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e-CFR data is current as of December 3, 2020

Title 24Subtitle APart 92 → Subpart F


Title 24: Housing and Urban Development
PART 92—HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM


Subpart F—Project Requirements


Contents
§92.250   Maximum per-unit subsidy amount, underwriting, and subsidy layering.
§92.251   Property standards.
§92.252   Qualification as affordable housing: Rental housing.
§92.253   Tenant protections and selection.
§92.254   Qualification as affordable housing: Homeownership.
§92.255   Converting rental units to homeownership units for existing tenants.
§92.256   [Reserved]
§92.257   Equal participation of faith-based organizations.
§92.258   Elder cottage housing opportunity (ECHO) units.

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§92.250   Maximum per-unit subsidy amount, underwriting, and subsidy layering.

(a) Maximum per-unit subsidy amount. The total amount of HOME funds and ADDI funds that a participating jurisdiction may invest on a per-unit basis in affordable housing may not exceed the per-unit dollar limitations established under section 221(d)(3)(ii) of the National Housing Act (12 U.S.C.17151(d)(3)(ii)) for elevator- type projects that apply to the area in which the housing is located. HUD will allow the per-unit subsidy amount to be increased on a program-wide basis to an amount, up to 240 percent of the original per unit limits, to the extent that the costs of multifamily housing construction exceed the section 221(d)(3)(ii) limit.

(b) Underwriting and subsidy layering. Before committing funds to a project, the participating jurisdiction must evaluate the project in accordance with guidelines that it has adopted for determining a reasonable level of profit or return on owner's or developer's investment in a project and must not invest any more HOME funds, alone or in combination with other governmental assistance, than is necessary to provide quality affordable housing that is financially viable for a reasonable period (at minimum, the period of affordability in §92.252 or §92.254) and that will not provide a profit or return on the owner's or developer's investment that exceeds the participating jurisdiction's established standards for the size, type, and complexity of the project. The participating jurisdiction's guidelines must require the participating jurisdiction to undertake:

(1) An examination of the sources and uses of funds for the project and a determination that the costs are reasonable; and

(2) An assessment, at minimum, of the current market demand in the neighborhood in which the project will be located, the experience of the developer, the financial capacity of the developer, and firm written financial commitments for the project.

(3) For projects involving rehabilitation of owner-occupied housing pursuant to §92.254(b):

(i) An underwriting analysis is required only if the HOME-funded rehabilitation loan is an amortizing loan; and

(ii) A market analysis or evaluation of developer capacity is not required.

(4) For projects involving HOME-funded downpayment assistance pursuant to §92.254(a) and which do not include HOME-funded development activity, a market analysis or evaluation of developer capacity is not required.

[78 FR 44670, July 24, 2013]

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§92.251   Property standards.

(a) New construction projects. (1) State and local codes, ordinances, and zoning requirements. Housing that is newly constructed with HOME funds must meet all applicable State and local codes, ordinances, and zoning requirements. HOME-assisted new construction projects must meet State or local residential and building codes, as applicable or, in the absence of a State or local building code, the International Residential Code or International Building Code (as applicable to the type of housing) of the International Code Council. The housing must meet the applicable requirements upon project completion.

(2) HUD requirements. All new construction projects must also meet the requirements described in this paragraph:

(i) Accessibility. The housing must meet the accessibility requirements of 24 CFR part 8, which implements Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 794), and Titles II and III of the Americans with Disabilities Act (42 U.S.C. 12131-12189) implemented at 28 CFR parts 35 and 36, as applicable. Covered multifamily dwellings, as defined at 24 CFR 100.201, must also meet the design and construction requirements at 24 CFR 100.205, which implements the Fair Housing Act (42 U.S.C. 3601-3619).

(ii) [Reserved]

(iii) Disaster mitigation. Where relevant, the housing must be constructed to mitigate the impact of potential disasters (e.g., earthquakes, hurricanes, flooding, and wildfires), in accordance with State and local codes, ordinances, or other State and local requirements, or such other requirements as HUD may establish.

(iv) Written cost estimates, construction contracts and construction documents. The participating jurisdiction must ensure the construction contract(s) and construction documents describe the work to be undertaken in adequate detail so that inspections can be conducted. The participating jurisdiction must review and approve written cost estimates for construction and determining that costs are reasonable.

(v) Construction progress inspections. The participating jurisdiction must conduct progress and final inspections of construction to ensure that work is done in accordance with the applicable codes, the construction contract, and construction documents.

(vi) Broadband infrastructure. For new commitments made after January 19, 2017 for a new construction housing project of a building with more than 4 rental units, the construction must include installation of broadband infrastructure, as this term is defined in 24 CFR 5.100, except where the participating jurisdiction determines and, in accordance with §92.508(a)(3)(iv), documents the determination that:

(A) The location of the new construction makes installation of broadband infrastructure infeasible; or

(B) The cost of installing the infrastructure would result in a fundamental alteration in the nature of its program or activity or in an undue financial burden.

(b) Rehabilitation projects. All rehabilitation that is performed using HOME funds must meet the requirements of this paragraph (b).

(1) Rehabilitation standards. The participating jurisdiction must establish rehabilitation standards for all HOME- assisted housing rehabilitation activities that set forth the requirements that the housing must meet upon project completion. The participating jurisdiction's description of its standards must be in sufficient detail to determine the required rehabilitation work including methods and materials. The standards may refer to applicable codes or they may establish requirements that exceed the minimum requirements of the codes. The rehabilitation standards must address each of the following:

(i) Health and safety. The participating jurisdiction's standards must identify life-threatening deficiencies that must be addressed immediately if the housing is occupied.

(ii) Major systems. Major systems are: structural support; roofing; cladding and weatherproofing (e.g., windows, doors, siding, gutters); plumbing; electrical; and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. For rental housing, the participating jurisdiction's standards must require the participating jurisdiction to estimate (based on age and condition) the remaining useful life of these systems, upon project completion of each major systems. For multifamily housing projects of 26 units or more, the participating jurisdiction's standards must require the participating jurisdiction to determine the useful life of major systems through a capital needs assessment of the project. For rental housing, if the remaining useful life of one or more major system is less than the applicable period of affordability, the participating jurisdiction's standards must require the participating jurisdiction to ensure that a replacement reserve is established and monthly payments are made to the reserve that are adequate to repair or replace the systems as needed. For homeownership housing, the participating jurisdiction's standards must require, upon project completion, each of the major systems to have a remaining useful life for a minimum of 5 years or for such longer period specified by the participating jurisdiction, or the major systems must be rehabilitated or replaced as part of the rehabilitation work.

