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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of February 20, 2020

Title 21Chapter ISubchapter HPart 870 → Subpart E


Title 21: Food and Drugs
PART 870—CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES


Subpart E—Cardiovascular Surgical Devices


Contents
§870.4075   Endomyocardial biopsy device.
§870.4100   Extracorporeal circuit and accessories for long-term respiratory/cardiopulmonary failure.
§870.4200   Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment.
§870.4205   Cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector.
§870.4210   Cardiopulmonary bypass vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing.
§870.4220   Cardiopulmonary bypass heart-lung machine console.
§870.4230   Cardiopulmonary bypass defoamer.
§870.4240   Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger.
§870.4250   Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller.
§870.4260   Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter.
§870.4270   Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter.
§870.4280   Cardiopulmonary prebypass filter.
§870.4290   Cardiopulmonary bypass adaptor, stopcock, manifold, or fitting.
§870.4300   Cardiopulmonary bypass gas control unit.
§870.4310   Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.
§870.4320   Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator.
§870.4330   Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor.
§870.4340   Cardiopulmonary bypass level sensing monitor and/or control.
§870.4350   Cardiopulmonary bypass oxygenator.
§870.4360   Nonroller-type blood pump.
§870.4370   Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.
§870.4380   Cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control.
§870.4390   Cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing.
§870.4400   Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.
§870.4410   Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor.
§870.4420   Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker.
§870.4430   Cardiopulmonary bypass intracardiac suction control.
§870.4450   Vascular clamp.
§870.4475   Surgical vessel dilator.
§870.4500   Cardiovascular surgical instruments.
§870.4510   Apical closure device.
§870.4875   Intraluminal artery stripper.
§870.4885   External vein stripper.

§870.4075   Endomyocardial biopsy device.

(a) Identification. An endomyocardial biopsy device is a device used in a catheterization procedure to remove samples of tissue from the inner wall of the heart.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

§870.4100   Extracorporeal circuit and accessories for long-term respiratory/cardiopulmonary failure.

(a) Identification. An extracorporeal circuit and accessories for long-term respiratory/cardiopulmonary support (>6 hours) is a system of devices and accessories that provides assisted extracorporeal circulation and physiologic gas exchange of the patient's blood in patients with acute respiratory failure or acute cardiopulmonary failure, where other available treatment options have failed, and continued clinical deterioration is expected or the risk of death is imminent. The main devices and accessories of the system include, but are not limited to, the console (hardware), software, and disposables, including, but not limited to, an oxygenator, blood pump, heat exchanger, cannulae, tubing, filters, and other accessories (e.g., monitors, detectors, sensors, connectors).

(b) Classification—Class II (special controls). The special controls for this device are:

(1) The technological characteristics of the device must ensure that the geometry and design parameters are consistent with the intended use, and that the devices and accessories in the circuit are compatible;

(2) The devices and accessories in the circuit must be demonstrated to be biocompatible;

(3) Sterility and shelf-life testing must demonstrate the sterility of any patient-contacting devices and accessories in the circuit and the shelf life of these devices and accessories;

(4) Non-clinical performance evaluation of the devices and accessories in the circuit must demonstrate substantial equivalence of the performance characteristics on the bench, mechanical integrity, electromagnetic compatibility (where applicable), software, durability, and reliability;

(5) In vivo evaluation of the devices and accessories in the circuit must demonstrate their performance over the intended duration of use, including a detailed summary of the clinical evaluation pertinent to the use of the devices and accessories to demonstrate their effectiveness if a specific indication (patient population and/or condition) is identified; and

(6) Labeling must include a detailed summary of the non-clinical and in vivo evaluations pertinent to use of the devices and accessories in the circuit and adequate instructions with respect to anticoagulation, circuit setup, performance characteristics with respect to compatibility among different devices and accessories in the circuit, and maintenance during a procedure.

[81 FR 7451, Feb. 12, 2016]

§870.4200   Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment.

(a) Identification. Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment is a device that has no contact with blood and that is used in the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit to support, adjoin, or connect components, or to aid in the setup of the extracorporeal line, e.g., an oxygenator mounting bracket or system-priming equipment.

