e-CFR banner

Home
gpo.gov
govinfo.gov

e-CFR Navigation Aids

Browse

Simple Search

Advanced Search

 — Boolean

 — Proximity

 

Search History

Search Tips

Corrections

Latest Updates

User Info

FAQs

Agency List

Incorporation By Reference

eCFR logo

Related Resources

 

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of February 20, 2020

Title 21Chapter ISubchapter HPart 870 → Subpart F


Title 21: Food and Drugs
PART 870—CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES


Subpart F—Cardiovascular Therapeutic Devices


Contents
§870.5050   Patient care suction apparatus.
§870.5100   Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA) Catheter.
§870.5150   Embolectomy catheter.
§870.5175   Septostomy catheter.
§870.5200   External cardiac compressor.
§870.5210   Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) aid.
§870.5225   External counter-pulsating device.
§870.5300   DC-defibrillator (including paddles).
§870.5310   Automated external defibrillator system.
§870.5325   Defibrillator tester.
§870.5550   External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive).
§870.5700   Steerable cardiac ablation catheter remote control system.
§870.5800   Compressible limb sleeve.
§870.5900   Thermal regulating system.
§870.5910   Esophageal thermal regulation device.
§870.5925   Automatic rotating tourniquet.

§870.5050   Patient care suction apparatus.

(a) Identification. A patient care suction apparatus is a device used with an intrathoracic catheter to withdraw fluid from the chest during the recovery period following surgery.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

§870.5100   Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA) Catheter.

(a) Standard PTCA Catheter—(1) Identification. A PTCA catheter is a device that operates on the principle of hydraulic pressurization applied through an inflatable balloon attached to the distal end. A PTCA balloon catheter has a single or double lumen shaft. The catheter features a balloon of appropriate compliance for the clinical application, constructed from a polymer. The balloon is designed to uniformly expand to a specified diameter and length at a specific pressure as labeled, with well characterized rates of inflation and deflation and a defined burst pressure. The device generally features a type of radiographic marker to facilitate fluoroscopic visualization of the balloon during use. A PTCA catheter is intended for balloon dilatation of a hemodynamically significant coronary artery or bypass graft stenosis in patients evidencing coronary ischemia for the purpose of improving myocardial perfusion. A PTCA catheter may also be intended for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction; treatment of in-stent restenosis (ISR) and/or post-deployment stent expansion.

(2) Classification. Class II (special controls). The special control for this device is “Class II Special Controls Guidance Document for Certain Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA) Catheters.” See §870.1(e) for the availability of this guidance document.

(b) Cutting/scoring PTCA Catheter—(1) Identification. A cutting/scoring PTCA catheter is a balloon-tipped catheter with cutting/scoring elements attached, which is used in those circumstances where a high pressure balloon resistant lesion is encountered. A cutting/scoring PTCA catheter is intended for the treatment of hemodynamically significant coronary artery stenosis for the purpose of improving myocardial perfusion. A cutting/scoring PTCA catheter may also be indicated for use in complex type C lesions or for the treatment of in-stent restenosis.

(2) Classification. Class III (premarket approval). As of May 28, 1976, an approval under section 515 of the act is required before this device may be commercially distributed. See §870.3.

[75 FR 54496, Sept. 8, 2010]

§870.5150   Embolectomy catheter.

(a) Identification. An embolectomy catheter is a balloon-tipped catheter that is used to remove thromboemboli, i.e., blood clots which have migrated in blood vessels from one site in the vascular tree to another.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

§870.5175   Septostomy catheter.

(a) Identification. A septostomy catheter is a special balloon catheter that is used to create or enlarge the atrial septal defect found in the heart of certain infants.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

§870.5200   External cardiac compressor.

(a) Identification. An external cardiac compressor is an externally applied prescription device that is electrically, pneumatically, or manually powered and is used to compress the chest periodically in the region of the heart to provide blood flow during cardiac arrest. External cardiac compressor devices are used as an adjunct to manual cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) when effective manual CPR is not possible (e.g., during patient transport or extended CPR when fatigue may prohibit the delivery of effective/consistent compressions to the victim, or when insufficient EMS personnel are available to provide effective CPR).

(b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The special controls for this device are:

(1) Nonclinical performance testing under simulated physiological conditions must demonstrate the reliability of the delivery of specific compression depth and rate over the intended duration of use.

