Home
gpo.gov
govinfo.gov

e-CFR Navigation Aids

Browse

Simple Search

Advanced Search

 — Boolean

 — Proximity

 

Search History

Search Tips

Corrections

Latest Updates

User Info

FAQs

Agency List

Incorporation By Reference

eCFR logo

Related Resources

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

We invite you to try out our new beta eCFR site at https://ecfr.federalregister.gov. We have made big changes to make the eCFR easier to use. Be sure to leave feedback using the Help button on the bottom right of each page!

e-CFR data is current as of October 23, 2020

Title 17Chapter IPart 23 → Subpart E


Title 17: Commodity and Securities Exchanges
PART 23—SWAP DEALERS AND MAJOR SWAP PARTICIPANTS


Subpart E—Capital and Margin Requirements for Swap Dealers and Major Swap Participants


Contents
§23.100   xxx
§23.101   xxx
§23.102   xxx
§23.103   xxx
§23.104   xxx
§23.105   xxx
§23.106   xxx
§§23.107-23.149   [Reserved]
§23.150   Scope.
§23.151   Definitions applicable to margin requirements.
§23.152   Collection and posting of initial margin.
§23.153   Collection and posting of variation margin.
§23.154   Calculation of initial margin.
§23.155   Calculation of variation margin.
§23.156   Forms of margin.
§23.157   Custodial arrangements.
§23.158   Margin documentation.
§23.159   Special rules for affiliates.
§23.160   Cross-border application.
§23.161   Compliance dates.
§§23.162-23.199   [Reserved]
Appendix A to Subpart E—XXX
Appendix B to Subpart E—XXX
Appendix C to Subpart E—XXX

Source: 81 FR 695, Jan. 6, 2016, unless otherwise noted.

return arrow Back to Top

§23.100   xxx

Link to an amendment published at 85 FR 57547, Sept. 15, 2020.

return arrow Back to Top

§23.101   xxx

Link to an amendment published at 85 FR 57548, Sept. 15, 2020.

return arrow Back to Top

§23.102   xxx

Link to an amendment published at 85 FR 57550, Sept. 15, 2020.

return arrow Back to Top

§23.103   xxx

Link to an amendment published at 85 FR 57551, Sept. 15, 2020.

return arrow Back to Top

§23.104   xxx

Link to an amendment published at 85 FR 57551, Sept. 15, 2020.

return arrow Back to Top

§23.105   xxx

Link to an amendment published at 85 FR 57551, Sept. 15, 2020.

return arrow Back to Top

§23.106   xxx

Link to an amendment published at 85 FR 57556, Sept. 15, 2020.

return arrow Back to Top

§§23.107-23.149   [Reserved]

return arrow Back to Top

§23.150   Scope.

(a) The margin requirements set forth in §§23.150 through 23.161 shall apply to uncleared swaps, as defined in §23.151, that are executed after the applicable compliance dates set forth in §23.161.

(b) The requirements set forth in §§23.150 through 23.161 shall not apply to a swap if the counterparty:

(1) Qualifies for an exception from clearing under section 2(h)(7)(A) of the Act and implementing regulations;

(2) Qualifies for an exemption from clearing under a rule, regulation, or order issued by the Commission pursuant to section 4(c)(1) of the Act concerning cooperative entities that would otherwise be subject to the requirements of section 2(h)(1)(A) of the Act; or

(3) Satisfies the criteria in section 2(h)(7)(D) of the Act and implementing regulations.

return arrow Back to Top

§23.151   Definitions applicable to margin requirements.

For the purposes of §§23.150 through 23.161:

Bank holding company has the meaning specified in section 2 of the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12 U.S.C. 1841).

Broker has the meaning specified in section 3(a)(4) the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78c(a)(4)).

Business day means any day other than a Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday.

Company means a corporation, partnership, limited liability company, business trust, special purpose entity, association, or similar organization.

Counterparty means the other party to a swap to which a covered swap entity is a party.

Covered counterparty means a financial end user with material swaps exposure or a swap entity that enters into a swap with a covered swap entity.

Covered swap entity means a swap dealer or major swap participant for which there is no prudential regulator.

Cross-currency swap means a swap in which one party exchanges with another party principal and interest rate payments in one currency for principal and interest rate payments in another currency, and the exchange of principal occurs on the date the swap is entered into, with a reversal of the exchange of principal at a later date that is agreed upon when the swap is entered into.

