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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of June 2, 2020

Title 23Chapter ISubchapter GPart 635 → Subpart A


Title 23: Highways
PART 635—CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE


Subpart A—Contract Procedures


Contents
§635.101   Purpose.
§635.102   Definitions.
§635.103   Applicability.
§635.104   Method of construction.
§635.105   Supervising agency.
§635.106   Use of publicly owned equipment.
§635.107   Participation by disadvantaged business enterprises.
§635.108   Health and safety.
§635.109   Standardized changed condition clauses.
§635.110   Licensing and qualification of contractors.
§635.111   Tied bids.
§635.112   Advertising for bids and proposals.
§635.113   Bid opening and bid tabulations.
§635.114   Award of contract and concurrence in award.
§635.115   Agreement estimate.
§635.116   Subcontracting and contractor responsibilities.
§635.117   Labor and employment.
§635.118   Payroll and weekly statements.
§635.119   False statements.
§635.120   Changes and extra work.
§635.121   Contract time and contract time extensions.
§635.122   Participation in progress payments.
§635.123   Determination and documentation of pay quantities.
§635.124   Participation in contract claim awards and settlements.
§635.125   Termination of contract.
§635.126   [Reserved]
§635.127   Agreement provisions regarding overruns in contract time.

Source: 56 FR 37004, Aug. 2, 1991, unless otherwise noted.

§635.101   Purpose.

To prescribe policies, requirements, and procedures relating to Federal-aid highway projects, from the time of authorization to proceed to the construction stage, to the time of final acceptance by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA).

§635.102   Definitions.

As used in this subpart:

Administrator means the Federal Highway Administrator.

Calendar day means each day shown on the calendar but, if another definition is set forth in the State contract specifications, that definition will apply.

Construction Manager/General Contractor (CM/GC) project means a project to be delivered using a two-phase contract with a construction manager or general contractor for services during both the preconstruction and construction phases of a project.

Contract time means the number of workdays or calendar days specified in a contract for completion of the contract work. The term includes authorized time extensions.

Design-build project means a project to be developed using one or more design-build contracts.

Division Administrator means the chief FHWA official assigned to conduct business in a particular State. A State is as defined in 23 U.S.C. 101.

Force account means a basis of payment for the direct performance of highway construction work with payment based on the actual cost of labor, equipment, and materials furnished and consideration for overhead and profit.

Formal approval means approval in writing or the electronic transmission of such approval.

Incentive/disincentive for early completion as used in this subpart, describes a contract provision which compensates the contractor a certain amount of money for each day identified critical work is completed ahead of schedule and assesses a deduction for each day the contractor overruns the incentive/disincentive time. Its use is primarily intended for those critical projects where traffic inconvenience and delays are to be held to a minimum. The amounts are based upon estimates of such items as traffic safety, traffic maintenance, and road user delay costs.

Liquidated damages means the daily amount set forth in the contract to be deducted from the contract price to cover additional costs incurred by a State transportation department because of the contractor's failure to complete the contract work within the number of calendar days or workdays specified. The term may also mean the total of all daily amounts deducted under the terms of a particular contract.

Local public agency means any city, county, township, municipality, or other political subdivision that may be empowered to cooperate with the State transportation department in highway matters.

Major change or major extra work means a change which will significantly affect the cost of the project to the Federal Government or alter the termini, character or scope of the work.

Materially unbalanced bid means a bid which generates a reasonable doubt that award to the bidder submitting a mathematically unbalanced bid will result in the lowest ultimate cost to the Federal Government.

Mathematically unbalanced bid means a bid containing lump sum or unit bid items which do not reflect reasonable actual costs plus a reasonable proportionate share of the bidder's anticipated profit, overhead costs, and other indirect costs.

Public agency means any organization with administrative or functional responsibilities which are directly or indirectly affiliated with a governmental body of any nation, State, or local jurisdiction.

Publicly owned equipment means equipment previously purchased or otherwise acquired by the public agency involved primarily for use in its own operations.

Specialty items means work items identified in the contract which are not normally associated with highway construction and require highly specialized knowledge, abilities or equipment not ordinarily available in the type of contracting organizations qualified and expected to bid on the contract; in general, these items are to be limited to minor components of the overall contract.

State transportation department (STD) means that department, commission, board, or official of any State charged by its laws with the responsibility for highway construction. The term “State” should be considered equivalent to “State transportation department” if the context so implies.

Workday means a calendar day during which construction operations could proceed for a major part of a shift, normally excluding Saturdays, Sundays, and State-recognized legal holidays.

[62 FR 6873, Feb. 14, 1997, as amended at 67 FR 75924, Dec. 10, 2002; 81 FR 86942, Dec. 2, 2016]

§635.103   Applicability.

The policies, requirements, and procedures prescribed in this subpart shall apply to all Federal-aid highway projects.

[69 FR 7118, Feb. 13, 2004]

§635.104   Method of construction.

(a) Actual construction work shall be performed by contract awarded by competitive bidding; unless, as provided in §635.104(b), the STD demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Division Administrator that some other method is more cost effective or that an emergency exists. The STD shall assure opportunity for free, open, and competitive bidding, including adequate publicity of the advertisements or calls for bids. The advertising or calling for bids and the award of contracts shall comply with the procedures and requirements set forth in §§635.112 and 635.114.

(b) Approval by the Division Administrator for construction by a method other than competitive bidding shall be requested by the State in accordance with subpart B of part 635 of this chapter. Before such finding is made, the STD shall determine that the organization to undertake the work is so staffed and equipped as to perform such work satisfactorily and cost effectively.

(c) In the case of a design-build project, the requirements of 23 CFR part 636 and the appropriate provisions pertaining to design-build contracting in this part will apply. However, no justification of cost effectiveness is necessary in selecting projects for the design-build delivery method.