(iii) Lead-based paint. The participating jurisdiction's standards must require the housing to meet the lead-based paint requirements at 24 CFR part 35.

(iv) Accessibility. The participating jurisdiction's standards must require the housing to meet the accessibility requirements in 24 CFR part 8, which implements Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 794), and Titles II and III of the Americans with Disabilities Act (42 U.S.C. 12131-12189) implemented at 28 CFR parts 35 and 36, as applicable. Covered multifamily dwellings, as defined at 24 CFR 100.201, must also meet the design and construction requirements at 24 CFR 100.205, which implements the Fair Housing Act (42 U.S.C. 3601-3619). Rehabilitation may include improvements that are not required by regulation or statute that permit use by a person with disabilities.

(v) [Reserved]

(vi) Disaster mitigation. Where relevant, the participating jurisdiction's standards must require the housing to be improved to mitigate the impact of potential disasters (e.g., earthquake, hurricanes, flooding, and wildfires) in accordance with State and local codes, ordinances, and requirements.

(vii) State and local codes, ordinances, and zoning requirements. The participating jurisdiction's standards must require the housing to meet all applicable State and local codes, ordinances, and requirements or, in the absence of a State or local building code, the International Existing Building Code of the International Code Council.

(viii) Uniform Physical Condition Standards. The standards of the participating jurisdiction must be such that, upon completion, the HOME-assisted project and units will be decent, safe, sanitary, and in good repair as described in 24 CFR 5.703. HUD will establish the minimum deficiencies that must be corrected under the participating jurisdiction's rehabilitation standards based on inspectable items and inspected areas from HUD-prescribed physical inspection procedures (Uniform Physical Conditions Standards) pursuant to 24 CFR 5.705.

(ix) Capital Needs Assessments. For multifamily rental housing projects of 26 or more total units, the participating jurisdiction must determine all work that will be performed in the rehabilitation of the housing and the long-term physical needs of the project through a capital needs assessment of the project.

(x) Broadband infrastructure. For new commitments made after January 19, 2017 for a substantial rehabilitation project of a building with more than 4 rental units, any substantial rehabilitation, as defined in 24 CFR 5.100, must provide for installation of broadband infrastructure, as this term is also defined in 24 CFR 5.100, except where the participating jurisdiction determines and, in accordance with §92.508(a)(3)(iv), documents the determination that:

(A) The location of the substantial rehabilitation makes installation of broadband infrastructure infeasible;

(B) The cost of installing broadband infrastructure would result in a fundamental alteration in the nature of its program or activity or in an undue financial burden; or

(C) The structure of the housing to be substantially rehabilitated makes installation of broadband infrastructure infeasible.

(2) Construction documents and cost estimates. The participating jurisdiction must ensure that the work to be undertaken will meet the participating jurisdiction's rehabilitation standards. The construction documents (i.e., written scope of work to be performed) must be in sufficient detail to establish the basis for a uniform inspection of the housing to determine compliance with the participating jurisdiction's standards. The participating jurisdiction must review and approve a written cost estimate for rehabilitation after determining that costs are reasonable.

(3) Frequency of inspections. The participating jurisdiction must conduct an initial property inspection to identify the deficiencies that must be addressed. The participating jurisdiction must conduct progress and final inspections to determine that work was done in accordance with work write-ups.

(c) Acquisition of standard housing. (1) Existing housing that is acquired with HOME assistance for rental housing, and that was newly constructed or rehabilitated less than 12 months before the date of commitment of HOME funds, must meet the property standards of paragraph (a) or paragraph (b) of this section, as applicable, of this section for new construction and rehabilitation projects. The participating jurisdiction must document this compliance based upon a review of approved building plans and Certificates of Occupancy, and an inspection that is conducted no earlier than 90 days before the commitment of HOME assistance.

(2) All other existing housing that is acquired with HOME assistance for rental housing must meet the rehabilitation property standards requirements of paragraph (b) of this section. The participating jurisdiction must document this compliance based upon an inspection that is conducted no earlier than 90 days before the commitment of HOME assistance. If the property does not meet these standards, HOME funds cannot be used to acquire the property unless it is rehabilitated to meet the standards of paragraph (b) of this section.

(3) Existing housing that is acquired for homeownership (e.g., downpayment assistance) must be decent, safe, sanitary, and in good repair. The participating jurisdiction must establish standards to determine that the housing is decent, safe, sanitary, and in good repair. At minimum, the standards must provide that the housing meets all applicable State and local housing quality standards and code requirements and the housing does not contain the specific deficiencies proscribed by HUD based on the applicable inspectable items and inspected areas in HUD-prescribed physical inspection procedures (Uniform Physical Condition Standards) issued pursuant to 24 CFR 5.705. The participating jurisdiction must inspect the housing and document this compliance based upon an inspection that is conducted no earlier than 90 days before the commitment of HOME assistance. If the housing does not meet these standards, the housing must be rehabilitated to meet the standards of this paragraph (c)(3) or it cannot be acquired with HOME funds.

(d) Occupied housing by tenants receiving HOME tenant-based rental assistance. All housing occupied by tenants receiving HOME tenant-based rental assistance must meet the standards in 24 CFR 982.401, or the successor requirements as established by HUD.

(e) Manufactured housing. Construction of all manufactured housing including manufactured housing that replaces an existing substandard unit under the definition of “reconstruction” must meet the Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards codified at 24 CFR part 3280. These standards preempt State and local codes which are not identical to the federal standards for the new construction of manufactured housing. Participating jurisdictions providing HOME funds to assist manufactured housing units must comply with applicable State and local laws or codes. In the absence of such laws or codes, the installation must comply with the manufacturer's written instructions for installation of manufactured housing units. All new manufactured housing and all manufactured housing that replaces an existing substandard unit under the definition of “reconstruction” must be on a permanent foundation that meets the requirements for foundation systems as set forth in 24 CFR 203.43f(c)(i). All new manufactured housing and all manufactured housing that replaces an existing substandard unit under the definition of “reconstruction” must, at the time of project completion, be connected to permanent utility hook-ups and be located on land that is owned by the manufactured housing unit owner or land for which the manufactured housing owner has a lease for a period at least equal to the applicable period of affordability. In HOME-funded rehabilitation of existing manufactured housing the foundation and anchoring must meet all applicable State and local codes, ordinances, and requirements or in the absence of local or state codes, the Model Manufactured Home Installation Standards at 24 CFR part 3285. Manufactured housing that is rehabilitated using HOME funds must meet the property standards requirements in paragraph (b) of this section, as applicable. The participating jurisdiction must document this compliance in accordance with inspection procedures that the participating jurisdiction has established pursuant to §92.251, as applicable.