(b) Classification. (1) Class I. The device is classified as class I if it does not involve an electrical connection to the patient. The device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures in subpart E of part 807 of this chapter subject to §870.9.

(2) Class II (special controls). The device is classified as class II if it involves an electrical connection to the patient. The special controls are as follows:

(i) The performance standard under part 898 of this chapter, and

(ii) The guidance document entitled “Guidance on the Performance Standard for Electrode Lead Wires and Patient Cables.” The device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures in subpart E of part 807 of this chapter subject to §870.9.

[65 FR 19319, Apr. 11, 2000]

§870.4205   Cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector.

(a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector is a device used to detect bubbles in the arterial return line of the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

§870.4210   Cardiopulmonary bypass vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing.

(a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing is a device used in cardiopulmonary surgery to cannulate the vessels, perfuse the coronary arteries, and to interconnect the catheters and cannulas with an oxygenator. The device includes accessory bypass equipment.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

§870.4220   Cardiopulmonary bypass heart-lung machine console.

(a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass heart-lung machine console is a device that consists of a control panel and the electrical power and control circuitry for a heart-lung machine. The console is designed to interface with the basic units used in a gas exchange system, including the pumps, oxygenator, and heat exchanger.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

§870.4230   Cardiopulmonary bypass defoamer.

(a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass defoamer is a device used in conjunction with an oxygenator during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to remove gas bubbles from the blood.

(b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The special control for this device is the FDA guidance document entitled “Guidance for Extracorporeal Blood Circuit Defoamer 510(k) Submissions.”

[45 FR 7907, Feb. 5, 1980, as amended at 52 FR 17737, May 11, 1987; 66 FR 18542, Apr. 10, 2001]

§870.4240   Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger.

(a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger is a device, consisting of a heat exchange system used in extracorporeal circulation to warm or cool the blood or perfusion fluid flowing through the device.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

§870.4250   Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller.

(a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller is a device used to control the temperature of the fluid entering and leaving a heat exchanger.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

§870.4260   Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter.

(a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter is a device used as part of a gas exchange (oxygenator) system to filter nonbiologic particles and emboli (blood clots or pieces of foreign material flowing in the bloodstream which will obstruct circulation by blocking a vessel) out of the blood. It is used in the arterial return line.

(b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The special control for this device is the FDA guidance document entitled “Guidance for Cardiopulmonary Bypass Arterial Line Blood Filter 510(k) Submissions.”

[45 FR 7907, Feb. 5, 1980, as amended at 52 FR 17737, May 11, 1987; 66 FR 18542, Apr. 10, 2001]

§870.4270   Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter.

(a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter is a device used as part of a gas exchange (oxygenator) system to filter nonbiologic particles and emboli (a blood clot or a piece of foreign material flowing in the bloodstream which will obstruct circulation by blocking a vessel) out of the blood. This device is intended for use in the cardiotomy suction line.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

§870.4280   Cardiopulmonary prebypass filter.

(a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary prebypass filter is a device used during priming of the oxygenator circuit to remove particulates or other debris from the circuit prior to initiating bypass. The device is not used to filter blood.

(b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures in subpart E of part 807 of this chapter subject to the limitations in §870.9.

[45 FR 7907, Feb. 5, 1980, as amended at 84 FR 71812, Dec. 30, 2019]

§870.4290   Cardiopulmonary bypass adaptor, stopcock, manifold, or fitting.

(a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass adaptor, stopcock, manifold, or fitting is a device used in cardiovascular diagnostic, surgical, and therapeutic applications to interconnect tubing, catheters, or other devices.

(b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures in subpart E of part 807 of this chapter subject to the limitations in §870.9.

[45 FR 7907, Feb. 5, 1980, as amended at 84 FR 71812, Dec. 30, 2019]

§870.4300   Cardiopulmonary bypass gas control unit.

(a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass gas control unit is a device used to control and measure the flow of gas into the oxygenator. The device is calibrated for a specific gas.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

§870.4310   Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

(a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge is a device used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to measure the pressure of the blood perfusing the coronary arteries.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

§870.4320   Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator.