(d) In the case of a CM/GC project, the requirements of subpart E and the appropriate provisions pertaining to the CM/GC method of contracting in this part will apply. However, no justification of cost effectiveness is necessary in selecting projects for the CM/GC delivery method.

[56 FR 37004, Aug. 2, 1991, as amended at 67 FR 75925, Dec. 10, 2002; 81 FR 86942, Dec. 2, 2016]

§635.105   Supervising agency.

(a) The STD has responsibility for the construction of all Federal-aid projects, and is not relieved of such responsibility by authorizing performance of the work by a local public agency or other Federal agency. The STD shall be responsible for insuring that such projects receive adequate supervision and inspection to insure that projects are completed in conformance with approved plans and specifications.

(b) Although the STD may employ a consultant to provide construction engineering services, such as inspection or survey work on a project, the STD shall provide a full-time employed State engineer to be in responsible charge of the project.

(c) When a project is located on a street or highway over which the STD does not have legal jurisdiction, or when special conditions warrant, the STD, while not relieved of overall project responsibility, may arrange for the local public agency having jurisdiction over such street or highway to perform the work with its own forces or by contract; provided the following conditions are met and the Division Administrator approves the arrangements in advance.

(1) In the case of force account work, there is full compliance with subpart B of this part.

(2) When the work is to be performed under a contract awarded by a local public agency, all Federal requirements including those prescribed in this subpart shall be met.

(3) The local public agency is adequately staffed and suitably equipped to undertake and satisfactorily complete the work; and

(4) In those instances where a local public agency elects to use consultants for construction engineering services, the local public agency shall provide a full-time employee of the agency to be in responsible charge of the project.

§635.106   Use of publicly owned equipment.

(a) Publicly owned equipment should not normally compete with privately owned equipment on a project to be let to contract. There may be exceptional cases, however, in which the use of equipment of the State or local public agency for highway construction purposes may be warranted or justified. A proposal by any STD for the use of publicly owned equipment on such a project must be supported by a showing that it would clearly be cost effective to do so under the conditions peculiar to the individual project or locality.

(b) Where publicly owned equipment is to be made available in connection with construction work to be let to contract, Federal funds may participate in the cost of such work provided the following conditions are met:

(1) The proposed use of such equipment is clearly set forth in the Plans, Specifications and Estimate (PS&E) submitted to the Division Administrator for approval.

(2) The advertised specifications specify the items of publicly owned equipment available for use by the successful bidder, the rates to be charged, and the points of availability or delivery of the equipment; and

(3) The advertised specifications include a notification that the successful bidder has the option either of renting part or all of such equipment from the State or local public agency or otherwise providing the equipment necessary for the performance of the contract work.

(c) In the rental of publicly owned equipment to contractors, the State or local public agency shall not profit at the expense of Federal funds.

(d) Unforeseeable conditions may make it necessary to provide publicly owned equipment to the contractor at rental rates agreed to between the contractor and the State or local public agency after the work has started. Any such arrangement shall not form the basis for any increase in the cost of the project on which Federal funds are to participate.

(e) When publicly owned equipment is used on projects constructed on a force account basis, costs may be determined by agreed unit prices or on an actual cost basis. When agreed unit prices are applied the equipment need not be itemized nor rental rates shown in the estimate. However, if such work is to be performed on an actual cost basis, the STD shall submit to the Division Administrator for approval the scheduie of rates proposed to be charged, exclusive of profit, for the publicly owned equipment made available for use.

§635.107   Participation by disadvantaged business enterprises.

(a) The STD shall schedule contract lettings in a balanced program providing contracts of such size and character as to assure an opportunity for all sizes of contracting organizations to compete. In accordance with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, subsequent Federal-aid Highway Acts, and 49 CFR part 26, the STD shall ensure equal opportunity for disadvantaged business enterprises (DBEs) participating in the Federal-aid highway program.

(b) In the case of a design-build or CM/GC project funded with title 23 funds, the requirements of 49 CFR part 26 and the State's approved DBE plan apply.

[67 FR 75925, Dec. 10, 2002, as amended at 81 FR 86942, Dec. 2, 2016]

§635.108   Health and safety.

Contracts for projects shall include provisions designed:

(a) To insure full compliance with all applicable Federal, State, and local laws governing safety, health and sanitation; and

(b) To require that the contractor shall provide all safeguards, safety devices, and protective equipment and shall take any other actions reasonably necessary to protect the life and health of persons working at the site of the project and the safety of the public and to protect property in connection with the performance of the work covered by the contract.

§635.109   Standardized changed condition clauses.

(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the following changed conditions contract clauses shall be made part of, and incorporated in, each highway construction project, including construction services contracts of CM/GC projects, approved under 23 U.S.C. 106:

(1) Differing site conditions. (i) During the progress of the work, if subsurface or latent physical conditions are encountered at the site differing materially from those indicated in the contract or if unknown physical conditions of an unusual nature, differing materially from those ordinarily encountered and generally recognized as inherent in the work provided for in the contract, are encountered at the site, the party discovering such conditions shall promptly notify the other party in writing of the specific differing conditions before the site is disturbed and before the affected work is performed.

(ii) Upon written notification, the engineer will investigate the conditions, and if it is determined that the conditions materially differ and cause an increase or decrease in the cost or time required for the performance of any work under the contract, an adjustment, excluding anticipated profits, will be made and the contract modified in writing accordingly. The engineer will notify the contractor of the determination whether or not an adjustment of the contract is warranted.

(iii) No contract adjustment which results in a benefit to the contractor will be allowed unless the contractor has provided the required written notice.

(iv) No contract adjustment will be allowed under this clause for any effects caused on unchanged work. (This provision may be omitted by the STD's at their option.)