(f) Ongoing property condition standards: Rental housing. (1) Ongoing property standards. The participating jurisdiction must establish property standards for rental housing (including manufactured housing) that apply throughout the affordability period. The standards must ensure that owners maintain the housing as decent, safe, and sanitary housing in good repair. The participating jurisdiction's description of its property standards must be in sufficient detail to establish the basis for a uniform inspection of HOME rental projects. The participating jurisdiction's ongoing property standards must address each of the following:

(i) Compliance with State and local codes, ordinances, and requirements. The participating jurisdiction's standards must require the housing to meet all applicable State and local code requirements and ordinances. In the absence of existing applicable State or local code requirements and ordinances, at a minimum, the participating jurisdiction's ongoing property standards must include all inspectable items and inspectable areas specified by HUD based on the HUD physical inspection procedures (Uniform Physical Condition Standards (UPCS)) prescribed by HUD pursuant to 24 CFR 5.705. The participating jurisdiction's property standards are not required to use any scoring, item weight, or level of criticality used in UPCS.

(ii) Health and safety. The participating jurisdiction's standards must require the housing to be free of all health and safety defects. The standards must identify life-threatening deficiencies that the owner must immediately correct and the time frames for addressing these deficiencies.

(iii) Lead-based paint. The participating jurisdiction's standards must require the housing to meet the lead-based paint requirements in 24 CFR part 35.

(2) Projects to which HOME funds were committed before January 24, 2015 must meet all applicable State or local housing quality standards or code requirements, and if there are no such standard or code requirements, the housing must meet the housing quality standards in 24 CFR 982.401.

(3) Inspections. The participating jurisdiction must undertake ongoing property inspections, in accordance with §92.504(d).

(4) Corrective and remedial actions. The participating jurisdiction must have procedures for ensuring that timely corrective and remedial actions are taken by the project owner to address identified deficiencies.

(5) Inspection procedures. The participating jurisdiction must establish written inspection procedures inspections. The procedures must include detailed inspection checklists, description of how and by whom inspections will be carried out, and procedures for training and certifying qualified inspectors. The procedures must also describe how frequently the property will be inspected, consistent with this section, §92.209, and §92.504(d).

[78 FR 44670, July 24, 2013, as amended at 81 FR 92635, Dec. 20, 2016]

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§92.252   Qualification as affordable housing: Rental housing.

The HOME-assisted units in a rental housing project must be occupied by households that are eligible as low- income families and must meet the requirements of this section to qualify as affordable housing. If the housing is not occupied by eligible tenants within six months following the date of project completion, HUD will require the participating jurisdiction to submit marketing information and, if appropriate, submit a marketing plan. HUD will require the participating jurisdiction to repay HOME funds invested in any housing unit that has not been rented to eligible tenants 18 months after the date of project completion. The affordability requirements also apply to the HOME- assisted non-owner-occupied units in single-family housing purchased with HOME funds in accordance with §92.254. The tenant must have a written lease that complies with §92.253.

(a) Rent limitation. HUD provides the following maximum HOME rent limits. The rent limits apply to the rent plus the utilities or the utility allowance. The maximum HOME rents (High HOME Rents) are the lesser of:

(1) The fair market rent for existing housing for comparable units in the area as established by HUD under 24 CFR 888.111; or

(2) A rent that does not exceed 30 percent of the adjusted income of a family whose annual income equals 65 percent of the median income for the area, as determined by HUD, with adjustments for number of bedrooms in the unit. The HOME rent limits provided by HUD will include average occupancy per unit and adjusted income assumptions.

(b) Additional rent limitations (Low HOME Rents). The participating jurisdiction may designate (in its written agreement with the project owner) more than the minimum HOME units in a rental housing project, regardless of project size, to have Low HOME Rents that meet the requirements of this paragraph (b). In rental projects with five or more HOME-assisted rental units, at least 20 percent of the HOME-assisted units must be occupied by very low-income families and meet one of the following rent requirements:

(1) The rent does not exceed 30 percent of the annual income of a family whose income equals 50 percent of the median income for the area, as determined by HUD, with adjustments for smaller and larger families. HUD provides the HOME rent limits which include average occupancy per unit and adjusted income assumptions. However, if the rent determined under this paragraph is higher than the applicable rent under paragraph (a) of this section, then the maximum rent for units under this paragraph is that calculated under paragraph (a) of this section.

(2) The rent does not exceed 30 percent of the family's adjusted income. If the unit receives Federal or State project-based rental subsidy and the very low-income family pays as a contribution toward rent not more than 30 percent of the family's adjusted income, then the maximum rent (i.e., tenant contribution plus project-based rental subsidy) is the rent allowable under the Federal or State project-based rental subsidy program.

(c) Additional rent limitations for SRO projects. (1) For SRO units that have both sanitary and food preparation facilities, the maximum HOME rent is based on the zero-bedroom fair market rent. The project must meet the requirements of paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section.

(2) For SRO units that have no sanitary or food preparation facilities or only one of the two, the maximum HOME rent is based on 75 percent of the zero-bedroom fair market rent. The project is not required to have low HOME rents in accordance with paragraph (b)(1) or (2) of this section, but must meet the occupancy requirements of paragraph (b) of this section.

(d) Initial rent schedule and utility allowances. (1) The participating jurisdiction must establish maximum monthly allowances for utilities and services (excluding telephone) and update the allowances annually. The participating jurisdiction must use the HUD Utility Schedule Model or otherwise determine the utility allowance for the project based on the type of utilities used at the project.

