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Title 25Chapter ISubchapter BPart 11 → Subpart F


Title 25: Indians
PART 11—COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE


Subpart F—Domestic Relations


Contents
§11.600   Marriages.
§11.601   Marriage licenses.
§11.602   Solemnization.
§11.603   Invalid or prohibited marriages.
§11.604   Declaration of invalidity.
§11.605   Dissolution.
§11.606   Dissolution proceedings.
§11.607   Temporary orders and temporary injunctions.
§11.608   Final decree; disposition of property; maintenance; child support; custody.
§11.609   Determination of paternity and support.
§11.610   Appointment of guardians.
§11.611   Change of name.

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§11.600   Marriages.

(a) A magistrate of the Court of Indian Offenses shall have the authority to perform marriages.

(b) A valid marriage shall be constituted by:

(1) The issuance of a marriage license by the Court of Indian Offenses and by execution of a consent to marriage by both parties to the marriage and recorded with the clerk of the court; or

(2) The recording of a tribal custom marriage with the Court of Indian Offenses within 30 days of the tribal custom marriage ceremony by the signing by both parties of a marriage register maintained by the clerk of the court.

(c) A marriage license application shall include the following information:

(1) Name, sex, occupation, address, social security number, and date and place of birth of each party to the proposed marriage;

(2) If either party was previously married, his or her name, and the date, place, and court in which the marriage was dissolved or declared invalid or the date and place of death of the former spouse;

(3) Name and address of the parents or guardian of each party;

(4) Whether the parties are related to each other and, if so, their relationship; and

(5) The name and date of birth of any child of which both parties are parents, born before the making of the application, unless their parental rights and the parent and child relationship with respect to the child have been terminated.

(6) A certificate of the results of any medical examination required by either applicable tribal ordinances, or the laws of the State in which the Indian country under the jurisdiction of the Court of Indian Offenses is located.

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§11.601   Marriage licenses.

A marriage license shall be issued by the clerk of the court in the absence of any showing that the proposed marriage would be invalid under any provision of this part or tribal custom, and upon written application of an unmarried male and unmarried female, both of whom must be eighteen (18) years or older. If either party to the marriage is under the age of eighteen (18), that party must have the written consent of parent or his or her legal guardian.

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§11.602   Solemnization.

(a) In the event a judge, clergyman, tribal official or anyone authorized to do so solemnizes a marriage, he or she shall file with the clerk of the court certification thereof within thirty (30) days of the solemnization.

(b) Upon receipt of the marriage certificate, the clerk of the court shall register the marriage.

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§11.603   Invalid or prohibited marriages.

(a) The following marriages are prohibited:

(1) A marriage entered into prior to the dissolution of an earlier marriage of one of the parties;

(2) A marriage between an ancestor and a descendant, or between a brother and a sister, whether the relationship is by the half or the whole blood;

(3) A marriage between an aunt and a nephew or between an uncle and a niece, whether the relationship is by the half or the whole blood, except as to marriages permitted by established tribal custom;

(4) A marriage prohibited by custom and usage of the tribe.

(b) Children born of a prohibited marriage are legitimate.

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§11.604   Declaration of invalidity.

(a) The Court of Indian Offenses shall enter a decree declaring the invalidity of a marriage entered into under the following circumstances:

(1) A party lacked capacity to consent to the marriage, either because of mental incapacity or infirmity or by the influence of alcohol, drugs, or other incapacitating substances; or

(2) A party was induced to enter into a marriage by fraud or duress; or

(3) A party lacks the physical capacity to consummate the marriage by sexual intercourse and at the time the marriage was entered into, the other party did not know of the incapacity; or

(4) The marriage is prohibited under §11.603.

(b) A declaration of invalidity may be sought by either party to the marriage or by the legal representative of the party who lacked capacity to consent.

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§11.605   Dissolution.

(a) The Court of Indian Offenses shall enter a decree of dissolution of marriage if:

(1) The court finds that the marriage is irretrievably broken, if the finding is supported by evidence that (i) the parties have lived separate and apart for a period of more than 180 days next preceding the commencement of the proceeding, or (ii) there is serious marital discord adversely affecting the attitude of one or both of the parties towards the marriage;

(2) The court finds that either party, at the time the action was commenced, was domiciled within the Indian country under the jurisdiction of the court, and that the domicile has been maintained for 90 days next preceding the making of the findings; and

(3) To the extent it has jurisdiction to do so, the court has considered, approved, or provided for child custody, the support of any child entitled to support, the maintenance of either spouse, and the disposition of property; or has provided for a separate later hearing to complete these matters.

(b) If a party requests a decree of legal separation rather than a decree of dissolution of marriage, the Court of Indian Offenses shall grant the decree in that form unless the other party objects.

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§11.606   Dissolution proceedings.

(a) Either or both parties to the marriage may initiate dissolution proceedings.

(b) If a proceeding is commenced by one of the parties, the other party shall be served in the manner provided by the applicable rule of civil procedure and within thirty days after the date of service may file a verified response.