(2) Suspensions of work ordered by the engineer. (i) If the performance of all or any portion of the work is suspended or delayed by the engineer in writing for an unreasonable period of time (not originally anticipated, customary, or inherent to the construction industry) and the contractor believes that additional compensation and/or contract time is due as a result of such suspension or delay, the contractor shall submit to the engineer in writing a request for adjustment within 7 calendar days of receipt of the notice to resume work. The request shall set forth the reasons and support for such adjustment.

(ii) Upon receipt, the engineer will evaluate the contractor's request. If the engineer agrees that the cost and/or time required for the performance of the contract has increased as a result of such suspension and the suspension was caused by conditions beyond the control of and not the fault of the contractor, its suppliers, or subcontractors at any approved tier, and not caused by weather, the engineer will make an adjustment (excluding profit) and modify the contract in writing accordingly. The contractor will be notified of the engineer's determination whether or not an adjustment of the contract is warranted.

(iii) No contract adjustment will be allowed unless the contractor has submitted the request for adjustment within the time prescribed.

(iv) No contract adjustment will be allowed under this clause to the extent that performance would have been suspended or delayed by any other cause, or for which an adjustment is provided or excluded under any other term or condition of this contract.

(3) Significant changes in the character of work. (i) The engineer reserves the right to make, in writing, at any time during the work, such changes in quantities and such alterations in the work as are necessary to satisfactorily complete the project. Such changes in quantities and alterations shall not invalidate the contract nor release the surety, and the contractor agrees to perform the work as altered.

(ii) If the alterations or changes in quantities significantly change the character of the work under the contract, whether such alterations or changes are in themselves significant changes to the character of the work or by affecting other work cause such other work to become significantly different in character, an adjustment, excluding anticipated profit, will be made to the contract. The basis for the adjustment shall be agreed upon prior to the performance of the work. If a basis cannot be agreed upon, then an adjustment will be made either for or against the contractor in such amount as the engineer may determine to be fair and equitable.

(iii) If the alterations or changes in quantities do not significantly change the character of the work to be performed under the contract, the altered work will be paid for as provided elsewhere in the contract.

(iv) The term “significant change” shall be construed to apply only to the following circumstances:

(A) When the character of the work as altered differs materially in kind or nature from that involved or included in the original proposed construction; or

(B) When a major item of work, as defined elsewhere in the contract, is increased in excess of 125 percent or decreased below 75 percent of the original contract quantity. Any allowance for an increase in quantity shall apply only to that portion in excess of 125 percent of original contract item quantity, or in case of a decrease below 75 percent, to the actual amount of work performed.

(b) The provisions of this section shall be governed by the following:

(1) Where State statute does not permit one or more of the contract clauses included in paragraph (a) of this section, the State statute shall prevail and such clause or clauses need not be made applicable to Federal-aid highway contracts.

(2) Where the State transportation department has developed and implemented one or more of the contract clauses included in paragraph (a) of this section, such clause or clauses, as developed by the State transportation department may be included in Federal-aid highway contracts in lieu of the corresponding clause or clauses in paragraph (a) of this section. The State's action must be pursuant to a specific State statute requiring differing contract conditions clauses. Such State developed clause or clauses, however, must be in conformance with 23 U.S.C., 23 CFR and other applicable Federal statutes and regulations as appropriate and shall be subject to the Division Administrator's approval as part of the PS&E.

(c) In the case of a design-build project, STDs are strongly encouraged to use “suspensions of work ordered by the engineer” clauses, and may consider “differing site condition” clauses and “significant changes in the character of work” clauses which are appropriate for the risk and responsibilities that are shared with the design-builder.

[56 FR 37004, Aug. 2, 1991; 57 FR 10062, Mar. 23, 1992, as amended at 67 FR 75925, Dec. 10, 2002; 81 FR 86943, Dec. 2, 2016]

§635.110   Licensing and qualification of contractors.

(a) The procedures and requirements a STD proposes to use for qualifying and licensing contractors, who may bid for, be awarded, or perform Federal-aid highway contracts, shall be submitted to the Division Administrator for advance approval. Only those procedures and requirements so approved shall be effective with respect to Federal-aid highway projects. Any changes in approved procedures and requirements shall likewise be subject to approval by the Division Administrator.

(b) No procedure or requirement for bonding, insurance, prequalification, qualification, or licensing of contractors shall be approved which, in the judgment of the Division Administrator, may operate to restrict competition, to prevent submission of a bid by, or to prohibit the consideration of a bid submitted by, any responsible contractor, whether resident or nonresident of the State wherein the work is to be performed.

(c) No contractor shall be required by law, regulation, or practice to obtain a license before submission of a bid or before the bid may be considered for award of a contract. This, however, is not intended to preclude requirements for the licensing of a contractor upon or subsequent to the award of the contract if such requirements are consistent with competitive bidding. Prequalification of contractors may be required as a condition for submission of a bid or award of contract only if the period between the date of issuing a call for bids and the date of opening of bids affords sufficient time to enable a bidder to obtain the required prequalification rating.

(d) Requirements for the prequalification, qualification or licensing of contractors, that operate to govern the amount of work that may be bid upon by, or may be awarded to, a contractor, shall be approved only if based upon a full and appropriate evaluation of the contractor's capability to perform the work.

(e) Contractors who are currently suspended, debarred or voluntarily excluded under 49 CFR part 29 or otherwise determined to be ineligible, shall be prohibited from participating in the Federal-aid highway program.

(f) In the case of design-build and CM/GC projects, the STDs may use their own bonding, insurance, licensing, qualification or prequalification procedure for any phase of procurement.

(1) The STDs may not impose statutory or administrative requirements which provide an in-State or local geographical preference in the solicitation, licensing, qualification, pre-qualification, short listing or selection process. The geographic location of a firm's office may not be one of the selection criteria. However, the STDs may require the successful design-builder to establish a local office after the award of contract.