(2) Labeling must include the following:

(i) The clinical training necessary for the safe use of this device;

(ii) Adjunctive use only indication prominently displayed on labels physically placed on the device and in any device manuals or other labeling;

(iii) Information on the patient population for which the device has been demonstrated to be effective (including patient size and/or age limitations, e.g., adult, pediatric and/or infant); and

(iv) Information on the time necessary to deploy the device as demonstrated in the performance testing.

(3) For devices that incorporate electrical components, appropriate analysis and testing must demonstrate that the device is electrically safe and electromagnetically compatible in its intended use environment.

(4) Human factors testing and analysis must validate that the device design and labeling are sufficient for effective use by the intended user, including an evaluation for the time necessary to deploy the device.

(5) For devices containing software, software verification, validation, and hazard analysis must be performed.

(6) Components of the device that come into human contact must be demonstrated to be biocompatible.

[81 FR 33133, May 25, 2016]

§870.5210   Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) aid.

(a) CPR aid without feedback—(1) Identification. A CPR aid without feedback is a device that performs a simple function such as proper hand placement and/or simple prompting for rate and/or timing of compressions/breathing for the professionally trained rescuer, but offers no feedback related to the quality of the CPR being provided. These devices are intended for use by persons professionally trained in CPR to assure proper use and the delivery of optimal CPR to the victim.

(2) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures in subpart E of part 807 of this chapter subject to the limitations in §870.9.

(b) CPR aid with feedback—(1) Identification. A CPR Aid device with feedback is a device that provides real-time feedback to the rescuer regarding the quality of CPR being delivered to the victim, and provides either audio and/or visual information to encourage the rescuer to continue the consistent application of effective manual CPR in accordance with current accepted CPR guidelines (to include, but not be limited to, parameters such as compression rate, compression depth, ventilation, recoil, instruction for one or multiple rescuers, etc.). These devices may also perform a coaching function to aid rescuers in the sequence of steps necessary to perform effective CPR on a victim.

(2) Classification. Class II (special controls). The special controls for this device are:

(i) Nonclinical performance testing under simulated physiological or use conditions must demonstrate the accuracy and reliability of the feedback to the user on specific compression rate, depth and/or respiration over the intended duration, and environment of use.

(ii) Labeling must include the clinical training, if needed, for the safe use of this device and information on the patient population for which the device has been demonstrated to be effective (including patient size and/or age limitations, e.g., adult, pediatric and/or infant).

(iii) For devices that incorporate electrical components, appropriate analysis and testing must demonstrate that the device is electrically safe and electromagnetically compatible in its intended use environment.

(iv) For devices containing software, software verification, validation, and hazard analysis must be performed.

(v) Components of the device that come into human contact must be demonstrated to be biocompatible.

(vi) Human factors testing and analysis must validate that the device design and labeling are sufficient for effective use by the intended user.

(3) Premarket notification. The CPR Aid with feedback device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures in subpart E of part 807 of this chapter if it does not contain software (e.g., is mechanical or electro-mechanical) and is in compliance with the special controls under paragraph (b)(2) of this section, subject to the limitations of exemptions in §870.9.

[81 FR 33134, May 25, 2016]

§870.5225   External counter-pulsating device.

(a) Identification. An external counter-pulsating device is a noninvasive, prescription device used to assist the heart by applying positive or negative pressure to one or more of the body's limbs in synchrony with the heart cycle.

(b) Classification. (1) Class II (special controls) when the device is intended for the treatment of chronic stable angina that is refractory to optimal anti-anginal medical therapy and without options for revascularization. The special controls for this device are:

(i) Nonclinical performance evaluation of the device must demonstrate a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness for applied pressure, synchronization of therapy with the appropriate phase of the cardiac cycle, and functionality of alarms during a device malfunction or an abnormal patient condition;

(ii) Reliabilities of the mechanical and electrical systems must be established through bench testing under simulated use conditions and matched by appropriate maintenance schedules;

(iii) Software design and verification and validation must be appropriately documented;

(iv) The skin-contacting components of the device must be demonstrated to be biocompatible;

(v) Appropriate analysis and testing must be conducted to verify electrical safety and electromagnetic compatibility of the device; and

(vi) Labeling must include a detailed summary of the device-related and procedure-related complications pertinent to use of the device.