(a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator is an electrically and pneumatically operated device used to create pulsatile blood flow. The device is placed in a cardiopulmonary bypass circuit downstream from the oxygenator.

(b) Classification. Class III (premarket approval).

(c) Date PMA or notice of completion of PDP is required. A PMA or notice of completion of a PDP is required to be filed with the Food and Drug Administration on or before September 21, 2004, for any cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator that was in commercial distribution before May 28, 1976, or that has, on or before September 21, 2004, been found to be substantially equivalent to any cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator that was in commercial distribution before May 28, 1976. Any other cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator shall have an approved PMA or declared completed PDP in effect before being placed in commercial distribution.

[45 FR 7907, Feb. 5, 1980, as amended at 52 FR 17737, May 11, 1987; 69 FR 34920, June 23, 2004]

§870.4330   Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor.

(a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor is a device used in conjunction with a blood gas sensor to measure the level of gases in the blood.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

§870.4340   Cardiopulmonary bypass level sensing monitor and/or control.

(a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass level sensing monitor and/or control is a device used to monitor and/or control the level of blood in the blood reservoir and to sound an alarm when the level falls below a predetermined value.

(b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures in subpart E of part 807 of this chapter subject to the limitations in §870.9.

[45 FR 7907, Feb. 5, 1980, as amended at 84 FR 71812, Dec. 30, 2019]

§870.4350   Cardiopulmonary bypass oxygenator.

(a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass oxygenator is a device used to exchange gases between blood and a gaseous environment to satisfy the gas exchange needs of a patient during open-heart surgery.

(b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The special control for this device is the FDA guidance document entitled “Guidance for Cardiopulmonary Bypass Oxygenators 510(k) Submissions.”

[45 FR 7907, Feb. 5, 1980, as amended at 52 FR 17737, May 11, 1987; 66 FR 18542, Apr. 10, 2001]

§870.4360   Nonroller-type blood pump.

(a) Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary and circulatory bypass blood pump—(1) Identification. A nonroller-type cardiopulmonary and circulatory bypass blood pump is a prescription device that uses a method other than revolving rollers to pump the blood through an extracorporeal circuit for periods lasting less than 6 hours for the purpose of providing either:

(i) Full or partial cardiopulmonary bypass (i.e., circuit includes an oxygenator) during open surgical procedures on the heart or great vessels; or

(ii) Temporary circulatory bypass for diversion of flow around a planned disruption of the circulatory pathway necessary for open surgical procedures on the aorta or vena cava.

(2) Classification—Class II (special controls). The special controls for this device are:

(i) Non-clinical performance testing must perform as intended over the intended duration of use and demonstrate the following: Operating parameters, dynamic blood damage, heat generation, air entrapment, mechanical integrity, and durability/reliability;

(ii) The patient-contacting components of the device must be demonstrated to be biocompatible;

(iii) Sterility and shelf life testing must demonstrate the sterility of patient-contacting components and the shelf life of these components; and

(iv) Labeling must include information regarding the duration of use, and a detailed summary of the device- and procedure-related complications pertinent to use of the device.

(b) Nonroller-type temporary ventricular support blood pump—(1) Identification. A nonroller-type temporary ventricular support blood pump is a prescription device that uses any method resulting in blood propulsion to provide the temporary ventricular assistance required for support of the systemic and/or pulmonary circulations during periods when there is ongoing or anticipated hemodynamic instability due to immediately reversible alterations in ventricular myocardial function resulting from mechanical or physiologic causes. Duration of use would be less than 6 hours.

(2) Classification. Class III (premarket approval).

(c) Date premarket approval application (PMA) or notice of completion of product development protocol (PDP) is required. A PMA or notice of completion of a PDP is required to be filed with FDA on or before September 8, 2015, for any nonroller-type temporary ventricular support blood pump that was in commercial distribution before May 28, 1976, or that has, on or before September 8, 2015, been found to be substantially equivalent to any nonroller-type temporary ventricular support blood pump that was in commercial distribution before May 28, 1976. Any other nonroller-type temporary ventricular support blood pump shall have an approved PMA or declared completed PDP in effect before being placed in commercial distribution.