(2) If required by State statute, local statute, or administrative policy, the STDs may require prequalification for construction contractors. The STDs may require offerors to demonstrate the ability of their engineering staff to become licensed in that State as a condition of responsiveness; however, licensing procedures may not serve as a barrier for the consideration of otherwise responsive proposals. The STDs may require compliance with appropriate State or local licensing practices as a condition of contract award.

[56 FR 37004, Aug. 2, 1991, as amended at 67 FR 75925, Dec. 10, 2002; 81 FR 86943, Dec. 2, 2016]

§635.111   Tied bids.

(a) The STD may tie or permit the tying of Federal-aid highway projects or Federal-aid and State-financed highway projects for bidding purposes where it appears that by so doing more favorable bids may be received. To avoid discrimination against contractors desiring to bid upon a lesser amount of work than that included in the tied combinations, provisions should be made to permit bidding separately on the individual projects whenever they are of such character as to be suitable for bidding independently.

(b) When Federal-aid and State-financed highway projects are tied or permitted to be tied together for bidding purposes, the bid schedule shall set forth the quantities separately for the Federal-aid work and the State-financed work. All proposals submitted for the tied projects must contain separate bid prices for each project individually. Federal participation in the cost of the work shall be on the basis of the lowest overall responsive bid proposal unless the analysis of bids reveals that mathematical unbalancing has caused an unsupported shift of cost liability to the Federal-aid work. If such a finding is made, Federal participation shall be based on the unit prices represented in the proposal by the individual contractor who would be the lowest responsive and responsible bidder if only the Federal-aid project were considered.

(c) Federal-aid highway projects and State-financed highway projects may be combined in one contract if the conditions of the projects are so similar that the unit costs on the Federal-aid projects should not be increased by such combinations of projects. In such cases, like quantities should be combined in the proposal to avoid the possibility of unbalancing of bids in favor of either of the projects in the combination.

§635.112   Advertising for bids and proposals.

(a) No work shall be undertaken on any Federal-aid project, nor shall any project be advertised for bids, prior to authorization by the Division Administrator.

(b) The advertisement and approved plans and specifications shall be available to bidders a minimum of 3 weeks prior to opening of bids except that shorter periods may be approved by the Division Administrator in special cases when justified.

(c) The STD shall obtain the approval of the Division Administrator prior to issuing any addenda which contain a major change to the approved plans or specifications during the advertising period. Minor addenda need not receive prior approval but should be identified by the STD at the time of or prior to requesting FHWA concurrence in award. The STD shall provide assurance that all bidders have received all issued addenda.

(d) Nondiscriminatory bidding procedures shall be afforded to all qualified bidders regardless of National, State or local boundaries and without regard to race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, or handicap. If any provisions of State laws, specifications, regulations, or policies may operate in any manner contrary to Federal requirements, including title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, to prevent submission of a bid, or prohibit consideration of a bid submitted by any responsible bidder appropriately qualified in accordance with §635.110, such provisions shall not be applicable to Federal-aid projects. Where such nonapplicable provisions exist, notices of advertising, specifications, special provisions or other governing documents shall include a positive statement to advise prospective bidders of those provisions that are not applicable.

(e) Except in the case of a concession agreement, as defined in section 710.703 of this title, no public agency shall be permitted to bid in competition or to enter into subcontracts with private contractors.

(f) The STD shall include a noncollusion provision substantially as follows in the bidding documents:

Each bidder shall file a statement executed by, or on behalf of the person, firm, association, or corporation submitting the bid certifying that such person, firm, association, or corporation has not, either directly or indirectly, entered into any agreement, participated in any collusion, or otherwise taken any action, in restraint of free competitive bidding in connection with the submitted bid. Failure to submit the executed statement as part of the bidding documents will make the bid nonresponsive and not eligible for award consideration.

(1) The required form for the statement will be provided by the State to each prospective bidder.

(2) The statement shall either be in the form of an affidavit executed and sworn to by the bidder before a person who is authorized by the laws of the State to administer oaths or in the form of an unsworn declaration executed under penalty of perjury of the laws of the United States.

(g) The STD shall include the lobbying certification requirement pursuant to 49 CFR part 20 and the requirements of 49 CFR part 29 regarding suspension and debarment certification in the bidding documents.

(h) The STD shall clearly identify in the bidding documents those requirements which the bidder must assure are complied with to make the bid responsive. Failure to comply with these identified bidding requirements shall make the bid nonresponsive and not eligible for award consideration.

(i) In the case of a design-build project, the following requirements apply:

(1) When a Request for Proposals document is issued after the NEPA process is complete, the FHWA Division Administrator's approval of the Request for Proposals document will constitute the FHWA's project authorization and the FHWA's approval of the STD's request to release the document. This approval will carry the same significance as plan, specification and estimate approval on a design-bid-build Federal-aid project.

(2) Where a Request for Proposals document is issued prior to the completion of the NEPA process, the FHWA's approval of the document will only constitute the FHWA's approval of the STD's request to release the document.

(3) The STD may decide the appropriate solicitation schedule for all design-build requests. This includes all project advertising, the release of the Request for Qualifications document, the release of the Request for Proposals document and all deadlines for the receipt of qualification statements and proposals. Typical advertising periods range from six to ten weeks and can be longer for large, complicated projects.

(4) The STD must obtain the approval of the Division Administrator prior to issuing addenda which result in major changes to the Request for Proposals document. Minor addenda need not receive prior approval but may be identified by the STD at the time of or prior to requesting the FHWA's concurrence in award. The STD must provide assurance that all offerors have received all issued addenda.

(j) In the case of a CM/GC project, the FHWA Division Administrator's approval of the solicitation document will constitute the FHWA's approval to use the CM/GC contracting method and approval to release the solicitation document. The STD must obtain the approval of the FHWA Division Administrator before issuing addenda which result in major changes to the solicitation document.

