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e-CFR data is current as of September 25, 2020

Title 25Chapter ISubchapter BPart 11 → Subpart J


Title 25: Indians
PART 11—COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE


Subpart J—Juvenile Offender Procedure


Contents
§11.1000   Complaint.
§11.1001   Warrant.
§11.1002   Custody.
§11.1003   Law enforcement officer's duties.
§11.1004   Detention and shelter care.
§11.1005   Preliminary inquiry.
§11.1006   Investigation by the presenting officer.
§11.1007   Petition.
§11.1008   Date of hearing.
§11.1009   Summons.
§11.1010   Adjudicatory hearing.
§11.1011   Dispositional hearing.
§11.1012   Dispositional alternatives.
§11.1013   Modification of dispositional order.
§11.1014   Medical examination.

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§11.1000   Complaint.

A complaint must be filed by a law enforcement officer or by the presenting officer and sworn to by a person who has knowledge of the facts alleged. The complaint shall be signed by the complaining witness, and shall contain:

(a) A citation to the specific section(s) of this part which gives the children's court jurisdiction of the proceedings;

(b) A citation to the section(s) of this part which the minor is alleged to have violated;

(c) The name, age, and address of the minor who is the subject of the complaint, if known; and

(d) A plain and concise statement of the facts upon which the allegations are based, including the date, time, and location at which the alleged facts occurred.

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§11.1001   Warrant.

The children's court may issue a warrant directing that a minor be taken into custody if the court finds there is probable cause to believe the minor committed the delinquent act alleged in the complaint.

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§11.1002   Custody.

A minor may be taken into custody by a law enforcement officer if:

(a) The officer observes the minor committing a delinquent act; or

(b) The officer has reasonable grounds to believe a delinquent act has been committed that would be a crime if committed by an adult, and that the minor has committed the delinquent act; or

(c) A warrant pursuant to §11.1001 has been issued for the minor.

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§11.1003   Law enforcement officer's duties.

A law enforcement officer who takes a minor into custody pursuant to §11.1002 of this part shall:

(a) Give the following warnings to any minor taken into custody prior to any questioning:

(1) The minor has a right to remain silent;

(2) Anything the minor says can be used against the minor in court;

(3) The minor has the right to the presence of counsel during questioning; and

(4) If he or she cannot afford counsel, the court will appoint one.

(b) Release the minor to the minor's parent, guardian, or custodian and issue a verbal advice or warning as may be appropriate, unless shelter care or detention is necessary.

(c) If the minor is not released, make immediate and recurring efforts to notify the minor's parents, guardian, or custodian to inform them that the minor has been taken into custody and inform them of their right to be present with the minor until an investigation to determine the need for shelter care or detention is made by the court.

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§11.1004   Detention and shelter care.

(a) A minor alleged to be a juvenile offender may be detained, pending a court hearing, in the following places:

(1) A foster care facility approved by the tribe;

(2) A detention home approved by the tribe; or

(3) A private family home approved by the tribe.

(b) A minor who is 16 years of age or older may be detained in a jail facility used for the detention of adults only if:

(1) A facility in paragraph (a) of this section is not available or would not assure adequate supervision of the minor;

(2) The minor is housed in a separate room from the detained adults; and

(3) Routine inspection of the room where the minor is housed is conducted every 30 minutes to assure his or her safety and welfare.

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§11.1005   Preliminary inquiry.

(a) If a minor is placed in detention or shelter care, the children's court shall conduct a preliminary inquiry within 24 hours for the purpose of determining:

(1) Whether probable cause exist to believe the minor committed the alleged delinquent act; and

(2) Whether continued detention or shelter care is necessary pending further proceedings.

(b) If a minor has been released to the parents, guardian or custodian, the children's court shall conduct a preliminary inquiry within three days after receipt of the complaint for the sole purpose of determining whether probable cause exists to believe the minor committed the alleged delinquent act.

(c) If the minor's parents, guardian or custodian is not present at the preliminary inquiry, the children's court shall determine what efforts have been made to notify and to obtain the presence of the parents, guardian, or custodian. If it appears that further efforts are likely to produce the parents, guardian or custodian, the children's court shall recess for no more than 24 hours and direct that continued efforts be made to obtain the presence of parents, guardian or custodian.

(d) All the rights listed in §11.906 shall be afforded the parties in a preliminary inquiry.

(e) The children's court shall hear testimony concerning:

(1) The circumstances that gave rise to the complaint or the taking of the minor into custody; and

(2) The need for detention or shelter care.

(f) If the children's court finds that probable cause exists to believe the minor performed the delinquent act, the minor shall be released to the parents, guardian or custodian, and ordered to appear at the adjudicatory hearing unless:

(1) The act is serious enough to warrant continued detention or shelter care;

(2) There is reasonable cause to believe the minor will run away and be unavailable for further proceedings; or

(3) There is reasonable cause to believe that the minor will commit a serious act causing damage to person or property.

(g) The children's court may release a minor pursuant to paragraph (f) of this section to a relative or other responsible adult tribal member if the parent, guardian, or custodian of the minor consents to the release. If the minor is ten years of age or older, the minor and the parents, guardian or custodian must both consent to the release.

(h) Upon a finding that probable cause exists to believe that the minor has committed the alleged delinquent act and that there is need for detention or shelter care, the minor's detention or shelter care shall be continued. Otherwise, the complaint shall be dismissed and the minor released.

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§11.1006   Investigation by the presenting officer.