(2) Class III (premarket approval) for the following intended uses: Unstable angina pectoris; acute myocardial infarction; cardiogenic shock; congestive heart failure; postoperative treatment of patients who have undergone coronary artery bypass surgery; peripheral arterial disease associated with ischemic ulcers rest pain or claudication, threatened gangrene, insufficient blood supply at an amputation site, persisting ischemia after embolectomy or bypass surgery, and/or pre- and post-arterial reconstruction to improve runoff; diabetes complicated by peripheral arterial disease or other conditions possibly related to arterial insufficiency including nocturnal leg cramps and/or necrobiosis diabeticorum; venous diseases, including prophylaxis of deep vein thrombophlebitis, edema (e.g., chronic lymphedema) and/or induration (e.g., stasis dermatitis) associated with chronic venous stasis, venous stasis ulcers, and/or thrombophlebitis; athletic injuries, including Charley horses, pulled muscles and/or edematous muscles; necrotizing cellulitis.

(c) Date premarket approval application (PMA) or notice of completion of product development protocol (PDP) is required. A PMA or notice of completion of a PDP is required to be filed with FDA on or before March 31, 2014, for any external counter-pulsating device, with an intended use described in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, that was in commercial distribution before May 28, 1976, or that has, on or before March 31, 2014, been found to be substantially equivalent to any external counter-pulsating device, with an intended use described in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, that was in commercial distribution before May 28, 1976. Any other external counter-pulsating device with an intended use described in paragraph (b)(2) of this section shall have an approved PMA or declared completed PDP in effect before being placed in commercial distribution.

[78 FR 79307, Dec. 30, 2013]

§870.5300   DC-defibrillator (including paddles).

(a) Low-energy DC-defibrillator—(1) Identification. A low-energy DC-defibrillator is a device that delivers into a 50 ohm test load an electrical shock of a maximum of 360 joules of energy used for defibrillating (restoring normal heart rhythm) the atria or ventricles of the heart or to terminate other cardiac arrhythmias. This generic type of device includes low energy defibrillators with a maximum electrical output of less than 360 joules of energy that are used in pediatric defibrillation or in cardiac surgery. The device may either synchronize the shock with the proper phase of the electrocardiogram or may operate asynchronously. The device delivers the electrical shock through paddles placed either directly across the heart or on the surface of the body.

(2) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

(b) High-energy DC-defibrillator—(1) Identification. A high-energy DC-defibrillator is a device that delivers into a 50 ohm test load an electrical shock of greater than 360 joules of energy used for defibrillating the atria or ventricles of the heart or to terminate other cardiac arrhythmias. The device may either synchronize the shock with the proper phase of the electrocardiogram or may operate asynchronously. The device delivers the electrical shock through paddles placed either directly across the heart or on the surface of the body.

(2) Classification. Class III (premarket approval).

(c) Date PMA or notice of completion of a PDP is required. A PMA or a notice of completion of a PDP is required to be filed with the Food and Drug Administration on or before December 26, 1996 for any DC-defibrillator (including paddles) described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section that was in commercial distribution before May 28, 1976, or that has, on or before December 26, 1996 been found to be substantially equivalent to a DC-defibrillator (including paddles) described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section that was in commercial distribution before May 28, 1976. Any other DC-defibrillator (including paddles) described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section shall have an approved PMA or declared completed PDP in effect before being placed in commercial distribution.

[45 FR 7907, Feb. 5, 1980, as amended at 52 FR 17737, May 11, 1987; 61 FR 50706, Sept. 27, 1996]

§870.5310   Automated external defibrillator system.

(a) Identification. An automated external defibrillator (AED) system consists of an AED and those accessories necessary for the AED to detect and interpret an electrocardiogram and deliver an electrical shock (e.g., battery, pad electrode, adapter, and hardware key for pediatric use). An AED system analyzes the patient's electrocardiogram, interprets the cardiac rhythm, and automatically delivers an electrical shock (fully automated AED), or advises the user to deliver the shock (semi-automated or shock advisory AED) to treat ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia.