[56 FR 37004, Aug. 2, 1991, as amended at 67 FR 75925, Dec. 10, 2002; 72 FR 45336, Aug. 14, 2007; 73 FR 77502, Dec. 19, 2008; 81 FR 86943, Dec. 2, 2016]

§635.113   Bid opening and bid tabulations.

(a) All bids received in accordance with the terms of the advertisement shall be publicly opened and announced either item by item or by total amount. If any bid received is not read aloud, the name of the bidder and the reason for not reading the bid aloud shall be publicly announced at the letting. Negotiation with contractors, during the period following the opening of bids and before the award of the contract shall not be permitted.

(b) The STD shall prepare and forward tabulations of bids to the Division Administrator. These tabulations shall be certified by a responsible STD official and shall show:

(1) Bid item details for at least the low three acceptable bids and

(2) The total amounts of all other acceptable bids.

(c) In the case of a design-build project, the following requirements apply:

(1) All proposals received must be opened and reviewed in accordance with the terms of the solicitation. The STD must use its own procedures for the following:

(i) The process of handling proposals and information;

(ii) The review and evaluation of proposals;

(iii) The submission, modification, revision and withdrawal of proposals; and

(iv) The announcement of the successful offeror.

(2) The STD must submit a post-award tabulation of proposal prices to the FHWA Division Administrator. The tabulation of price proposal information may include detailed pricing information when available or lump sum price information if itemized prices are not used.

(d) In the case of a CM/GC project, the requirements of this section do not apply. See subpart E of this part for approval procedures.

[56 FR 37004, Aug. 2, 1991, as amended at 67 FR 75925, Dec. 10, 2002; 81 FR 86943, Dec. 2, 2016]

§635.114   Award of contract and concurrence in award.

(a) Federal-aid contracts shall be awarded only on the basis of the lowest responsive bid submitted by a bidder meeting the criteria of responsibility as may have been established by the STD in accordance with §635.110. Award shall be within the time established by the STD and subject to the prior concurrence of the Division Administrator.

(b) The STD shall formally request concurrence by the Division Administrator in the award of all Federal-aid contracts. Concurrence in award by the Division Administrator is a prerequisite to Federal participation in construction costs and is considered as authority to proceed with construction, unless specifically stated otherwise. Concurrence in award shall be formally approved and shall only be given after receipt and review of the tabulation of bids.

(c) Following the opening of bids, the STD shall examine the unit bid prices of the apparent low bid for reasonable conformance with the engineer's estimated prices. A bid with extreme variations from the engineer's estimate, or where obvious unbalancing of unit prices has occurred, shall be thoroughly evaluated.

(d) Where obvious unbalanced bid items exist, the STD's decision to award or reject a bid shall be supported by written justification. A bid found to be mathematically unbalanced, but not found to be materially unbalanced, may be awarded.

(e) When a low bid is determined to be both mathematically and materially unbalanced, the Division Administrator will take appropriate steps to protect the Federal interest. This action may be concurrence in a STD decision not to award the contract. If, however, the STD decides to proceed with the award and requests FHWA concurrence, the Division Administrator's action may range from nonconcurrence to concurrence with contingency conditions limiting Federal participation.

(f) If the STD determines that the lowest bid is not responsive or the bidder is not responsible, it shall so notify and obtain the Division Administrator's concurrence before making an award to the next lowest bidder.

(g) If the STD rejects or declines to read or consider a low bid on the grounds that it is not responsive because of noncompliance with a requirement which was not clearly identified in the bidding documents, it shall submit justification for its action. If such justification is not considered by the Division Administrator to be sufficient, concurrence will not be given to award to another bidder on the contract at the same letting.

(h) Any proposal by the STD to reject all bids received for a Federal-aid contract shall be submitted to the Division Administrator for concurrence, accompanied by adequate justification.

(i) In the event the low bidder selected by the STD for contract award forfeits the bid guarantee, the STD may dispose of the amounts of such forfeited guarantees in accordance with its normal practices.

(j) A copy of the executed contract between the STD and the construction contractor should be furnished to the Division Administrator as soon as practicable after execution.

(k) In the case of a design-build project, the following requirements apply: Design-build contracts shall be awarded in accordance with the Request for Proposals document. See 23 CFR Part 636, Design-build Contracting, for details.

(l) In the case of a CM/GC project, the CM/GC contract shall be awarded in accordance with the solicitation document. See subpart E for CM/GC project approval procedures.

[56 FR 37004, Aug. 2, 1991, as amended at 67 FR 75925, Dec. 10, 2002; 81 FR 86943, Dec. 2, 2016]

§635.115   Agreement estimate.

(a) Following the award of contract, an agreement estimate based on the contract unit prices and estimated quantities shall be prepared by the STD and submitted to the Division Administrator as soon as practicable for use in the preparation of the project agreement. The agreement estimate shall also include the actual or best estimated costs of any other items to be included in the project agreement.

(b) An agreement estimate shall be submitted by the STD for each force account project (see 23 CFR part 635, subpart B) when the plans and specifications are submitted to the Division Administrator for approval. It shall normally be based on the estimated quantities and the unit prices agreed upon in advance between the STD and the Division Administrator, whether the work is to be done by the STD or by a local public agency. Such agreed unit prices shall constitute a commitment as the basis for Federal participation in the cost of the project. The unit prices shall be based upon the estimated actual cost of performing the work but shall in no case exceed unit prices currently being obtained by competitive bidding on comparable highway construction work in the same general locality. In special cases involving unusual circumstances, the estimate may be based upon the estimated costs for labor, materials, equipment rentals, and supervision to complete the work rather than upon agreed unit prices. This paragraph shall not be applicable to agreement estimates for railroad and utility force account work.

§635.116   Subcontracting and contractor responsibilities.