(a) The presenting officer shall make an investigation following the preliminary inquiry or the release of the minor to his or her parents, guardian or custodian to determine whether the interests of the minor and the public require that further action be taken. Upon the basis of this investigation, the presenting officer may:

(1) Determine that no further action be taken;

(2) Begin transfer proceedings to the Court of Indian Offenses pursuant to §11.907 of this part; or

(3) File a petition pursuant to §11.1007 of this part to initiate further proceedings. The petition shall be filed within 48 hours of the preliminary inquiry if the minor is in detention or shelter care. If the minor has been previously released to his or her parents, guardian or custodian, relative or responsible adult, the petition shall be filed within ten days of the preliminary inquiry.

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§11.1007   Petition.

(a) Proceedings under §§11.1000-11.1014 of this part shall be instituted by a petition filed by the presenting officer on behalf of the tribe and in the interests of the minor. The petition shall state:

(1) The name, birth date, and residence of the minor;

(2) The names and residences of the minor's parents, guardian or custodian;

(3) A citation to the specific section(s) of this part which gives the children's court jurisdiction of the proceedings;

(4) A citation to the section(s) of this part which the minor is alleged to have violated; and

(5) If the minor is in detention or shelter care, the time the minor was taken into custody.

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§11.1008   Date of hearing.

Upon receipt of the petition, the children's court shall set a date for the hearing which shall not be more than 15 days after the children's court receives the petition from the presenting officer. If the adjudicatory hearing is not held within 15 days after filing of the petition, the petition shall be dismissed and cannot be filed again, unless;

(a) The hearing is continued upon motion of the minor; or

(b) The hearing is continued upon motion of the presenting officer by reason of the unavailability of material evidence or witnesses and the children's court finds the presenting officer has exercised due diligence to obtain the material evidence or witnesses and reasonable grounds exist to believe that the material evidence or witnesses will become available.

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§11.1009   Summons.

(a) At least five working days prior to the adjudicatory hearing, the children's court shall issue summons to:

(1) The minor;

(2) The minor's parents, guardian or custodian; and

(3) Any person the children's court or the minor believes necessary for the adjudication of the hearing.

(b) The summons shall contain the name of the court, the title of the proceedings, and the date, time and place of the hearing.

(c) A copy of the petition shall be attached to the summons.

(d) The summons shall be delivered personally by a law enforcement officer or appointee of the children's court. If the summons cannot be delivered personally, the court may deliver it by certified mail.

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§11.1010   Adjudicatory hearing.

(a) The children's court shall conduct the adjudicatory hearing for the sole purpose of determining the guilt or innocence of the minor. The hearing shall be private and closed.

(b) All the rights listed in §11.906 shall be afforded the parties at the adjudicatory hearing. The notice requirements of §11.906(a) are met by a summons issued pursuant to §11.1009.

(c) If the minor admits the allegations of the petition, the children's court shall proceed to the dispositional stage only if the children's court finds that:

(1) The minor fully understands his or her rights as set forth in §11.906 of this part and fully understands the potential consequences of admitting the allegations;

(2) The minor voluntarily, intelligently and knowingly admits to all facts necessary to constitute a basis for children's court action; and

(3) The minor has not, in the purported admission to the allegations, set forth facts which, if found to be true, constitute a defense to the allegations.

(d) The children's court shall hear testimony concerning the circumstances which gave rise to the complaint.

(e) If the allegations of the petition are sustained by proof beyond a reasonable doubt, the children's court shall find the minor to be a juvenile offender and proceed to the dispositional hearing.

(f) A finding that a minor is a juvenile offender constitutes a final order for purposes of appeal.

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§11.1011   Dispositional hearing.

(a) A dispositional hearing shall take place not more than 15 days after the adjudicatory hearing.

(b) At the dispositional hearing, the children's court shall hear evidence on the question of proper disposition.

(c) All the rights listed in §11.906 shall be afforded the parties in the dispositional hearing.

(d) At the dispositional hearing, the children's court shall consider any predisposition report, physician's report or social study it may have ordered and afford the parents an opportunity to controvert the factual contents and conclusions of the reports. The children's court shall also consider the alternative predisposition report prepared by the minor and his or her attorney, if any.

(e) The dispositional order constitutes a final order for purposes of appeal.

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§11.1012   Dispositional alternatives.

(a) If a minor has been adjudged a juvenile offender, the children's court may make the following disposition:

(1) Place the minor on probation subject to conditions set by the children's court;

(2) Place the minor in an agency or institution designated by the children's court; or

(3) Order restitution to the aggrieved party.

(b) The dispositional orders are to be in effect for the time limit set by the children's court, but no order may continue after the minor reaches 18 years of age, unless the dispositional order was made within six months of the minor's eighteenth birthday or after the minor had reached 18 years of age, in which case the disposition may not continue for more than six months.

(c) The dispositional order is to be reviewed at the children's court discretion, but at least once every six months.

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§11.1013   Modification of dispositional order.

(a) A dispositional order of the children's court may be modified upon a showing of a change of circumstances.

(b) The children's court may modify a dispositional order at any time upon the motion of the minor or the minor's parents, guardian or custodian.

(c) If the modification involves a change of custody, the children's court shall conduct a hearing pursuant to paragraph (d) of this section.

(d) A hearing to review a dispositional order shall be conducted as follows:

(1) All the rights listed in §11.906 shall be afforded the parties in the hearing to review the dispositional order. The notice required by paragraph (a) of §11.906 shall be given at least 48 hours before the hearing.

(2) The children's court shall review the performance of the minor, the minor's parents, guardian or custodian, and other persons providing assistance to the minor and the minor's family.

(3) In determining modification of disposition, the procedures prescribed in §11.1011 of this part shall apply.

(4) If the request for review of disposition is based upon an alleged violation of a court order, the children's court shall not modify its dispositional order unless it finds clear and convincing evidence of the violation.

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§11.1014   Medical examination.

The children's court may order a medical examination for a minor who is alleged to be a juvenile offender.

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