Currency of Settlement means a currency in which a party has agreed to discharge payment obligations related to an uncleared swap or a group of uncleared swaps subject to a master netting agreement at the regularly occurring dates on which such payments are due in the ordinary course.

Data source means an entity and/or method from which or by which a covered swap entity obtains prices for swaps or values for other inputs used in a margin calculation.

Day of execution means the calendar day at the time the parties enter into an uncleared swap, provided:

(1) If each party is in a different calendar day at the time the parties enter into the uncleared swap, the day of execution is deemed the latter of the two dates; and

(2) If an uncleared swap is—

(i) Entered into after 4:00 p.m. in the location of a party; or

(ii) Entered into on a day that is not a business day in the location of a party, then the uncleared swap is deemed to have been entered into on the immediately succeeding day that is a business day for both parties, and both parties shall determine the day of execution with reference to that business day.

Dealer has the meaning specified in section 3(a)(5) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78c(a)(5)).

Depository institution has the meaning specified in section 3(c) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (12 U.S.C. 1813(c)).

Eligible collateral means collateral described in §23.156.

Eligible master netting agreement means a written, legally enforceable agreement provided that:

(1) The agreement creates a single legal obligation for all individual transactions covered by the agreement upon an event of default following any stay permitted by paragraph (2) of this definition, including upon an event of receivership, conservatorship, insolvency, liquidation, or similar proceeding, of the counterparty;

(2) The agreement provides the covered swap entity the right to accelerate, terminate, and close-out on a net basis all transactions under the agreement and to liquidate or set-off collateral promptly upon an event of default, including upon an event of receivership, conservatorship, insolvency, liquidation, or similar proceeding, of the counterparty, provided that, in any such case,

(i) Any exercise of rights under the agreement will not be stayed or avoided under applicable law in the relevant jurisdictions, other than:

(A) In receivership, conservatorship, or resolution under the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (12 U.S.C. 1811 et seq.), Title II of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (12 U.S.C. 5381 et seq.), the Federal Housing Enterprises Financial Safety and Soundness Act of 1992, as amended (12 U.S.C. 4617), or the Farm Credit Act of 1971, as amended (12 U.S.C. 2183 and 2279cc), or laws of foreign jurisdictions that are substantially similar to the U.S. laws referenced in this paragraph in order to facilitate the orderly resolution of the defaulting counterparty; or

(B) Where the agreement is subject by its terms to, or incorporates, any of the laws referenced in paragraph (2)(i)(A) of this definition; and

(ii) The agreement may limit the right to accelerate, terminate, and close-out on a net basis all transactions under the agreement and to liquidate or set-off collateral promptly upon an event of default of the counterparty to the extent necessary for the counterparty to comply with the requirements of 12 CFR part 47; 12 CFR part 252, subpart I; or 12 CFR part 382, as applicable;

(3) The agreement does not contain a walkaway clause (that is, a provision that permits a non-defaulting counterparty to make a lower payment than it otherwise would make under the agreement, or no payment at all, to a defaulter or the estate of a defaulter, even if the defaulter or the estate of the defaulter is a net creditor under the agreement); and

(4) A covered swap entity that relies on the agreement for purposes of calculating the margin required by this part must:

(i) Conduct sufficient legal review to conclude with a well-founded basis (and maintain sufficient written documentation of that legal review) that:

(A) The agreement meets the requirements of paragraph (2) of this definition; and

(B) In the event of a legal challenge (including one resulting from default or from receivership, conservatorship, insolvency, liquidation, or similar proceeding) the relevant court and administrative authorities would find the agreement to be legal, valid, binding, and enforceable under the law of the relevant jurisdictions; and

(ii) Establish and maintain written procedures to monitor possible changes in relevant law and to ensure that the agreement continues to satisfy the requirements of this definition.

Financial end user means—

(1) A counterparty that is not a swap entity and that is:

(i) A bank holding company or a margin affiliate thereof; a savings and loan holding company; a U.S. intermediate holding company established or designated for purposes of compliance with 12 CFR 252.153; or a nonbank financial institution supervised by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System under Title I of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (12 U.S.C. 5323);

(ii) A depository institution; a foreign bank; a Federal credit union or State credit union as defined in section 2 of the Federal Credit Union Act (12 U.S.C. 1752(1) and (6)); an institution that functions solely in a trust or fiduciary capacity as described in section 2(c)(2)(D) of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1841(c)(2)(D)); an industrial loan company, an industrial bank, or other similar institution described in section 2(c)(2)(H) of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1841(c)(2)(H));