(2) The participating jurisdiction must review and approve rents proposed by the owner for units, subject to the maximum rent limitations in paragraphs (a) or (b) of this section. For all units subject to the maximum rent limitations in paragraphs (a) or (b) of this section for which the tenant is paying utilities and services, the participating jurisdiction must ensure that the rents do not exceed the maximum rent minus the monthly allowances for utilities and services.

(e) Periods of affordability. The HOME-assisted units must meet the affordability requirements for not less than the applicable period specified in the following table, beginning after project completion.

(1) The affordability requirements:

(i) Apply without regard to the term of any loan or mortgage, repayment of the HOME investment, or the transfer of ownership;

(ii) Must be imposed by a deed restriction, a covenant running with the land, an agreement restricting the use of the property, or other mechanisms approved by HUD and must give the participating jurisdiction the right to require specific performance (except that the participating jurisdiction may provide that the affordability restrictions may terminate upon foreclosure or transfer in lieu of foreclosure); and

(iii) Must be recorded in accordance with State recordation laws.

(2) The participating jurisdiction may use purchase options, rights of first refusal or other preemptive rights to purchase the housing before foreclosure or deed in lieu of foreclosure in order to preserve affordability.

(3) The affordability restrictions shall be revived according to the original terms if, during the original affordability period, the owner of record before the foreclosure, or deed in lieu of foreclosure, or any entity that includes the former owner or those with whom the former owner has or had family or business ties, obtains an ownership interest in the project or property.

(4) The termination of the restrictions on the project does not terminate the participating jurisdiction's repayment obligation under §92.503(b).

Rental housing activityMinimum period of affordability in years
Rehabilitation or acquisition of existing housing per unit amount of HOME funds: Under $15,0005
$15,000 to $40,00010
Over $40,000 or rehabilitation involving refinancing15
New construction or acquisition of newly constructed housing20

(f) Subsequent rents during the affordability period. (1) The maximum HOME rent limits are recalculated on a periodic basis after HUD determines fair market rents and median incomes. HUD then provides the new maximum HOME rent limits to participating jurisdictions. Regardless of changes in fair market rents and in median income over time, the HOME rents for a project are not required to be lower than the HOME rent limits for the project in effect at the time of project commitment.

(2) The participating jurisdiction must provide project owners with information on updated HOME rent limits so that rents may be adjusted (not to exceed the maximum HOME rent limits in paragraph (f)(1) of this section) in accordance with the written agreement between the participating jurisdiction and the owner. Owners must annually provide the participating jurisdiction with information on rents and occupancy of HOME-assisted units to demonstrate compliance with this section. The participating jurisdiction must review rents for compliance and approve or disapprove them every year.

(3) Any increase in rents for HOME-assisted units is subject to the provisions of outstanding leases, and in any event, the owner must provide tenants of those units not less than 30 days prior written notice before implementing any increase in rents.

(g) Adjustment of HOME rent limits for an existing project. (1) Changes in fair market rents and in median income over time should be sufficient to maintain the financial viability of a project within the HOME rent limits in this section.

(2) HUD may adjust the HOME rent limits for a project, only if HUD finds that an adjustment is necessary to support the continued financial viability of the project and only by an amount that HUD determines is necessary to maintain continued financial viability of the project. HUD expects that this authority will be used sparingly.

(h) Tenant income. The income of each tenant must be determined initially in accordance with §92.203(a)(1)(i). In addition, each year during the period of affordability the project owner must re-examine each tenant's annual income in accordance with one of the options in §92.203 selected by the participating jurisdiction. An owner of a multifamily project with an affordability period of 10 years or more who re-examines tenant's annual income through a statement and certification in accordance with §92.203(a)(1)(ii), must examine the income of each tenant, in accordance with §92.203(a)(1)(i), every sixth year of the affordability period. Otherwise, an owner who accepts the tenant's statement and certification in accordance with §92.203(a)(1)(ii) is not required to examine the income of tenants in multifamily or single-family projects unless there is evidence that the tenant's written statement failed to completely and accurately state information about the family's size or income.

(i) Over-income tenants. (1) HOME-assisted units continue to qualify as affordable housing despite a temporary noncompliance caused by increases in the incomes of existing tenants if actions satisfactory to HUD are being taken to ensure that all vacancies are filled in accordance with this section until the noncompliance is corrected.

(2) Tenants who no longer qualify as low-income families must pay as rent the lesser of the amount payable by the tenant under State or local law or 30 percent of the family's adjusted income, except that tenants of HOME-assisted units that have been allocated low-income housing tax credits by a housing credit agency pursuant to section 42 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (26 U.S.C. 42) must pay rent governed by section 42. In addition, in projects in which the Home units are designated as floating pursuant to paragraph (j) of this section, tenants who no longer qualify as low-income are not required to pay as rent an amount that exceeds the market rent for comparable, unassisted units in the neighborhood.

(j) Fixed and floating HOME units. In a project containing HOME-assisted and other units, the participating jurisdiction may designate fixed or floating HOME units. This designation must be made at the time of project commitment in the written agreement between the participating jurisdiction and the owner, and the HOME units must be identified not later than the time of initial unit occupancy. Fixed units remain the same throughout the period of affordability. Floating units are changed to maintain conformity with the requirements of this section during the period of affordability so that the total number of housing units meeting the requirements of this section remains the same, and each substituted unit is comparable in terms of size, features, and number of bedrooms to the originally designated HOME-assisted unit.

(k) Tenant selection. The tenants must be selected in accordance with §92.253(d).

(l) Ongoing responsibilities. The participating jurisdiction's responsibilities for on-site inspections and financial oversight of rental projects are set forth in §92.504(d).

[61 FR 48750, Sept. 16, 1996, as amended at 62 FR 28929, May 28, 1997; 62 FR 44840, Aug. 22, 1997; 78 FR 44672, July 24, 2013]

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§92.253   Tenant protections and selection.

(a) Lease. There must be a written lease between the tenant and the owner of rental housing assisted with HOME funds that is for a period of not less than 1 year, unless by mutual agreement between the tenant and the owner a shorter period is specified. The lease must incorporate the VAWA lease term/addendum required under §92.359(e), except as otherwise provided by §92.359(b).