(a) Contracts for projects shall specify the minimum percentage of work that a contractor must perform with its own organization. This percentage shall be not less than 30 percent of the total original contract price excluding any identified specialty items. Specialty items may be performed by subcontract and the amount of any such specialty items so performed may be deducted from the total original contract before computing the amount of work required to be performed by the contractor's own organization. The contract amount upon which the above requirement is computed includes the cost of materials and manufactured products which are to be purchased or produced by the contractor under the contract provisions.

(b) The STD shall not permit any of the contract work to be performed under a subcontract, unless such arrangement has been authorized by the STD in writing. Prior to authorizing a subcontract, the STD shall assure that each subcontract is evidenced in writing and that it contains all pertinent provisions and requirements of the prime contract. The Division Administrator may permit the STD to satisfy the subcontract assurance requirements by concurrence in a STD process which requires the contractor to certify that each subcontract arrangement will be in the form of a written agreement containing all the requirements and pertinent provisions of the prime contract. Prior to the Division Administrator's concurrence, the STD must demonstrate that it has an acceptable plan for monitoring such certifications.

(c) To assure that all work (including subcontract work) is performed in accordance with the contract requirements, the contractor shall be required to furnish:

(1) A competent superintendent or supervisor who is employed by the firm, has full authority to direct performance of the work in accordance with the contract requirements, and is in charge of all construction operations (regardless of who performs the work), and;

(2) Such other of its own organizational resources (supervision, management, and engineering services) as the STD contracting officer determines are necessary to assure the performance of the contract.

(d) In the case of a design-build project, the following requirements apply:

(1) The provisions of paragraph (a) of this section are not applicable to design-build contracts;

(2) At their discretion, the STDs may establish a minimum percentage of work that must be done by the design-builder. For the purpose of this section, the term design-builder may include any firms that are equity participants in the design-builder, their sister and parent companies, and their wholly owned subsidiaries;

(3) No procedure, requirement or preference shall be imposed which prescribes minimum subcontracting requirements or goals (other than those necessary to meet the Disadvantaged Business Enterprise program requirements of 49 CFR part 26).

[56 FR 37004, Aug. 2, 1991, as amended at 67 FR 75925, Dec. 10, 2002]

§635.117   Labor and employment.

(a) No construction work shall be performed by convict labor at the work site or within the limits of any Federal-aid highway construction project from the time of award of the contract or the start of work on force account until final acceptance of the work by the STD unless it is labor performed by convicts who are on parole, supervised release, or probation.

(b) No procedures or requirement shall be imposed by any State which will operate to discriminate against the employment of labor from any other State, possession or territory of the United States, in the construction of a Federal-aid project.

(c) The selection of labor to be employed by the contractor on any Federal-aid project shall be by the contractor without regard to race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, or handicap and in accordance with 23 CFR part 230, 41 CFR part 60 and Exec. Order No. 11246 (Sept. 24, 1965), 3 CFR 339 (1964-1965), as amended.

(d) Pursuant to 23 U.S.C. 140(d), it is permissible for STD's to implement procedures or requirements which will extend preferential employment to Indians living on or near a reservation on eligible projects as defined in paragraph (e) of this section. Indian preference shall be applied without regard to tribal affiliation or place of enrollment. In no instance should a contractor be compelled to layoff or terminate a permanent core-crew employee to meet a preference goal.

(e) Projects eligible for Indian employment preference consideration are projects located on roads within or providing access to an Indian reservation or other Indian lands as defined under the term “Indian Reservation Roads” in 23 U.S.C. 101 and regulations issued thereunder. The terminus of a road “providing access to” is that point at which it intersects with a road functionally classified as a collector or higher classification (outside the reservation boundary) in both urban and rural areas. In the case of an Interstate highway, the terminus is the first interchange outside the reservation.

(f) The advertisement or call for bids on any contract for the construction of a project located on the Federal-aid system either shall include the minimum wage rates determined by the Secretary of Labor to be prevailing on the same type of work on similar construction in the immediate locality or shall provide that such rates are set out in the bidding documents and shall further specify that such rates are a part of the contract covering the project.

§635.118   Payroll and weekly statements.

For all projects, copies of payrolls and statements of wages paid, filed with the State as set forth in the required contract provisions for the project, are to be retained by the STD for the time period pursuant to 49 CFR part 18 for review as needed by the Federal Highway Administration, the Department of Labor, the General Accounting Office, or other agencies.

§635.119   False statements.

The following notice shall be posted on each Federal-aid highway project in one or more places where it is readily available to and viewable by all personnel concerned with the project:

Notice to All Personnel Engaged on Federal-Aid Highway Projects

United States Code, title 18, section 1020, reads as follows:

Whoever, being an officer, agent, or employee of the United States, or of any State or Territory, or whoever, whether a person, association, firm, or corporation, knowingly makes any false statement, false representation, or false report as to the character, quality, quantity, or cost of the material used or to be used, or the quantity or quality of the work performed or to be performed, or the costs thereof in connection with the submission of plans, maps, specifications, contracts, or costs of construction of any highway or related project submitted for approval to the Secretary of Transportation; or

Whoever, knowingly makes any false statement, false representation, false report, or false claim with respect to the character, quality, quantity, or cost of any work performed or to be performed, or materials furnished or to be furnished, in connection with the construction of any highway or related project approved by the Secretary of Transportation; or

Whoever, knowingly makes any false statement or false representation as to a material fact in any statement, certificate, or report submitted pursuant to the provisions of the Federal-aid Road Act approved July 11, 1916 (39 Stat. 355), as amended and supplemented,

Shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

§635.120   Changes and extra work.

(a) Following authorization to proceed with a project, all major changes in the plans and contract provisions and all major extra work shall have formal approval by the Division Administrator in advance of their effective dates. However, when emergency or unusual conditions justify, the Division Administrator may give tentative advance approval orally to such changes or extra work and ratify such approval with formal approval as soon thereafter as practicable.