(iii) An entity that is state-licensed or registered as:

(A) A credit or lending entity, including a finance company; money lender; installment lender; consumer lender or lending company; mortgage lender, broker, or bank; motor vehicle title pledge lender; payday or deferred deposit lender; premium finance company; commercial finance or lending company; or commercial mortgage company; except entities registered or licensed solely on account of financing the entity's direct sales of goods or services to customers;

(B) A money services business, including a check casher; money transmitter; currency dealer or exchange; or money order or traveler's check issuer;

(iv) A regulated entity as defined in section 1303(20) of the Federal Housing Enterprises Financial Safety and Soundness Act of 1992 (12 U.S.C. 4502(20)) or any entity for which the Federal Housing Finance Agency or its successor is the primary federal regulator;

(v) Any institution chartered in accordance with the Farm Credit Act of 1971, as amended, 12 U.S.C. 2001 et seq. that is regulated by the Farm Credit Administration;

(vi) A securities holding company; a broker or dealer; an investment adviser as defined in section 202(a) of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. 80b-2(a)); an investment company registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission under the Investment Company Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. 80a-1 et seq.), a company that has elected to be regulated as a business development company pursuant to section 54(a) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. 80a-53(a)), or a person that is registered with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission as a security-based swap dealer or a major security-based swap participant pursuant to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78a et seq.).

(vii) A private fund as defined in section 202(a) of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. 80-b-2(a)); an entity that would be an investment company under section 3 of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. 80a-3) but for section 3(c)(5)(C); or an entity that is deemed not to be an investment company under section 3 of the Investment Company Act of 1940 pursuant to Investment Company Act Rule 3a-7 (§270.3a-7 of this title) of the Securities and Exchange Commission;

(viii) A commodity pool, a commodity pool operator, a commodity trading advisor, a floor broker, a floor trader, an introducing broker or a futures commission merchant;

(ix) An employee benefit plan as defined in paragraphs (3) and (32) of section 3 of the Employee Retirement Income and Security Act of 1974 (29 U.S.C. 1002);

(x) An entity that is organized as an insurance company, primarily engaged in writing insurance or reinsuring risks underwritten by insurance companies, or is subject to supervision as such by a State insurance regulator or foreign insurance regulator;

(xi) An entity, person, or arrangement that is, or holds itself out as being, an entity, person, or arrangement that raises money from investors, accepts money from clients, or uses its own money primarily for investing or trading or facilitating the investing or trading in loans, securities, swaps, funds, or other assets; or

(xii) An entity that would be a financial end user described in paragraph (1) of this definition or a swap entity if it were organized under the laws of the United States or any State thereof.

(2) The term “financial end user” does not include any counterparty that is:

(i) A sovereign entity;

(ii) A multilateral development bank;

(iii) The Bank for International Settlements and the European Stability Mechanism;

(iv) An entity that is exempt from the definition of financial entity pursuant to section 2(h)(7)(C)(iii) of the Act and implementing regulations;

(v) An affiliate that qualifies for the exemption from clearing pursuant to section 2(h)(7)(D) of the Act; or

(vi) An eligible treasury affiliate that the Commission exempts from the requirements of §§23.150 through 23.161 by rule.

Foreign bank means an organization that is organized under the laws of a foreign country and that engages directly in the business of banking outside the United States.

Foreign exchange forward has the meaning specified in section 1a(24) of the Act.

Foreign exchange swap has the meaning specified in section 1a(25) of the Act.

Initial margin means the collateral, as calculated in accordance with §23.154 that is collected or posted in connection with one or more uncleared swaps.

Initial margin model means an internal risk management model that:

(1) Has been developed and designed to identify an appropriate, risk-based amount of initial margin that the covered swap entity must collect with respect to one or more non-cleared swaps to which the covered swap entity is a party; and

(2) Has been approved by the Commission or a registered futures association pursuant to §23.154(b).

Initial margin threshold amount means an aggregate credit exposure of $50 million resulting from all uncleared swaps between a covered swap entity and its margin affiliates on the one hand, and a covered counterparty and its margin affiliates on the other. For purposes of this calculation, an entity shall not count a swap that is exempt pursuant to §23.150(b).

Major currencies means—

(1) United States Dollar (USD);

(2) Canadian Dollar (CAD);

(3) Euro (EUR);

(4) United Kingdom Pound (GBP);

(5) Japanese Yen (JPY);

(6) Swiss Franc (CHF);

(7) New Zealand Dollar (NZD);

(8) Australian Dollar (AUD);

(9) Swedish Kronor (SEK);

(10) Danish Kroner (DKK);

(11) Norwegian Krone (NOK); and

(12) Any other currency designated by the Commission.