(b) Prohibited lease terms. The lease may not contain any of the following provisions:

(1) Agreement to be sued. Agreement by the tenant to be sued, to admit guilt, or to a judgment in favor of the owner in a lawsuit brought in connection with the lease;

(2) Treatment of property. Agreement by the tenant that the owner may take, hold, or sell personal property of household members without notice to the tenant and a court decision on the rights of the parties. This prohibition, however, does not apply to an agreement by the tenant concerning disposition of personal property remaining in the housing unit after the tenant has moved out of the unit. The owner may dispose of this personal property in accordance with State law;

(3) Excusing owner from responsibility. Agreement by the tenant not to hold the owner or the owner's agents legally responsible for any action or failure to act, whether intentional or negligent;

(4) Waiver of notice. Agreement of the tenant that the owner may institute a lawsuit without notice to the tenant;

(5) Waiver of legal proceedings. Agreement by the tenant that the owner may evict the tenant or household members without instituting a civil court proceeding in which the tenant has the opportunity to present a defense, or before a court decision on the rights of the parties;

(6) Waiver of a jury trial. Agreement by the tenant to waive any right to a trial by jury;

(7) Waiver of right to appeal court decision. Agreement by the tenant to waive the tenant's right to appeal, or to otherwise challenge in court, a court decision in connection with the lease;

(8) Tenant chargeable with cost of legal actions regardless of outcome. Agreement by the tenant to pay attorney's fees or other legal costs even if the tenant wins in a court proceeding by the owner against the tenant. The tenant, however, may be obligated to pay costs if the tenant loses; and

(9) Mandatory supportive services. Agreement by the tenant (other than a tenant in transitional housing) to accept supportive services that are offered.

(c) Termination of tenancy. An owner may not terminate the tenancy or refuse to renew the lease of a tenant of rental housing assisted with HOME funds, except for serious or repeated violation of the terms and conditions of the lease; for violation of applicable Federal, State, or local law; for completion of the tenancy period for transitional housing or failure to follow any required transitional housing supportive services plan; or for other good cause. Good cause does not include an increase in the tenant's income or refusal of the tenant to purchase the housing. To terminate or refuse to renew tenancy, the owner must serve written notice upon the tenant specifying the grounds for the action at least 30 days before the termination of tenancy.

(d) Tenant selection. An owner of rental housing assisted with HOME funds must comply with the affirmative marketing requirements established by the participating jurisdiction pursuant to §92.351(a). The owner must adopt and follow written tenant selection policies and criteria that:

(1) Limit the housing to very low- income and low-income families;

(2) Are reasonably related to the applicants' ability to perform the obligations of the lease (i.e., to pay the rent, not to damage the housing; not to interfere with the rights and quiet enjoyment of other tenants);

(3) Limit eligibility or give a preference to a particular segment of the population if permitted in its written agreement with the participating jurisdiction (and only if the limitation or preference is described in the participating jurisdiction's consolidated plan).

(i) Any limitation or preference must not violate nondiscrimination requirements in §92.350. A limitation or preference does not violate nondiscrimination requirements if the housing also receives funding from a Federal program that limits eligibility to a particular segment of the population (e.g., the Housing Opportunity for Persons with AIDS program under 24 CFR part 574, the Shelter Plus Care program under 24 CFR part 582, the Supportive Housing program under 24 CFR part 583, supportive housing for the elderly or persons with disabilities under 24 CFR part 891), and the limit or preference is tailored to serve that segment of the population.

(ii) If a project does not receive funding from a Federal program that limits eligibility to a particular segment of the population, the project may have a limitation or preference for persons with disabilities who need services offered at a project only if:

(A) The limitation or preference is limited to the population of families (including individuals) with disabilities that significantly interfere with their ability to obtain and maintain housing;

(B) Such families will not be able to obtain or maintain themselves in housing without appropriate supportive services; and

(C) Such services cannot be provided in a nonsegregated setting. The families must not be required to accept the services offered at the project. In advertising the project, the owner may advertise the project as offering services for a particular type of disability; however, the project must be open to all otherwise eligible persons with disabilities who may benefit from the services provided in the project.

(4) Do not exclude an applicant with a certificate or voucher under the Section 8 Tenant-Based Assistance: Housing Choice Voucher Program (24 CFR part 982) or an applicant participating in a HOME tenant-based rental assistance program because of the status of the prospective tenant as a holder of such certificate, voucher, or comparable HOME tenant-based assistance document.

(5) Provide for the selection of tenants from a written waiting list in the chronological order of their application, insofar as is practicable;

(6) Give prompt written notification to any rejected applicant of the grounds for any rejection; and

(7) Comply with the VAWA requirements prescribed in §92.359.

[61 FR 48750, Sept. 16, 1996, as amended at 67 FR 61756, Oct. 1, 2002; 78 FR 44674, July 24, 2013; 81 FR 80803, Nov. 16, 2016]

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§92.254   Qualification as affordable housing: Homeownership.

(a) Acquisition with or without rehabilitation. Housing that is for acquisition by a family must meet the affordability requirements of this paragraph (a).

(1) The housing must be single family housing.

(2) The housing must be modest housing as follows:

(i) In the case of acquisition of newly constructed housing or standard housing, the housing has a purchase price for the type of single family housing that does not exceed 95 percent of the median purchase price for the area, as described in paragraph (a)(2)(iii) of this section.

(ii) In the case of acquisition with rehabilitation, the housing has an estimated value after rehabilitation that does not exceed 95 percent of the median purchase price for the area, described in paragraph (a)(2)(iii) of this section.

(iii) If a participating jurisdiction intends to use HOME funds for homebuyer assistance or for the rehabilitation of owner-occupied single- family properties, the participating jurisdiction must use the HOME affordable homeownership limits provided by HUD for newly constructed housing and for existing housing. HUD will provide limits for affordable newly constructed housing based on 95 percent of the median purchase price for the area using Federal Housing Administration (FHA) single family mortgage program data for newly constructed housing, with a minimum limit based on 95 percent of the U.S. median purchase price for new construction for nonmetropolitan areas. HUD will provide limits for affordable existing housing based on 95 percent of the median purchase price for the area using Federal FHA single family mortgage program data for existing housing data and other appropriate data that are available nation-wide for sales of existing housing, with a minimum limit based on 95 percent of the state-wide nonmetropolitan area median purchase price using this data. In lieu of the limits provided by HUD, the participating jurisdiction may determine 95 percent of the median area purchase price for single family housing in the jurisdiction annually, as follows. The participating jurisdiction must set forth the price for different types of single family housing for the jurisdiction. The participating jurisdiction may determine separate limits for existing housing and newly constructed housing. For housing located outside of metropolitan areas, a State may aggregate sales data from more than one county, if the counties are contiguous and similarly situated. The following information must be included in the annual action plan of the Consolidated Plan submitted to HUD for review and updated in each action plan.