(b) For non-major changes and non-major extra work, formal approval is necessary but such approval may be given retroactively at the discretion of the Division Administrator. The STD should establish and document with the Division Administrator's concurrence specific parameters as to what constitutes a non-major change and non-major extra work.

(c) Changes in contract time, as related to contract changes or extra work, should be submitted at the same time as the respective work change for approval by the Division Administrator.

(d) In establishing the method of payment for contract changes or extra work orders, force account procedures shall only be used when strictly necessary, such as when agreement cannot be reached with the contractor on the price of a new work item, or when the extent of work is unknown or is of such character that a price cannot be determined to a reasonable degree of accuracy. The reason or reasons for using force account procedures shall be documented.

(e) The STD shall perform and adequately document a cost analysis of each negotiated contract change or negotiated extra work order. The method and degree of the cost analysis shall be subject to the approval of the Division Administrator.

(f) Proposed changes and extra work involved in nonparticipating operations that may affect the design or participating construction features of a project, shall be subject to review and concurrence by the Division Administrator.

§635.121   Contract time and contract time extensions.

(a) The STD should have adequate written procedures for the determination of contract time. These procedures should be submitted for approval to the Division Administrator within 6 months of the effective date of this Final Rule.

(b) Contract time extensions granted by a STD shall be subject to the concurrence of the Division Administrator and will be considered in determining the amount of Federal participation. Contract time extensions submitted for approval to the Division Administrator, shall be fully justified and adequately documented.

§635.122   Participation in progress payments.

(a) Federal funds will participate in the costs to the STD of construction accomplished as the work progresses, based on a request for reimbursement submitted by State transportation departments. When the contract provisions provide for payment for stockpiled materials, the amount of the reimbursement request upon which participation is based may include the appropriate value of approved specification materials delivered by the contractor at the project site or at another designated location in the vicinity of such construction, provided that:

(1) The material conforms with the requirements of the plans and specifications.

(2) The material is supported by a paid invoice or a receipt for delivery of materials. If supported by a receipt of delivery of materials, the contractor must furnish the paid invoice within a reasonable time after receiving payment from the STD; and

(3) The quantity of a stockpiled material eligible for Federal participation in any case shall not exceed the total estimated quantity required to complete the project. The value of the stockpiled material shall not exceed the appropriate portion of the value of the contract item or items in which such materials are to be incorporated.

(b) The materials may be stockpiled by the contractor at a location not in the vicinity of the project, if the STD determines that because of required fabrication at an off-site location, it is not feasible or practicable to stockpile the materials in the vicinity of the project.

(c) In the case of a design-build project, the STD must define its procedures for making progress payments on lump sum contracts in the Request for Proposal document.

(d) In the case of a CM/GC project, the STD must define its procedures for making construction phase progress payments in either the solicitation or the construction services contract documents.

[56 FR 37004, Aug. 2, 1991, as amended at 67 FR 75925, Dec. 10, 2002; 81 FR 86943, Dec. 2, 2016]

§635.123   Determination and documentation of pay quantities.

(a) The STD shall have procedures in effect which will provide adequate assurance that the quantities of completed work are determined accurately and on a uniform basis throughout the State. All such determinations and all related source documents upon which payment is based shall be made a matter of record.

(b) Initial source documents pertaining to the determination of pay quantities are among those records and documents which must be retained pursuant to 49 CFR part 18.

§635.124   Participation in contract claim awards and settlements.

(a) The eligibility for and extent of Federal-aid participation up to the Federal statutory share in a contract claim award made by a State to a Federal-aid contractor on the basis of an arbitration or mediation proceeding, administrative board determination, court judgment, negotiated settlement, or other contract claim settlement shall be determined on a case-by-case basis. Federal funds will participate to the extent that any contract adjustments made are supported, and have a basis in terms of the contract and applicable State law, as fairly construed. Further, the basis for the adjustment and contractor compensation shall be in accord with prevailing principles of public contract law.

(b) The FHWA shall be made aware by the STD of the details of the claim at an early stage so that coordination of efforts can be satisfactorily accomplished. It is expected that STDs will diligently pursue the satisfactory resolution of claims within a reasonable period of time. Claims arising on exempt non-NHS projects should be processed in accordance with the State's approved Stewardship Plan.

(c) When requesting Federal participation, the STD shall set forth in writing the legal and contractual basis for the claim, together with the cost data and other facts supporting the award or settlement. Federal-aid participation in such instances shall be supported by a STD audit of the actual costs incurred by the contractor unless waived by the FHWA as unwarranted. Where difficult, complex, or novel legal issues appear in the claim, such that evaluation of legal controversies is critical to consideration of the award or settlement, the STD shall include in its submission a legal opinion from its counsel setting forth the basis for determining the extent of the liability under local law, with a level of detail commensurate with the magnitude and complexity of the issues involved.

(d) In those cases where the STD receives an adverse decision in an amount more than the STD was able to support prior to the decision or settles a claim in an amount more than the STD can support, the FHWA will participate up to the appropriate Federal matching share, to the extent that it involves a Federal-aid participating portion of the contract, provided that:

(1) The FHWA was consulted and concurred in the proposed course of action;

(2) All appropriate courses of action had been considered; and

(3) The STD pursued the case diligently and in a professional manner.

(e) Federal funds will not participate:

(1) If it has been determined that STD employees, officers, or agents acted with gross negligence, or participated in intentional acts or omissions, fraud, or other acts not consistent with usual State practices in project design, plan preparation, contract administration, or other activities which gave rise to the claim;

(2) In such cost items as consequential or punitive damages, anticipated profit, or any award or payment of attorney's fees paid by a State to an opposing party in litigation; and

(3) In tort, inverse condemnation, or other claims erroneously styled as claims “under a contract.”

(f) Payment of interest associated with a claim will be eligible for participation provided that the payment to the contractor for interest is allowable by State statute or specification and the costs are not a result of delays caused by dilatory action of the State or the contractor. The interest rates must not exceed the rate provided for by the State statute or specification.