Margin affiliate. A company is a margin affiliate of another company if:

(1) Either company consolidates the other on a financial statement prepared in accordance with U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, the International Financial Reporting Standards, or other similar standards,

(2) Both companies are consolidated with a third company on a financial statement prepared in accordance with such principles or standards, or

(3) For a company that is not subject to such principles or standards, if consolidation as described in paragraph (1) or (2) of this definition would have occurred if such principles or standards had applied.

Market intermediary means—

(1) A securities holding company;

(2) A broker or dealer;

(3) A futures commission merchant;

(4) A swap dealer; or

(5) A security-based swap dealer.

Material swaps exposure for an entity means that the entity and its margin affiliates have an average daily aggregate notional amount of uncleared swaps, uncleared security-based swaps, foreign exchange forwards, and foreign exchange swaps with all counterparties for June, July and August of the previous calendar year that exceeds $8 billion, where such amount is calculated only for business days. An entity shall count the average daily aggregate notional amount of an uncleared swap, an uncleared security-based swap, a foreign exchange forward, or a foreign exchange swap between the entity and a margin affiliate only one time. For purposes of this calculation, an entity shall not count a swap that is exempt pursuant to §23.150(b) or a security-based swap that qualifies for an exemption under section 3C(g)(10) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78c-3(g)(4)) and implementing regulations or that satisfies the criteria in section 3C(g)(1) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78-c3(g)(4)) and implementing regulations.

Minimum transfer amount means a combined initial and variation margin amount under which no actual transfer of funds is required. The minimum transfer amount shall be $500,000.

Multilateral development bank means:

(1) The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development;

(2) The Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency;

(3) The International Finance Corporation;

(4) The Inter-American Development Bank;

(5) The Asian Development Bank;

(6) The African Development Bank;

(7) The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development;

(8) The European Investment Bank;

(9) The European Investment Fund;

(10) The Nordic Investment Bank;

(11) The Caribbean Development Bank;

(12) The Islamic Development Bank;

(13) The Council of Europe Development Bank; and

(14) Any other entity that provides financing for national or regional development in which the U.S. government is a shareholder or contributing member or which the Commission determines poses comparable credit risk.

Non-financial end user means a counterparty that is not a swap dealer, a major swap participant, or a financial end user.

Prudential regulator has the meaning specified in section 1a(39) of the Act.

Savings and loan holding company has the meaning specified in section 10(n) of the Home Owners' Loan Act (12 U.S.C. 1467a(n)).

Securities holding company has the meaning specified in section 618 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (12 U.S.C. 1850a).

Security-based swap has the meaning specified in section 3(a)(68) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78c(a)(68)).

Sovereign entity means a central government (including the U.S. government) or an agency, department, ministry, or central bank of a central government.

State means any State, commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, Guam, or the United States Virgin Islands.

Swap entity means a person that is registered with the Commission as a swap dealer or major swap participant pursuant to the Act.

Uncleared security-based swap means a security-based swap that is not, directly or indirectly, submitted to and cleared by a clearing agency registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to section 17A of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78a-1) or by a clearing agency that the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission has exempted from registration by rule or order pursuant to section 17A of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78a-1).

Uncleared swap means a swap that is not cleared by a registered derivatives clearing organization, or by a clearing organization that the Commission has exempted from registration by rule or order pursuant to section 5b(h) of the Act.

U.S. Government-sponsored enterprise means an entity established or chartered by the U.S. government to serve public purposes specified by federal statute but whose debt obligations are not explicitly guaranteed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government.

Variation margin means collateral provided by a party to its counterparty to meet the performance of its obligation under one or more uncleared swaps between the parties as a result of a change in value of such obligations since the trade was executed or the last time such collateral was provided.

Variation margin amount means the cumulative mark-to-market change in value to a covered swap entity of an uncleared swap, as measured from the date it is entered into (or in the case of an uncleared swap that has a positive or negative value to a covered swap entity on the date it is entered into, such positive or negative value plus any cumulative mark-to-market change in value to the covered swap entity of an uncleared swap after such date), less the value of all variation margin previously collected, plus the value of all variation margin previously posted with respect to such uncleared swap.