(A) The 95 percent of median area purchase price must be established in accordance with a market analysis that ensured that a sufficient number of recent housing sales are included in the survey.

(B) Sales must cover the requisite number of months based on volume: For 500 or more sales per month, a one- month reporting period; for 250 through 499 sales per month, a 2-month reporting period; for less than 250 sales per month, at least a 3-month reporting period. The data must be listed in ascending order of sales price.

(C) The address of the listed properties must include the location within the participating jurisdiction. Lot, square, and subdivision data may be substituted for the street address.

(D) The housing sales data must reflect all, or nearly all, of the one- family house sales in the entire participating jurisdiction.

(E) To determine the median, take the middle sale on the list if an odd number of sales, and if an even number, take the higher of the middle numbers and consider it the median. After identifying the median sales price, the amount should be multiplied by 0.95 to determine the 95 percent of the median area purchase price.

(3) The housing must be acquired by a homebuyer whose family qualifies as a low-income family, and the housing must be the principal residence of the family throughout the period described in paragraph (a)(4) of this section. If there is no ratified sales contract with an eligible homebuyer for the housing within 9 months of the date of completion of construction or rehabilitation, the housing must be rented to an eligible tenant in accordance with §92.252. In determining the income eligibility of the family, the participating jurisdiction must include the income of all persons living in the housing. The homebuyer must receive housing counseling.

(4) Periods of affordability. The HOME-assisted housing must meet the affordability requirements for not less than the applicable period specified in the following table, beginning after project completion. The per unit amount of HOME funds and the affordability period that they trigger are described more fully in paragraphs (a)(5)(i) (resale) and (ii) (recapture) of this section.

Homeownership assistance HOME amount per-unitMinimum period of affordability in years
Under $15,0005
$15,000 to $40,00010
Over $40,00015

(5) Resale and recapture. The participating jurisdiction must establish the resale or recapture requirements that comply with the standards of this section and set forth the requirements in its consolidated plan. HUD must determine that they are appropriate and must specifically approve them in writing.

(i) Resale. Resale requirements must ensure, if the housing does not continue to be the principal residence of the family for the duration of the period of affordability that the housing is made available for subsequent purchase only to a buyer whose family qualifies as a low-income family and will use the property as the family's principal residence. The resale requirement must also ensure that the price at resale provides the original HOME-assisted owner a fair return on investment (including the homeowner's investment and any capital improvement) and ensure that the housing will remain affordable to a reasonable range of low- income homebuyers. The participating jurisdiction must specifically define “fair return on investment” and “affordability to a reasonable range of low-income homebuyers,” and specifically address how it will make the housing affordable to a low-income homebuyer in the event that the resale price necessary to provide fair return is not affordable to the subsequent buyer. The period of affordability is based on the total amount of HOME funds invested in the housing.

(A) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(5)(i)(B) of this section, deed restrictions, covenants running with the land, or other similar mechanisms must be used as the mechanism to impose the resale requirements. The affordability restrictions may terminate upon occurrence of any of the following termination events: foreclosure, transfer in lieu of foreclosure or assignment of an FHA insured mortgage to HUD. The participating jurisdiction may use purchase options, rights of first refusal or other preemptive rights to purchase the housing before foreclosure to preserve affordability. The affordability restrictions shall be revived according to the original terms if, during the original affordability period, the owner of record before the termination event, obtains an ownership interest in the housing.

(B) Certain housing may be presumed to meet the resale restrictions (i.e., the housing will be available and affordable to a reasonable range of low-income homebuyers; a low-income homebuyer will occupy the housing as the family's principal residence; and the original owner will be afforded a fair return on investment) during the period of affordability without the imposition of enforcement mechanisms by the participating jurisdiction. The presumption must be based upon a market analysis of the neighborhood in which the housing is located. The market analysis must include an evaluation of the location and characteristics of the housing and residents in the neighborhood (e.g., sale prices, age and amenities of the housing stock, incomes of residents, percentage of owner-occupants) in relation to housing and incomes in the housing market area. An analysis of the current and projected incomes of neighborhood residents for an average period of affordability for homebuyers in the neighborhood must support the conclusion that a reasonable range of low-income families will continue to qualify for mortgage financing. For example, an analysis shows that the housing is modestly priced within the housing market area and that families with incomes of 65% to 80% of area median can afford monthly payments under average FHA terms without other government assistance and housing will remain affordable at least during the next five to seven years compared to other housing in the market area; the size and amenities of the housing are modest and substantial rehabilitation will not significantly increase the market value; the neighborhood has housing that is not currently owned by the occupants, but the participating jurisdiction is encouraging homeownership in the neighborhood by providing homeownership assistance and by making improvements to the streets, sidewalks, and other public facilities and services. If a participating jurisdiction in preparing a neighborhood revitalization strategy under §91.215(e)(2) of its consolidated plan or Empowerment Zone or Enterprise Community application under 24 CFR part 597 has incorporated the type of market data described above, that submission may serve as the required analysis under this section. If the participating jurisdiction continues to provide homeownership assistance for housing in the neighborhood, it must periodically update the market analysis to verify the original presumption of continued affordability.

(ii) Recapture. Recapture provisions must ensure that the participating jurisdiction recoups all or a portion of the HOME assistance to the homebuyers, if the housing does not continue to be the principal residence of the family for the duration of the period of affordability. The participating jurisdiction may structure its recapture provisions based on its program design and market conditions. The period of affordability is based upon the total amount of HOME funds subject to recapture described in paragraph (a)(5)(ii)(A)(5) of this section. Recapture provisions may permit the subsequent homebuyer to assume the HOME assistance (subject to the HOME requirements for the remainder of the period of affordability) if the subsequent homebuyer is low-income, and no additional HOME assistance is provided.

(A) The following options for recapture requirements are acceptable to HUD. The participating jurisdiction may adopt, modify or develop its own recapture requirements for HUD approval. In establishing its recapture requirements, the participating jurisdiction is subject to the limitation that when the recapture requirement is triggered by a sale (voluntary or involuntary) of the housing unit, the amount recaptured cannot exceed the net proceeds, if any. The net proceeds are the sales price minus superior loan repayment (other than HOME funds) and any closing costs.