(b) Classification. Class III (premarket approval)

(c) Date PMA or notice of completion of PDP is required. A PMA will be required to be submitted to the Food and Drug Administration by April 29, 2015, for any AED that was in commercial distribution before May 28, 1976, or that has, by April 29, 2015, been found to be substantially equivalent to any AED that was in commercial distribution before May 28, 1976. A PMA will be required to be submitted to the Food and Drug Administration by April 29, 2015, for any AED accessory described in paragraph (a) that was in commercial distribution before May 28, 1976, or that has, by April 29, 2015, been found to be substantially equivalent to any AED accessory described in paragraph (a) that was in commercial distribution before May 28, 1976. Any other AED and AED accessory described in paragraph (a), shall have an approved PMA or declared completed PDP in effect before being placed in commercial distribution.

[68 FR 61344, Oct. 28, 2003; 69 FR 10615, Mar. 8, 2004, as amended at 80 FR 5682, Feb. 3, 2015]

§870.5325   Defibrillator tester.

(a) Identification. A defibrillator tester is a device that is connected to the output of a defibrillator and is used to measure the energy delivered by the defibrillator into a standard resistive load. Some testers also provide waveform information.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

§870.5550   External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive).

(a) Identification. An external transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive) is a device used to supply a periodic electrical pulse intended to pace the heart. The pulse from the device is usually applied to the surface of the chest through electrodes such as defibrillator paddles.

(b) Classification. Class II. The special controls for this device are:

(1) “American National Standards Institute/American Association for Medical Instrumentation's DF-21 ‘Cardiac Defibrillator Devices’ ” 2d ed., 1996, and

(2) “The maximum pulse amplitude should not exceed 200 milliamperes. The maximum pulse duration should not exceed 50 milliseconds.”

[45 FR 7907, Feb. 5, 1980, as amended at 52 FR 17737, May 11, 1987; 65 FR 17144, Mar. 31, 2000]

§870.5700   Steerable cardiac ablation catheter remote control system.

(a) Identification. A steerable cardiac ablation catheter remote control system is a prescription device that is external to the body and interacts with the manual handle of a steerable cardiac ablation catheter to remotely control the advancement, retraction, rotation, and deflection of a compatible, steerable ablation catheter used for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias in the right side of the heart. The device allows reversion to manual control of the steerable cardiac ablation catheter without withdrawal of the catheter and interruption of the procedure.

(b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The special controls for this device are:

(1) Non-clinical mechanical performance testing must demonstrate that the device performs as intended under anticipated conditions of use. The following performance testing must be performed:

(i) Mechanical performance of the system (without catheter connected);

(ii) Mechanical performance of the system with compatible catheters connected to verify that the system does not impact catheter function or performance. Assessments must include the following:

(A) Side-by-side remote control and manual comparisons of catheter manipulation (including all ranges of motion of catheter deflection and tip curl) for all compatible catheters; must include testing for worst-case conditions, and

(B) Evaluation of the accuracy and function of all device control safety features; and

(iii) Simulated-use testing in a bench anatomic model or animal model.

(2) Non-clinical electrical testing must include validation of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), electrical safety, thermal safety, and electrical system performance. The following performance testing must be performed:

(i) Electrical performance of the system with compatible catheters connected to verify that the system does not impact catheter function or performance. Assessments must include the following:

(A) Side-by-side remote control and manual comparisons of catheter manipulation (including all ranges of motion of catheter deflection and tip curl) for all compatible catheters; must include testing for worst-case conditions, and

(B) Evaluation of the accuracy and function of all device control safety features; and

(ii) Electrical safety between the device and ablation catheter system and with other electrical equipment expected in the catheter lab or operating room.

(3) In vivo testing must demonstrate that the device performs as intended under anticipated conditions of use, including an assessment of the system impact on the functionality and performance of compatible catheters, and documentation of the adverse event profile associated with clinical use. Evidence must be submitted to address the following:

(i) Manipulation and Positioning: Ability to manipulate compatible catheters to pre-specified cardiac locations and confirm proper anatomic placement and tissue contact, in accordance with the system indications for use and the compatible catheter indications for use;

(ii) Safety: Assess device-related complication rate and major procedural complication rate (regardless of device relatedness) in comparison to literature and/or a manual comparison group for compatible ablation catheters to support the indications for use;

(iii) Efficacy: Assess ablation success in comparison to literature and/or a manual comparison group for compatible ablation catheters to support the indications for use; and

(iv) User assessment of device remote controls and safety features.

(4) Post-market surveillance (PMS) must be conducted and completed in accordance with FDA agreed upon PMS protocol.