[81 FR 695, Jan. 6, 2016, as amended at 83 FR 60346, Nov. 26, 2018; 85 FR 27678, May 11, 2020]

return arrow Back to Top

§23.152   Collection and posting of initial margin.

(a) Collection—(1) Initial obligation. On or before the business day after execution of an uncleared swap between a covered swap entity and a covered counterparty, the covered swap entity shall collect initial margin from the covered counterparty in an amount equal to or greater than an amount calculated pursuant to §23.154, in a form that complies with §23.156, and pursuant to custodial arrangements that comply with §23.157.

(2) Continuing obligation. The covered swap entity shall continue to hold initial margin from the covered counterparty in an amount equal to or greater than an amount calculated each business day pursuant to §23.154, in a form that complies with §23.156, and pursuant to custodial arrangements that comply with §23.157, until such uncleared swap is terminated or expires.

(b) Posting—(1) Initial obligation. On or before the business day after execution of an uncleared swap between a covered swap entity and a financial end user with material swaps exposure, the covered swap entity shall post initial margin with the counterparty in an amount equal to or greater than an amount calculated pursuant to §23.154, in a form that complies with §23.156, and pursuant to custodial arrangements that comply with §23.157.

(2) Continuing obligation. The covered swap entity shall continue to post initial margin with the counterparty in an amount equal to or greater than an amount calculated each business day pursuant to §23.154, in a form that complies with §23.156, and pursuant to custodial arrangements that comply with §23.157, until such uncleared swap is terminated or expires.

(3) Minimum transfer amount. A covered swap entity is not required to collect or to post initial margin pursuant to §§23.150 through 23.161 with respect to a particular counterparty unless and until the combined amount of initial margin and variation margin that is required pursuant to §§23.150 through 23.161 to be collected or posted and that has not been collected or posted with respect to the counterparty is greater than $500,000.

(c) Netting. (1) To the extent that one or more uncleared swaps are executed pursuant to an eligible master netting agreement between a covered swap entity and covered counterparty, a covered swap entity may calculate and comply with the applicable initial margin requirements of §§23.150 through 23.161 on an aggregate net basis with respect to all uncleared swaps governed by such agreement, subject to paragraph (c)(2) of this section.

(2)(i) Except as permitted in paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section, if an eligible master netting agreement covers uncleared swaps entered into on or after the applicable compliance date set forth in §23.161, all the uncleared swaps covered by that agreement are subject to the requirements of §§23.150 through 23.161 and included in the aggregate netting portfolio for the purposes of calculating and complying with the margin requirements of §§23.150 through 23.161.

(ii) An eligible master netting agreement may identify one or more separate netting portfolios that independently meet the requirements in paragraph (1) of the definition of “eligible master netting agreement” in §23.151 and to which collection and posting of margin applies on an aggregate net basis separate from and exclusive of any other uncleared swaps covered by the eligible master netting agreement. Any such netting portfolio that contains any uncleared swap entered into on or after the applicable compliance date set forth in §23.161 is subject to the requirements of §§23.150 through 23.161. Any such netting portfolio that contains only uncleared swaps entered into before the applicable compliance date is not subject to the requirements of §§23.150 through 23.161.

(d) Satisfaction of collection and posting requirements. A covered swap entity shall not be deemed to have violated its obligation to collect or to post initial margin from a covered counterparty if:

(1) The covered counterparty has refused or otherwise failed to provide, or to accept, the required initial margin to, or from, the covered swap entity; and

(2) The covered swap entity has:

(i) Made the necessary efforts to collect or to post the required initial margin, including the timely initiation and continued pursuit of formal dispute resolution mechanisms, including pursuant to §23.504(b)(4), if applicable, or has otherwise demonstrated upon request to the satisfaction of the Commission that it has made appropriate efforts to collect or to post the required initial margin; or

(ii) Commenced termination of the uncleared swap with the covered counterparty promptly following the applicable cure period and notification requirements.

return arrow Back to Top

§23.153   Collection and posting of variation margin.

(a) Initial obligation. On or before the business day after the day of execution of an uncleared swap between a covered swap entity and a counterparty that is a swap entity or a financial end user, the covered swap entity shall collect the variation margin amount from the counterparty when the amount is positive, or post the variation margin amount with the counterparty when the amount is negative as calculated pursuant to §23.155 and in a form that complies with §23.156.

(b) Continuing obligation. The covered swap entity shall continue to collect the variation margin amount from, or to post the variation margin amount with, the counterparty as calculated each business day pursuant to §23.155 and in a form that complies with §23.156 each business day until such uncleared swap is terminated or expires.

