the applicant's financial status.

(iii) Satisfactory tax history. An applicant has a satisfactory tax history only if the district director is satisfied with the filing, deposit, and payment history for all federal taxes of the applicant and any related person.

(g) Action on the application by the district director—(1) Review of application. The district director may investigate the accuracy and completeness of any representations made by an applicant, request any additional relevant information from the applicant, and inspect the applicant's premises during normal business hours without advance notice.

(2) Denial. If the district director determines that an applicant does not meet all of the applicable registration tests described in paragraph (f) of this section, the district director must notify the applicant, in writing, that its application for registration is denied and state the basis for the denial.

(3) Approval. If the district director determines that an applicant meets all of the applicable registration tests described in paragraph (f) of this section, the district director must register the applicant under section 4101 and issue the applicant a letter of registration containing the effective date of the registration. The effective date of the registration must be no earlier than the date on which the district director signs the letter of registration. A copy of an application for registration (Form 637) is not a letter of registration.

(h) Terms and conditions of registration—(1) Affirmative duties. Each registrant must—

(i) Make deposits, file returns, and pay taxes required by the Internal Revenue Code and the regulations;

(ii) Keep records sufficient to show the registrant's tax liability under sections 4041(a)(1) and 4081 and payments or deposits of such liability;

(iii) Make all information reports required under section 4101(d);

(iv) Make available for inspection on demand by the Internal Revenue Service during normal business hours records relevant to a determination of tax liability under sections 4041(a)(1) and 4081; and

(v) Notify the district director of any change (such as a change in ownership) in the information the registrant submitted in connection with its application for registration, or previously submitted under this paragraph (h)(1)(v), within 10 days after the change occurs.

(2) Prohibited actions. A registrant may not—

(i) Sell, lease or otherwise allow another person to use its registration;

(ii) Make any false statement to the district director in connection with a submission under paragraph (h)(1) or (h)(3) of this section;

(iii) Make any false statement on, or violate the terms of, any certificate given to another person to support an exemption from, or a reduced rate of, the tax imposed by section 4081; or

(iv) In the case of an ultimate vendor (blocked pump), deliver kerosene (or allow kerosene to be delivered) into the fuel supply tank of a diesel-powered highway vehicle or diesel-powered train from a blocked pump.

(3) Additional terms and conditions for terminal operators—(i) Notice required with respect to dyed diesel fuel and dyed kerosene. A legible and conspicuous notice stating “DYED DIESEL FUEL, NONTAXABLE USE ONLY, PENALTY FOR TAXABLE USE” must be provided by each terminal operator to any person that receives dyed diesel fuel at a terminal rack of that operator. A legible and conspicuous notice stating “DYED KEROSENE, NONTAXABLE USE ONLY, PENALTY FOR TAXABLE USE” must be provided by each terminal operator to any person that receives dyed kerosene at a terminal rack of that operator. These notices must be provided by the time of the removal and must appear on all shipping papers, bills of lading, and similar documents that are provided by the terminal operator to accompany the removal of the fuel.

(ii) Records to be maintained relating to removals of diesel fuel or kerosene. Each terminal operator must keep the following information with respect to each rack removal of diesel fuel or kerosene at each terminal it operates:

(A) The bill of lading or other shipping document.

(B) The record of whether the fuel was dyed and marked in accordance with §48.4082-1.

(C) The volume and date of the removal.

(D) The identity of the person, such as a common carrier, that physically received the fuel.

(E) Any other information required by the Commissioner.

(iii) Records to be maintained relating to dye. With respect to each of its terminals, a terminal operator must keep records relating to dye inventories and usage.

(iv) [Reserved]. For further guidance, see §48.4101-1T(h)(3)(iv).

(v) Prohibition on providing incorrect information. In connection with the removal of diesel fuel or kerosene that is not dyed and marked in accordance with §48.4082-1, a terminal operator may not provide any person (including the position holder with respect to the fuel) with any bill of lading, shipping paper, or similar document indicating that the diesel fuel or kerosene is dyed and marked in accordance with §48.4082-1.