(1) Recapture entire amount. The participating jurisdiction may recapture the entire amount of the HOME investment from the homeowner.

(2) Reduction during affordability period. The participating jurisdiction may reduce the HOME investment amount to be recaptured on a prorata basis for the time the homeowner has owned and occupied the housing measured against the required affordability period.

(3) Shared net proceeds. If the net proceeds are not sufficient to recapture the full HOME investment (or a reduced amount as provided for in paragraph (a)(5)(ii)(A)(2) of this section) plus enable the homeowner to recover the amount of the homeowner's downpayment and any capital improvement investment made by the owner since purchase, the participating jurisdiction may share the net proceeds. The net proceeds are the sales price minus loan repayment (other than HOME funds) and closing costs. The net proceeds may be divided proportionally as set forth in the following mathematical formulas:

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(4) Owner investment returned first. The participating jurisdiction may permit the homebuyer to recover the homebuyer's entire investment (downpayment and capital improvements made by the owner since purchase) before recapturing the HOME investment.

(5) Amount subject to recapture. The HOME investment that is subject to recapture is based on the amount of HOME assistance that enabled the homebuyer to buy the dwelling unit. This includes any HOME assistance that reduced the purchase price from fair market value to an affordable price, but excludes the amount between the cost of producing the unit and the market value of the property (i.e., the development subsidy). The recaptured funds must be used to carry out HOME-eligible activities in accordance with the requirements of this part. If the HOME assistance is only used for the development subsidy and therefore not subject to recapture, the resale option must be used.

(6) Special considerations for single-family properties with more than one unit. If the HOME funds are only used to assist a low-income homebuyer to acquire one unit in single-family housing containing more than one unit and the assisted unit will be the principal residence of the homebuyer, the affordability requirements of this section apply only to the assisted unit. If HOME funds are also used to assist the low-income homebuyer to acquire one or more of the rental units in the single-family housing, the affordability requirements of §92.252 apply to assisted rental units, except that the participating jurisdiction may impose resale or recapture restrictions on all assisted units (owner-occupied and rental units) in the single family housing. If resale restrictions are used, the affordability requirements on all assisted units continue for the period of affordability. If recapture restrictions are used, the affordability requirements on the assisted rental units may be terminated, at the discretion of the participating jurisdiction, upon recapture of the HOME investment. (If HOME funds are used to assist only the rental units in such a property then the requirements of §92.252 would apply and the owner-occupied unit would not be subject to the income targeting or affordability provisions of §92.254.)

(7) Lease-purchase. HOME funds may be used to assist homebuyers through lease-purchase programs for existing housing and for housing to be constructed. The housing must be purchased by a homebuyer within 36 months of signing the lease'purchase agreement. The homebuyer must qualify as a low-income family at the time the lease-purchase agreement is signed. If HOME funds are used to acquire housing that will be resold to a homebuyer through a lease-purchase program, the HOME affordability requirements for rental housing in §92.252 shall apply if the housing is not transferred to a homebuyer within forty-two months after project completion.

(8) Contract to purchase. If HOME funds are used to assist a homebuyer who has entered into a contract to purchase housing to be constructed, the homebuyer must qualify as a low-income family at the time the contract is signed.

(9) Preserving affordability of housing that was previously assisted with HOME funds.

(i) To preserve the affordability of HOME-assisted housing a participating jurisdiction may use additional HOME funds for the following costs:

(A) The cost to acquire the housing through a purchase option, right of first refusal, or other preemptive right before foreclosure, or at the foreclosure sale. (The foreclosure costs to acquire housing with a HOME loan in default are eligible. However, HOME funds may not be used to repay a loan made with HOME funds.)

(B) The cost to undertake any necessary rehabilitation for the housing acquired.

(C) The cost of owning/holding the housing pending resale to another homebuyer.

(D) The cost to assist another homebuyer in purchasing the housing.

(ii) When a participating jurisdiction uses HOME funds to preserve the affordability of such housing, the additional investment must be treated as an amendment to the original project. The housing must be sold to a new eligible homebuyer in accordance with the requirements of §92.254(a) within a reasonable period of time.

(iii) The total amount of the original and additional HOME assistance may not exceed the maximum per unit subsidy amount established under §92.250. Alternatively to charging the cost to the HOME program under §92.206, the participating jurisdiction may charge the cost to the HOME program under §92.207 as a reasonable administrative cost of its HOME program, so that the additional HOME funds for the housing are not subject to the maximum per-unit subsidy amount. To the extent administrative funds are used, they may be reimbursed, in whole or in part, when the housing is sold to a new eligible homebuyer.

(b) Rehabilitation not involving acquisition. Housing that is currently owned by a family qualifies as affordable housing only if:

(1) The estimated value of the property, after rehabilitation, does not exceed 95 percent of the median purchase price for the area, described in paragraph (a)(2)(iii) of this section; and

(2) The housing is the principal residence of an owner whose family qualifies as a low-income family at the time HOME funds are committed to the housing. In determining the income eligibility of the family, the participating jurisdiction must include the income of all persons living in the housing.

(c) Ownership interest. The ownership in the housing assisted under this section must meet the definition of “homeownership” in §92.2, except that housing that is rehabilitated pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section may also include inherited property with multiple owners, life estates, living trusts and beneficiary deeds under the following conditions. The participating jurisdiction has the right to establish the terms of assistance.

(1) Inherited property. Inherited property with multiple owners: Housing for which title has been passed to several individuals by inheritance, but not all heirs reside in the housing, sharing ownership with other nonresident heirs. (The occupant of the housing has a divided ownership interest.) The participating jurisdiction may assist the owner-occupant if the occupant is low-income, occupies the housing as his or her principal residence, and pays all the costs associated with ownership and maintenance of the housing (e.g., mortgage, taxes, insurance, utilities).

(2) Life estate. The person who has the life estate has the right to live in the housing for the remainder of his or her life and does not pay rent. The participating jurisdiction may assist the person holding the life estate if the person is low-income and occupies the housing as his or her principal residence.