(c) Minimum transfer amount. A covered swap entity is not required to collect or to post variation margin pursuant to §§23.150 through 23.161 with respect to a particular counterparty unless and until the combined amount of initial margin and variation margin that is required pursuant to §§23.150 through 23.161 to be collected or posted and that has not been collected or posted with respect to the counterparty is greater than $500,000.

(d) Netting. (1) To the extent that more than one uncleared swap is executed pursuant to an eligible master netting agreement between a covered swap entity and a counterparty, a covered swap entity may calculate and comply with the applicable variation margin requirements of this section on an aggregate basis with respect to all uncleared swaps governed by such agreement subject to paragraph (d)(2) of this section.

(2)(i) Except as permitted in paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this section, if an eligible master netting agreement covers uncleared swaps entered into on or after the applicable compliance date set forth in §23.161, all the uncleared swaps covered by that agreement are subject to the requirements of §§23.150 through 23.161 and included in the aggregate netting portfolio for the purposes of calculating and complying with the margin requirements of §§23.150 through 23.161.

(ii) An eligible master netting agreement may identify one or more separate netting portfolios that independently meet the requirements in paragraph (1) of the definition of “eligible master netting agreement” in §23.151 and to which collection and posting of margin applies on an aggregate net basis separate from and exclusive of any other uncleared swaps covered by the eligible master netting agreement. Any such netting portfolio that contains any uncleared swap entered into on or after the applicable compliance date set forth in §23.161 is subject to the requirements of §§23.150 through 23.161. Any such netting portfolio that contains only uncleared swaps entered into before the applicable compliance date is not subject to the requirements of §§23.150 through 23.161.

(e) Satisfaction of collection and payment requirements. A covered swap entity shall not be deemed to have violated its obligation to collect or to pay variation margin from a counterparty if:

(1) The counterparty has refused or otherwise failed to provide or to accept the required variation margin to or from the covered swap entity; and

(2) The covered swap entity has:

(i) Made the necessary efforts to collect or to post the required variation margin, including the timely initiation and continued pursuit of formal dispute resolution mechanisms, including pursuant to §23.504(b)(4), if applicable, or has otherwise demonstrated upon request to the satisfaction of the Commission that it has made appropriate efforts to collect or to post the required variation margin; or

(ii) Commenced termination of the uncleared swap with the counterparty promptly following the applicable cure period and notification requirements.

return arrow Back to Top

§23.154   Calculation of initial margin.

(a) Means of calculation. (1) Each business day each covered swap entity shall calculate an initial margin amount to be collected from each covered counterparty using:

(i) A risk-based model that meets the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section; or

(ii) The table-based method set forth in paragraph (c) of this section.

(2) Each business day each covered swap entity shall calculate an initial margin amount to be posted with each financial end user with material swaps exposure using:

(i) A risk-based model that meets the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section; or

(ii) The table-based method set forth in paragraph (c) of this section.

(3) Each covered swap entity may reduce the amounts calculated pursuant to paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of this section by the initial margin threshold amount provided that the reduction does not include any portion of the initial margin threshold amount already applied by the covered swap entity or its margin affiliates in connection with other uncleared swaps with the counterparty or its margin affiliates.

(4) The amounts calculated pursuant to paragraph (a)(3) of this section shall not be less than zero.

(b) Risk-based models—(1) Commission or registered futures association approval. (i) A covered swap entity shall obtain the written approval of the Commission or a registered futures association to use a model to calculate the initial margin required in §§23.150 through 23.161.

(ii) A covered swap entity shall demonstrate that the model satisfies all of the requirements of this section on an ongoing basis.

(iii) A covered swap entity shall notify the Commission and the registered futures association in writing 60 days prior to:

(A) Extending the use of an initial margin model that has been approved to an additional product type;

(B) Making any change to any initial margin model that has been approved that would result in a material change in the covered swap entity's assessment of initial margin requirements; or

(C) Making any material change to modeling assumptions used by the initial margin model.

(iv) The Commission or the registered futures association may rescind approval of the use of any initial margin model, in whole or in part, or may impose additional conditions or requirements if the Commission or the registered futures association determines, in its discretion, that the model no longer complies with this section.