(i) Adverse actions by the district director against a registrant—(1) Mandatory revocation or suspension. The district director must revoke or suspend the registration of any registrant if the district director determines that the registrant, at any time—

(i) Does not meet one or more of the applicable registration tests under paragraph (f) of this section and has not corrected the deficiency within a reasonable period of time after notification by the district director;

(ii) Has used its registration to evade, or attempt to evade, the payment of any tax imposed by section 4041(a)(1) or 4081, or to postpone or in any manner to interfere with the collection of any such tax, or to make a fraudulent claim for a credit or payment;

(iii) Has aided or abetted another person in evading, or attempting to evade, payment of any tax imposed by section 4041(a)(1) or 4081, or in making a fraudulent claim for a credit or payment; or

(iv) Has sold, leased, or otherwise allowed another person to use its registration.

(2) Remedial action permitted in other cases. If the district director determines that a registrant has, at any time, failed to comply with the terms and conditions of registration under paragraph (h) of this section, made a false statement to the district director in connection with its application for registration or retention of registration, or otherwise used its registration in a manner that creates a significant risk of nonpayment or late payment of tax, then the district director may—

(i) Revoke or suspend the registrant's registration;

(ii) In the case of a registrant other than an ultimate vendor or an ultimate vendor (blocked pump), require the registrant to give a bond under the provisions of paragraph (j) of this section as a condition of retaining its registration; and

(iii) In the case of a registrant other than an ultimate vendor or an ultimate vendor (blocked pump), require the registrant to file monthly or semimonthly returns under §40.6011(a)-1(b) of this chapter as a condition of retaining its registration.

(3) Action by the district director to revoke or suspend a registration. If the district director revokes or suspends a registration, the district director must so notify the registrant in writing and state the basis for the revocation or suspension. The effective date of the revocation or suspension may not be earlier than the date on which the district director notifies the registrant.

(j) Bonds—(1) Form. Each bond given to the district director as a condition of registration under paragraph (f)(4)(i) or (i)(2)(ii) of this section must be executed in the form prescribed by the district director. Each bond must be—

(i) A public debt obligation of the United States Government;

(ii) An obligation the principal and interest of which are unconditionally guaranteed by the United States Government;

(iii) A bond executed by a surety company listed in Department of the Treasury Circular 570 as an acceptable surety or reinsurer of federal bonds (a surety bond); or

(iv) Any other bond with security (including liens under section 4101(b)(1)(B)) considered acceptable by the district director.

(2) Amount of bond. A bond given under this paragraph (j) must be in an amount that the district director determines will ensure timely collection of the taxes imposed by sections 4041(a)(1) and 4081, taking into account the applicant's financial capabilities, tax history, and expected liability under sections 4041(a)(1) and 4081. The district director may increase or decrease the amount of the required bond to take into account changes in the applicant's financial capabilities, tax history, and expected liability under sections 4041(a)(1) and 4081. However, in no case may the amount of the bond be greater than the amount that the district director determines is equal to—

(i) The applicant's expected tax liability under sections 4041(a)(1) and 4081 for a representative 6-month period (as determined by the district director);

(ii) In the case of a terminal operator, the expected tax liability of persons other than the terminal operator under section 4081 with respect to taxable fuel removed at the racks of its terminals (determined as if all removals of taxable fuel were taxable) during a representative 1-month period (as determined by the district director); and

(iii) In the case of a gasohol blender, the gasohol bonding amount.

(3) Collection of taxes from a bond. If a bonded registrant does not pay the amount of tax it incurs under section 4041(a)(1) or 4081 by the time prescribed in section 6151 for paying that tax, the district director may collect the amount of the unpaid tax (including penalties and interest with respect to that tax) from the bonded registrant's bond.

(4) Termination of bonds—(i) Surety bonds. A surety on a bond may give written notice to the district director and the bonded registrant that the surety desires to be relieved of liability under the bond after a certain date, which date must be at least 60 days after the receipt of the notice by the district director. The surety will be relieved of any liability that the bonded registrant incurs after the date named in the notice. However, the surety remains liable for the amount of tax that the bonded registrant incurred under sections 4041(a)(1) and 4081 during the term of the bond and for penalties and interest with respect to that tax.

(ii) Other bonds. A bond (other than a surety bond) given to the district director may be returned to the bonded registrant only after the earlier of—

(A) The district director's determination that the bonded registrant has paid all taxes that the bonded registrant incurred under sections 4041(a)(1) and 4081 during the period covered by the bond and any penalties and interest with respect to the taxes;

(B) The expiration of the period for assessment of the taxes that the bonded registrant incurred under sections 4041(a)(1) and 4081 taxes during the period covered by the bond, as determined under the provisions of subchapter A of chapter 66 of the Internal Revenue Code; or

(C) The date that the district director receives from the registrant a substitute bond given under this paragraph (j).