(3) Inter vivos trust, also known as a living trust. A living trust is created during the lifetime of a person. A living trust is created when the owner of property conveys his or her property to a trust for his or her own benefit or for that of a third party (the beneficiaries). The trust holds legal title and the beneficiary holds equitable title. The person may name him or herself as the beneficiary. The trustee is under a fiduciary responsibility to hold and manage the trust assets for the beneficiary. The participating jurisdiction may assist if all beneficiaries of the trust qualify as a low-income family and occupy the property as their principal residence (except that contingent beneficiaries, who receive no benefit from the trust nor have any control over the trust assets until the beneficiary is deceased, need not be low-income). The trust must be valid and enforceable and ensure that each beneficiary has the legal right to occupy the property for the remainder of his or her life.

(4) Beneficiary deed. A beneficiary deed conveys an interest in real property, including any debt secured by a lien on real property, to a grantee beneficiary designated by the owner and that expressly states that the deed is effective on the death of the owner. Upon the death of the owner, the grantee beneficiary receives ownership in the property, subject to all conveyances, assignments, contracts, mortgages, deeds of trust, liens, security pledges, and other encumbrances made by the owner or to which the owner was subject during the owner's lifetime. The participating jurisdiction may assist if the owner qualifies as low-income and the owner occupies the property as his or her principal residence.

(d) New construction without acquisition. Newly constructed housing that is built on property currently owned by a family which will occupy the housing upon completion, qualifies as affordable housing if it meets the requirements under paragraph (a) of this section.

(e) Providing homeownership assistance through lenders. Subject to the requirements of this paragraph (e), the participating jurisdiction may provide homeownership assistance through for-profit or nonprofit lending institutions that provide the first mortgage loan to a low-income family.

(1) The homeownership assistance may be provided only as specified in a written agreement between the participating jurisdiction and the lender. The written agreement must specify the forms and amounts of homeownership assistance that the participating jurisdiction authorizes the lender to provide to families and any conditions that apply to the provision of such homeownership assistance.

(2) Before the lender provides any homeownership assistance to a family, the participating jurisdiction must verify that the family is low-income and must inspect the housing for compliance with the property standards in §92.251.

(3) No fees (e.g., origination fees or points) may be charged to a family for the HOME homeownership assistance provided pursuant to this paragraph (e), and the participating jurisdiction must determine that the fees and other amounts charged to the family by the lender for the first mortgage financing are reasonable. Reasonable administrative costs may be charged to the HOME program as a project cost. If the participating jurisdiction requires lenders to pay a fee to participate in the HOME program, the fee is program income to the HOME program.

(4) If the nonprofit lender is a subrecipient or contractor that is receiving HOME assistance to determine that the family is eligible for homeownership assistance, but the participating jurisdiction or another entity is making the assistance to the homebuyer (e.g., signing the documents for the loan or the grant), the requirements of paragraphs (e)(2) and (3) of this section are applicable.

(f) Homebuyer program policies. The participating jurisdiction must have and follow written policies for:

(1) Underwriting standards for homeownership assistance that evaluate housing debt and overall debt of the family, the appropriateness of the amount of assistance, monthly expenses of the family, assets available to acquire the housing, and financial resources to sustain homeownership;

(2) Responsible lending, and

(3) Refinancing loans to which HOME loans are subordinated to ensure that the terms of the new loan are reasonable.

[61 FR 48750, Sept. 16, 1996, as amended at 67 FR 61756, Oct. 1, 2002; 68 FR 10161, Mar. 4, 2003; 69 FR 16766, Mar. 30, 2004; 69 FR 68052, Nov. 22, 2004; 72 FR 16685, Apr. 4, 2007; 78 FR 44674, July 24, 2013]

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§92.255   Converting rental units to homeownership units for existing tenants.

(a) The participating jurisdiction may permit the owner of HOME-assisted rental units to convert the rental units to homeownership units by selling, donating, or otherwise conveying the units to the existing tenants to enable the tenants to become homeowners in accordance with the requirements of §92.254. However, refusal by the tenant to purchase the housing does not constitute grounds for eviction or for failure to renew the lease.

(b) If no additional HOME funds are used to enable the tenants to become homeowners, the homeownership units are subject to a minimum period of affordability equal to the remaining affordable period if the units continued as rental units. If additional HOME funds are used to directly assist the tenants to become homeowners, the minimum period of affordability is the affordability period under §92.254(a)(4), based on the amount of direct homeownership assistance provided.

[78 FR 44676, July 24, 2013]

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§92.256   [Reserved]

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§92.257   Equal participation of faith-based organizations.

The HUD program requirements in §5.109 apply to the HOME program, including the requirements regarding disposition and change in use of real property by a faith-based organization.

[81 FR 19418, Apr. 4, 2016]

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§92.258   Elder cottage housing opportunity (ECHO) units.

(a) General. HOME funds may be used for the initial purchase and initial placement costs of elder cottage housing opportunity (ECHO) units that meet the requirements of this section, and that are small, free-standing, barrier-free, energy-efficient, removable, and designed to be installed adjacent to existing single-family dwellings.

(b) Eligible owners. The owner of a HOME-assisted ECHO unit may be:

(1) The owner-occupant of the single-family host property on which the ECHO unit will be located;

(2) A participating jurisdiction; or

(3) A non-profit organization.

(c) Eligible tenants. During the affordability period, the tenant of a HOME-assisted ECHO unit must be an elderly or disabled family as defined in 24 CFR 5.403 and must also be a low-income family.

(d) Applicable requirements. The requirements of §92.252 apply to HOME-assisted ECHO units, with the following modifications:

(1) Only one ECHO unit may be provided per host property.

(2) The ECHO unit owner may choose whether or not to charge the tenant of the ECHO unit rent, but if a rent is charged, it must meet the requirements of §92.252.

(3) The ECHO housing must remain affordable for the period specified in §92.252(e). If within the affordability period the original occupant no longer occupies the unit, the ECHO unit owner must:

(i) Rent the unit to another eligible occupant on site;

(ii) Move the ECHO unit to another site for occupancy by an eligible occupant; or

(iii) If the owner of the ECHO unit is the host property owner-occupant, the owner may repay the HOME funds in accordance with the recapture provisions imposed by the participating jurisdiction consistent with §92.254(a)(5)(ii). The participating jurisdiction must use the recaptured HOME funds for additional HOME activities.

(4) The participating jurisdiction has the responsibility to enforce the project requirements applicable to ECHO units.

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