(c) The verified petition in a proceeding for dissolution of marriage or legal separation shall allege that the marriage is irretrievably broken and shall set forth:

(1) The age, occupation, and length of residence within the Indian country under the jurisdiction of the court of each party;

(2) The date of the marriage and the place at which it was registered;

(3) That jurisdictional requirements are met and that the marriage is irretrievably broken in that either (i) the parties have lived separate and apart for a period of more than 180 days next preceding the commencement of the proceeding or (ii) there is a serious marital discord adversely affecting the attitude of one or both of the parties toward the marriage, and there is no reasonable prospect of reconciliation;

(4) The names, age, and addresses of all living children of the marriage and whether the wife is pregnant;

(5) Any arrangement as to support, custody, and visitation of the children and maintenance of a spouse; and

(6) The relief sought.

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§11.607   Temporary orders and temporary injunctions.

(a) In a proceeding for dissolution of marriage or for legal separation, either party may move for temporary maintenance or temporary support of a child of the marriage entitled to support. The motion shall be accompanied by an affidavit setting forth the factual basis for the motion and the amounts requested.

(b) As a part of a motion for temporary maintenance or support or by an independent motion accompanied by an affidavit, either party may request the Court of Indian Offenses to issue a temporary injunction for any of the following relief:

(1) Restraining any person from transferring, encumbering, concealing, or otherwise disposing of any property except in the usual course of business or for the necessities of life, and, if so restrained, requiring him or her to notify the moving party of any proposed extraordinary expenditures made after the order is issued;

(2) Enjoining a party from molesting or disturbing the peace of the other party or of any child;

(3) Excluding a party from the family home or from the home of the other party upon a showing that physical or emotional harm would otherwise result;

(4) Enjoining a party from removing a child from the jurisdiction of the court; and

(5) Providing other injunctive relief proper in the circumstances.

(c) The court may issue a temporary restraining order without requiring notice to the other party only if it finds on the basis of the moving affidavit or other evidence that irreparable injury will result to the moving party if no order is issued until the time for responding has elapsed.

(d) A response may be filed within 20 days after service of notice of a motion or at the time specified in the temporary restraining order.

(e) On the basis of the showing made, the Court of Indian Offenses may issue a temporary injunction and an order for temporary maintenance or support in amounts and on terms just and proper under the circumstances.

(f) A temporary order or temporary injunction:

(1) Does not prejudice the rights of the parties or the child which are to be adjudicated at subsequent hearings in a proceeding;

(2) May be revoked or modified before the final decree as deemed necessary by the court;

(3) Terminates when the final decree is entered or when the petition for dissolution or legal separation is voluntarily dismissed.

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§11.608   Final decree; disposition of property; maintenance; child support; custody.

(a) A decree of dissolution of marriage or of legal separation is final when entered, subject to the right of appeal.

(b) The Court of Indian Offenses shall have the power to impose judgment as follows in dissolution or separation proceedings:

(1) Apportion or assign between the parties the non-trust property and non-trust assets belonging to either or both and whenever acquired, and whether the title thereto is in the name of the husband or wife or both;

(2) Grant a maintenance order for either spouse in amounts and for periods of time the court deems just;

(3) Order either or both parents owing a duty of support to a child to pay an amount reasonable or necessary for his or her support, without regard to marital misconduct, after considering all relevant factors. In addition:

(i) When a support order is issued by a Court of Indian Offenses, the order may provide that a portion of an absent parent's wages be withheld to comply with the order on the earliest of the following dates: When an amount equal to one month's support becomes overdue; when the absent parent requests withholding; or at such time as the Court of Indian Offenses selects. The amount to be withheld may include an amount to be applied toward liquidation of any overdue support.

(ii) If the Court of Indian Offenses finds that an absent parent who has been ordered to pay child support is now residing within the jurisdiction of another Court of Indian Offenses, an Indian tribal court, or a state court, it shall petition such court for reciprocal enforcement and provide it with a copy of the support order.

(iii) If the Court of Indian Offenses receives a petition from another Court of Indian Offenses, an Indian tribal court or a state court, it shall take necessary steps to determine paternity, establish an order for child support, register a foreign child support order or enforce orders as requested in the petition.

(iv) The Court of Indian Offenses shall assist a state in the enforcement and collection of past-due support from Federal tax refunds of absent parents living within the Indian country over which the court has jurisdiction.

(v) Any person or agency who has provided support or assistance to a child under 18 years of age shall be a proper person to bring an action under this section and to recover judgment in an amount equal to such past-paid support or assistance, including costs of bringing the action.

(4) Make child custody determinations in accordance with the best interest of the child.

(5) Restore the maiden name of the wife.

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§11.609   Determination of paternity and support.

The Court of Indian Offenses shall have jurisdiction of all suits brought to determine the paternity of a child and to obtain a judgment for the support of the child. A judgment of the court establishing the identity of the father of the child shall be conclusive of that fact in all subsequent determinations of inheritance by the Court of Indian Offenses or by the Department of the Interior.

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§11.610   Appointment of guardians.

The court shall have the jurisdiction to appoint or remove legal guardians for minors and for persons who are incapable of managing their own affairs under terms and conditions to be prescribed by the court.

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§11.611   Change of name.

The Court of Indian Offenses shall have the authority to change the name of any person upon petition of such person or upon the petition of the parents of any minor, if at least one parent is Indian. Any order issued by the court for a change of name shall be kept as a permanent record and copies shall be filed with the agency superintendent, the governing body of the tribe occupying the Indian country under the jurisdiction of the court, and any appropriate agency of the State in which the court is located.

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