(g) In cases where STD's affirmatively recover compensatory damages through contract claims, cross-claims, or counter claims from contractors, subcontractors, or their agents on projects on which there was Federal-aid participation, the Federal share of such recovery shall be equivalent to the Federal share of the project or projects involved. Such recovery shall be credited to the project or projects from which the claim or claims arose.

[56 FR 37004, Aug. 2, 1991, as amended at 62 FR 6873, Feb. 14, 1997; 69 FR 7118, Feb. 13, 2004]

§635.125   Termination of contract.

(a) All contracts exceeding $10,000 shall contain suitable provisions for termination by the State, including the manner by which the termination will be effected and the basis for settlement. In addition, such contracts shall describe conditions under which the contract may be terminated for default as well as conditions where the contract may be terminated because of circumstances beyond the control of the contractor.

(b) The STD prior to termination of a Federal-aid contract shall consult with and receive the concurrence of the Division Administrator. The extent of Federal-aid participation in contract termination costs, including final settlement, will depend upon the merits of the individual case. However, under no circumstances shall Federal funds participate in anticipated profit on work not performed.

(c) Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this section, normal Federal-aid plans, specifications, and estimates, advertising, and award procedures are to be followed when a STD awards the contract for completion of a terminated Federal-aid contract.

(d) When a STD awards the contract for completion of a Federal-aid contract previously terminated for default, the construction amount eligible for Federal participation on the project should not exceed whichever amount is the lesser, either:

(1) The amount representing the payments made under the original contract plus payments made under the new contract; or

(2) The amount representing what the cost would have been if the construction had been completed as contemplated by the plans and specifications under the original contract.

(e) If the surety awards a contract for completion of a defaulted Federal-aid contract or completes it by some other acceptable means, the FHWA will consider the terms of the original contract to be in effect and that the work will be completed in accordance with the approved plans and specifications included therein. No further FHWA approval or concurrence action will therefore be needed in connection with any defaulted Federal-aid contract awarded by a surety. Under this procedure, the construction amount eligible for Federal participation on the project should not exceed the amount representing what the cost would have been if the construction had been completed as contemplated by the plans and specifications under the original contract.

§635.126   [Reserved]

§635.127   Agreement provisions regarding overruns in contract time.

(a) Each State transportation department (STD) shall establish specific liquidated damages rates applicable to projects in that State. The rates may be project-specific or may be in the form of a table or schedule developed for a range of project costs and/or project types. These rates shall, as a minimum, be established to cover the estimated average daily construction engineering (CE) costs associated with the type of work encountered on the project. The amounts shall be assessed by means of deductions, for each calendar day or workday overrun in contract time, from payments otherwise due to the contractor for performance in accordance with the contract terms.

(b) The rates established shall be subject to FHWA approval either on a project-by-project basis, in the case of project-specific rates, or on a periodic basis after initial approval where a rate table or schedule is used. In the latter case, the STD shall periodically review its cost data to ascertain if the rate table/schedule closely approximates, at a minimum, the actual average daily CE costs associated with the type and size of the projects in the State. Where rate schedules or other means are already included in the STD specifications or standard special provisions, verification by the STD that the amounts are adequate shall be submitted to the FHWA for review and approval. After initial approval by the FHWA of the rates, the STD shall review the rates at least every 2 years and provide updated rates, when necessary, for FHWA approval. If updated rates are not warranted, justification of this fact is to be sent to the FHWA for review and acceptance.

(c) The STD may, with FHWA concurrence, include additional amounts as liquidated damages in each contract to cover other anticipated costs of project related delays or inconveniences to the STD or the public. Costs resulting from winter shutdowns, retaining detours for an extended time, additional demurrage, or similar costs as well as road user delay costs may be included.

(d) In addition to the liquidated damages provisions, the STD may also include incentive/disincentive for early completion provisions in the contract. The incentive/disincentive amounts shall be shown separately from the liquidated damages amounts.

(e) Where there has been an overrun in contract time, the following principles shall apply in determining the cost of a project that is eligible for Federal-aid reimbursement:

(1) A proportional share, as used in this section, is the ratio of the final contract construction costs eligible for Federal participation to the final total contract construction costs of the project.

(2) Where CE costs are claimed as a participating item based upon actual expenses incurred or where CE costs are not claimed as a participating item, and where the liquidated damages rates cover only CE expenses, the total CE costs for the project shall be reduced by the assessed liquidated damages amounts prior to figuring any Federal pro rata share payable. If the amount of liquidated damages assessed is more than the actual CE totals for the project, a proportional share of the excess shall be deducted from the federally participating contract construction cost before determining the final Federal share.

(3) Where the STD is being reimbursed for CE costs on the basis of an approved percentage of the participating construction cost, the total contract construction amount that would be eligible for Federal participation shall be reduced by a proportional share of the total liquidated damages amounts assessed on the project.

(4) Where liquidated damages include extra anticipated non-CE costs due to contractor caused delays, the amount assessed shall be used to pay for the actual non-CE expenses incurred by the STD, and, if a Federal participating item(s) is involved, to reduce the Federal share payable for that item(s). If the amount assessed is more than the actual expenses incurred by the STD, a proportional share of the excess shall be deducted from the federally participating contract construction cost of the project before the Federal share is figured.

(f) When provisions for incentive/disincentive for early completion are used in the contract, a proportion of the increased project costs due to any incentive payments to the contractor shall be added to the federally participating contract construction cost before calculating the Federal share. When the disincentive provision is applicable, a proportion of the amount assessed the contractor shall be deducted from the federally participating contract construction cost before the Federal share calculation. Proportions are to be calculated in the same manner as set forth in paragraph (e)(1) of this section.

[52 FR 31390, Aug. 20, 1987. Redesignated at 62 FR 6872, Feb. 14, 1997]

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