(5) Determination that bond is no longer required. If the district director determines that the bonded registrant meets the adequate security test of paragraph (f)(4) of this section without a bond, the registrant is to be released from the obligation to give a bond as a condition of registration under section 4101.

(k) Cross references. For a rule relating to the filing of monthly and semimonthly returns by certain persons that are registered under section 4101, see §40.6011(a)-1(b)(2) of this chapter. For rules relating to the tax on taxable fuel, see §§48.4081-1 through 48.4083-1. For rules relating to claims by registered ultimate vendors, see §48.6427-9. For rules relating to claims by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pump), see §48.6427-10.

(l) Effective dates. (1) Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (l), this section is applicable as of January 1, 1994.

(2) Paragraph (c)(1) of this section (relating to persons required to be registered) is applicable as of January 1, 1995, except that paragraphs (c)(1)(iii) and (c)(1)(vii) of this section are applicable after March 31, 2001.

(3) Paragraph (h)(3)(iii) of this section (relating to certain recordkeeping requirements) is applicable as of July 1, 1996.

(4) References in this section to kerosene are applicable after June 30, 1998.

(5) Applicability date. Paragraph (f)(4)(ii)(B) of this section applies on and after July 6, 2011.

[T.D. 8659, 61 FR 10459, Mar. 14, 1996; 61 FR 28053, June 4, 1996, as amended by T.D. 8879, 65 FR 17159, Mar. 31, 2000; 65 FR 26488, May 8, 2000; T.D. 9199, 70 FR 21334, Apr. 26, 2005; T.D. 9533, 76 FR 39283, July 6, 2011; 78 FR 9637, 78 FR 54761, Sept. 6, 2013]

§48.4101-2   Information reporting.

(a) In general. Each information report under section 4101(d) must be—

(1) Made in the form required by the Commissioner;

(2) Made for a period of one calendar month; and

(3) Filed by the last day of the first month following the month for which the report is made, except that a report relating to any month during 2000 must be filed by February 28, 2001.

(b) Effective date. This section is applicable after March 30, 2000.

[T.D. 8879, 65 FR 17160, Mar. 31, 2000]

§48.4102-1   Inspection of records by State or local tax officers.

(a) Inspection of records maintained by taxpayer. The records that a taxpayer is required to keep with respect to the taxes imposed by section 4081 or 4091 must be open to inspection by any officer of any State or political subdivision thereof, or of the District of Columbia, who is charged with the enforcement or collection of any tax on taxable fuel or aviation fuel.

(b) Inspection of records maintained by Internal Revenue Service—(1) In general. The records maintained by the Internal Revenue Service with respect to the taxes imposed by sections 4081 and 4091 shall, upon the request of an officer (described in paragraph (b)(2) of this section) of a State or political subdivision thereof, or of the District of Columbia, be open to inspection by the officer for purposes of collection or enforcement.

(2) Requests for inspection. Requests for inspection under this paragraph shall be made in writing, signed by any officer of a State, political subdivision, or the District of Columbia, who is charged with the enforcement or collection of any tax on taxable fuel or aviation fuel imposed by the State, political subdivision, or the District of Columbia, and shall be addressed to the director of the Internal Revenue Service Center having custody of the records which it is desired to inspect. Each such request shall state (i) the kind of records (whether pertaining to taxable fuel or aviation fuel) it is desired to inspect, (ii) the period or periods covered by the records involved, (iii) the name of the officer by whom the inspection is to be made, (iv) the name of the representative of the officer who has been designated to make the inspection, (v) by specific reference, the law of the State, political subdivision, or the District of Columbia imposing the tax which the officer is charged with collecting or enforcing, and the law under which the officer is so charged, and (vi) the purpose for which the inspection is to be made. The service center director will notify the person making the request upon approval or disapproval of the request.

(3) Time and place for inspection. In any case where a request for inspection under this paragraph (b) is approved, the inspection shall be made in the office of the service center director having custody of the records which it is desired to inspect, but only in the presence of an internal revenue officer or employee and during the regular hours of business of the office.

[T.D. 7908, 48 FR 40222, Sept. 6, 1983, as amended by T.D. 8659, 61 FR 10462, Mar. 14, 1996]

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