(2) Elements of the model. (i) The initial margin model shall calculate an amount of initial margin that is equal to the potential future exposure of the uncleared swap or netting portfolio of uncleared swaps covered by an eligible master netting agreement. Potential future exposure is an estimate of the one-tailed 99 percent confidence interval for an increase in the value of the uncleared swap or netting portfolio of uncleared swaps due to an instantaneous price shock that is equivalent to a movement in all material underlying risk factors, including prices, rates, and spreads, over a holding period equal to the shorter of ten business days or the maturity of the swap or netting portfolio.

(ii) All data used to calibrate the initial margin model shall be based on an equally weighted historical observation period of at least one year and not more than five years and must incorporate a period of significant financial stress for each broad asset class that is appropriate to the uncleared swaps to which the initial margin model is applied.

(iii) The initial margin model shall use risk factors sufficient to measure all material price risks inherent in the transactions for which initial margin is being calculated. The risk categories shall include, but should not be limited to, foreign exchange or interest rate risk, credit risk, equity risk, and commodity risk, as appropriate. For material exposures in significant currencies and markets, modeling techniques shall capture spread and basis risk and shall incorporate a sufficient number of segments of the yield curve to capture differences in volatility and imperfect correlation of rates along the yield curve.

(iv) In the case of an uncleared cross-currency swap, the initial margin model need not recognize any risks or risk factors associated with the fixed, physically-settled foreign exchange transactions associated with the exchange of principal embedded in the uncleared cross-currency swap. The initial margin model must recognize all material risks and risk factors associated with all other payments and cash flows that occur during the life of the uncleared cross-currency swap.

(v) The initial margin model may calculate initial margin for an uncleared swap or netting portfolio of uncleared swaps covered by an eligible master netting agreement. It may reflect offsetting exposures, diversification, and other hedging benefits for uncleared swaps that are governed by the same eligible master netting agreement by incorporating empirical correlations within the following broad risk categories, provided the covered swap entity validates and demonstrates the reasonableness of its process for modeling and measuring hedging benefits: Commodity, credit, equity, and foreign exchange or interest rate. Empirical correlations under an eligible master netting agreement may be recognized by the model within each broad risk category, but not across broad risk categories.

(vi) If the initial margin model does not explicitly reflect offsetting exposures, diversification, and hedging benefits between subsets of uncleared swaps within a broad risk category, the covered swap entity shall calculate an amount of initial margin separately for each subset of uncleared swaps for which such relationships are explicitly recognized by the model. The sum of the initial margin amounts calculated for each subset of uncleared swaps within a broad risk category will be used to determine the aggregate initial margin due from the counterparty for the portfolio of uncleared swaps within the broad risk category.

(vii) The sum of the initial margin calculated for each broad risk category shall be used to determine the aggregate initial margin due from the counterparty.

(viii) The initial margin model shall not permit the calculation of any initial margin to be offset by, or otherwise take into account, any initial margin that may be owed or otherwise payable by the covered swap entity to the counterparty.

(ix) The initial margin model shall include all material risks arising from the nonlinear price characteristics of option positions or positions with embedded optionality and the sensitivity of the market value of the positions to changes in the volatility of the underlying rates, prices, or other material risk factors.

(x) The covered swap entity shall not omit any risk factor from the calculation of its initial margin that the covered swap entity uses in its model unless it has first demonstrated to the satisfaction of the Commission or the registered futures association that such omission is appropriate.

(xi) The covered swap entity shall not incorporate any proxy or approximation used to capture the risks of the covered swap entity's uncleared swaps unless it has first demonstrated to the satisfaction of the Commission or the registered futures association that such proxy or approximation is appropriate.

(xii) The covered swap entity shall have a rigorous and well-defined process for re-estimating, re-evaluating, and updating its internal margin models to ensure continued applicability and relevance.

(xiii) The covered swap entity shall review and, as necessary, revise the data used to calibrate the initial margin model at least annually, and more frequently as market conditions warrant, to ensure that the data incorporate a period of significant financial stress appropriate to the uncleared swaps to which the initial margin model is applied.

(xiv) The level of sophistication of the initial margin model shall be commensurate with the complexity of the swaps to which it is applied. In calculating an initial margin amount, the initial margin model may make use of any of the generally accepted approaches for modeling the risk of a single instrument or portfolio of instruments.

(xv) The Commission or the registered futures association may in its discretion require a covered swap entity using an initial margin model to collect a greater amount of initial margin than that determined by the covered swap entity's initial margin model if the Commission or the registered futures association determines that the additional collateral is appropriate due to the nature, structure, or characteristics of the covered swap entity's transaction(s) or is commensurate with the risks associated with the transaction(s).