(5) A training program must be included with sufficient educational elements that, upon completion of the training program, the clinician and supporting staff can:

(i) Identify the safe environments for device use,

(ii) Use all safety features of device, and

(iii) Operate the device in simulated or actual use environments representative of indicated environments and use for the indication of compatible catheters.

(6) Performance data must demonstrate the sterility of the sterile disposable components of the system.

(7) Performance data must support shelf life by demonstrating continued sterility of the device (of the sterile disposable components), package integrity, and device functionality over the requested shelf life.

(8) Labeling must include the following:

(i) Appropriate instructions, warnings, cautions, limitations, and information related to the intended patient population, compatible ablation catheters, and the device safeguards for the safe use of the device;

(ii) Specific instructions and the clinical training needed for the safe use of the device, which includes:

(A) Instructions on assembling the device in all available configurations, including installation and removal of compatible catheters;

(B) Instructions and explanation of all controls, inputs, and outputs;

(C) Instructions on all available modes or states of the device;

(D) Instructions on all safety features of the device; and

(E) Validated methods and instructions for reprocessing/disinfecting any reusable components;

(iii) A detailed summary of the mechanical compatibility testing including:

(A) A table with a complete list of compatible catheters tested (manufacturer trade name and model number), and

(B) A table with detailed test results, including type of test, acceptance criteria, and test results (i.e., pass for meeting acceptance criteria);

(iv) A detailed summary of the in vivo testing including:

(A) A table with a complete list of compatible catheters used during testing (manufacturer trade name and model number);

(B) Adverse events encountered pertinent to use of the device under use conditions;

(C) A detailed summary of the device- and procedure-related complications; and

(D) A summary of study outcomes and endpoints. Information pertinent to the fluoroscopy times/exposure for the procedure, patient, and operator fluoroscopic exposure;

(v) Other labeling items:

(A) A detailed summary of pertinent non-clinical testing information: EMC, mechanical, electrical, and sterilization of device and components;

(B) A detailed summary of the device technical parameters; and

(C) An expiration date/shelf life and storage conditions for the sterile accessories; and

(vi) When available, and according to the timeframe included in the PMS protocol agreed upon with FDA, provide a detailed summary of the PMS data including:

(A) Updates to the labeling to accurately reflect outcomes or necessary modifications based upon data collected during the PMS experience, and

(B) Inclusion of results and adverse events associated with utilization of the device during the PMS.

[80 FR 58606, Sept. 30, 2015]

§870.5800   Compressible limb sleeve.

(a) Identification. A compressible limb sleeve is a device that is used to prevent pooling of blood in a limb by inflating periodically a sleeve around the limb.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

§870.5900   Thermal regulating system.

(a) Identification. A thermal regulating system is an external system consisting of a device that is placed in contact with the patient and a temperature controller for the device. The system is used to regulate patient temperature.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

§870.5910   Esophageal thermal regulation device.

(a) Identification. An esophageal thermal regulation device is a prescription device used to apply a specified temperature to the endoluminal surface of the esophagus via an external controller. This device may incorporate a mechanism for gastric decompression and suctioning. The device is used to regulate patient temperature.

(b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The special controls for this device are:

(1) The patient contacting materials must be demonstrated to be biocompatible.

(2) Non-clinical performance evaluation must demonstrate that the device performs as intended under anticipated conditions of use. The following performance characteristics must be tested:

(i) Mechanical integrity testing.

(ii) Testing to determine temperature change rate(s).

(iii) Testing to demonstrate compatibility with the indicated external controller.

(iv) Shelf life testing.

(3) Animal testing must demonstrate that the device does not cause esophageal injury and that body temperature remains within appropriate boundaries under anticipated conditions of use.

(4) Labeling must include the following:

(i) Detailed insertion instructions.

(ii) Warning against attaching the device to unintended connections, such as external controllers for which the device is not indicated, or pressurized air outlets instead of vacuum outlets for those devices, including gastric suction.

(iii) The operating parameters, name, and model number of the indicated external controller.

(iv) The intended duration of use.

[80 FR 49896, Aug. 18, 2015]

§870.5925   Automatic rotating tourniquet.

(a) Identification. An automatic rotating tourniquet is a device that prevents blood flow in one limb at a time, which temporarily reduces the total blood volume, thereby reducing the normal workload of the heart.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

Need assistance?