[80 FR 32311, June 8, 2015]

§870.4370   Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

(a) Identification. A roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a revolving roller mechanism to pump the blood through the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit during bypass surgery.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

§870.4380   Cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control.

(a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control is a device used that incorporates an electrical system or a mechanical system, or both, and is used to control the speed of blood pumps used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

§870.4390   Cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing.

(a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing is polymeric tubing which is used in the blood pump head and which is cyclically compressed by the pump to cause the blood to flow through the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

§870.4400   Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

(a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in conjunction with short-term extracorporeal circulation devices to hold a reserve supply of blood in the bypass circulation.

(b) Classification. Class II (special controls), except that a reservoir that contains a defoamer or filter is classified into the same class as the defoamer or filter. The device, when it is a cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir that does not contain defoamers or blood filters, is exempt from the premarket notification procedures in subpart E of part 807 of this chapter subject to the limitations in §870.9.

[45 FR 7907, Feb. 5, 1980, as amended at 84 FR 71812, Dec. 30, 2019]

§870.4410   Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor.

(a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor is a transducer that measures the level of gases in the blood.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

§870.4420   Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker.

(a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker is a device that consists of tubing, a connector, and a probe or tip that is used to remove blood from the chest or heart during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery.

(b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures in subpart E of part 807 of this chapter subject to the limitations in §870.9.

[45 FR 7907, Feb. 5, 1980, as amended at 84 FR 71812, Dec. 30, 2019]

§870.4430   Cardiopulmonary bypass intracardiac suction control.

(a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass intracardiac suction control is a device which provides the vacuum and control for a cardiotomy return sucker.

(b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures in subpart E of part 807 of this chapter subject to the limitations in §870.9.

[45 FR 7907, Feb. 5, 1980, as amended at 84 FR 71812, Dec. 30, 2019]

§870.4450   Vascular clamp.

(a) Identification. A vascular clamp is a surgical instrument used to occlude a blood vessel temporarily.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

§870.4475   Surgical vessel dilator.

(a) Identification. A surgical vessel dilator is a device used to enlarge or calibrate a vessel.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

§870.4500   Cardiovascular surgical instruments.

(a) Identification. Cardiovascular surgical instruments are surgical instruments that have special features for use in cardiovascular surgery. These devices include, e.g., forceps, retractors, and scissors.

(b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures in subpart E of part 807 of this chapter subject to the limitations in §870.9.

[45 FR 7907, Feb. 5, 1980, as amended at 54 FR 25049, June 12, 1989; 66 FR 38797, July 25, 2001]

§870.4510   Apical closure device.

(a) Identification. An apical closure device is a prescription device consisting of a delivery system and implant component that is used for soft tissue approximation of cardiac apical tissue during transcatheter valve replacement procedures.

(b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The special controls for this device are:

(1) The patient contacting materials must be evaluated to be biocompatible.

(2) Performance data must validate the sterility of the patient-contacting components of the device.

(3) Performance data must support the shelf life of the device by demonstrating continued sterility, package integrity, and device functionality over the labeled shelf life.

(4) Non-clinical performance testing data must demonstrate that the device performs as intended under anticipated conditions of use. The following performance characteristics must be tested:

(i) Consistent and reliable implant deployment;

(ii) Assessment of implant pull-out force; and

(iii) Sheath size compatibility with implant.

(5) In vivo evaluation of the device must demonstrate device performance, including device operation resulting in closure of the myocardial wound.

(6) Labeling must include the following:

(i) Detailed information explaining how the device operates;

(ii) Sheath size that device can accommodate;

(iii) Identification of the minimum myocardial wall thickness to ensure optimal device function; and

(iv) A shelf life.

[81 FR 71371, Oct. 17, 2016]

§870.4875   Intraluminal artery stripper.

(a) Identification. An intraluminal artery stripper is a device used to perform an endarterectomy (removal of plaque deposits from arterisclerotic arteries.)

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

§870.4885   External vein stripper.

(a) Identification. An external vein stripper is an extravascular device used to remove a section of a vein.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

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