(3) [Reserved]

(4) Periodic review. A covered swap entity shall periodically, but no less frequently than annually, review its initial margin model in light of developments in financial markets and modeling technologies, and enhance the initial margin model as appropriate to ensure that it continues to meet the requirements for approval in this section.

(5) Control, oversight, and validation mechanisms. (i) The covered swap entity shall maintain a risk management unit in accordance with §23.600(c)(4)(i) that is independent from the business trading unit (as defined in §23.600).

(ii) The covered swap entity's risk control unit shall validate its initial margin model prior to implementation and on an ongoing basis. The covered swap entity's validation process shall be independent of the development, implementation, and operation of the initial margin model, or the validation process shall be subject to an independent review of its adequacy and effectiveness. The validation process shall include:

(A) An evaluation of the conceptual soundness of (including developmental evidence supporting) the initial margin model;

(B) An ongoing monitoring process that includes verification of processes and benchmarking by comparing the covered swap entity's initial margin model outputs (estimation of initial margin) with relevant alternative internal and external data sources or estimation techniques. The benchmark(s) must address the model's limitations. When applicable the covered swap entity should consider benchmarks that allow for non-normal distributions such as historical and Monte Carlo simulations. When applicable validation shall include benchmarking against observable margin standards to ensure that the initial margin required is not less than what a derivatives clearing organization would require for similar cleared transactions; and

(C) An outcomes analysis process that includes back testing the model. This analysis shall recognize and compensate for the challenges inherent in back testing over periods that do not contain significant financial stress.

(iii) If the validation process reveals any material problems with the model, the covered swap entity must promptly notify the Commission and the registered futures association of the problems, describe to the Commission and the registered futures association any remedial actions being taken, and adjust the model to ensure an appropriately conservative amount of required initial margin is being calculated.

(iv) In accordance with §23.600(e)(2), the covered swap entity shall have an internal audit function independent of the business trading unit and the risk management unit that at least annually assesses the effectiveness of the controls supporting the initial margin model measurement systems, including the activities of the business trading units and risk control unit, compliance with policies and procedures, and calculation of the covered swap entity's initial margin requirements under this part. At least annually, the internal audit function shall report its findings to the covered swap entity's governing body, senior management, and chief compliance officer.

(6) Documentation. The covered swap entity shall adequately document all material aspects of its model, including management and valuation of uncleared swaps to which it applies, the control, oversight, and validation of the initial margin model, any review processes and the results of such processes.

(7) Escalation procedures. The covered swap entity must adequately document—

(i) Internal authorization procedures, including escalation procedures, that require review and approval of any change to the initial margin calculation under the initial margin model;

(ii) Demonstrable analysis that any basis for any such change is consistent with the requirements of this section; and

(iii) Independent review of such demonstrable analysis and approval.

(c) Table-based method. If a model meeting the standards set forth in paragraph (b) of this section is not used, initial margin shall be calculated in accordance with this paragraph.

(1) Standardized initial margin schedule.

Asset classGross initial margin
(% of notional
exposure)
Credit: 0-2 year duration2
Credit: 2-5 year duration5
Credit: 5+ year duration10
Commodity15
Equity15
Foreign Exchange/Currency6
Cross Currency Swaps: 0-2 year duration1
Cross Currency Swaps: 2-5 year duration2
Cross Currency Swaps: 5+ year duration4
Interest Rate: 0-2 year duration1
Interest Rate: 2-5 year duration2
Interest Rate: 5+ year duration4
Other15

(2) Net to gross ratio adjustment. (i) For multiple uncleared swaps subject to an eligible master netting agreement, the initial margin amount under the standardized table shall be computed according to this paragraph.

(ii) Initial Margin = 0.4 × Gross Initial Margin + 0.6 × Net-to-Gross Ratio × Gross Initial Margin, where:

(A) Gross Initial Margin = the sum of the product of each uncleared swap's effective notional amount and the gross initial margin requirement for all uncleared swaps subject to the eligible master netting agreement;

(B) Net-to-Gross Ratio = the ratio of the net current replacement cost to the gross current replacement cost;

(C) Gross Current Replacement cost = the sum of the replacement cost for each uncleared swap subject to the eligible master netting agreement for which the cost is positive; and

(D) Net Current Replacement Cost = the total replacement cost for all uncleared swaps subject to the eligible master netting agreement.

(E) In cases where the gross replacement cost is zero, the Net-to-Gross Ratio shall be set to 1.0.

return arrow Back to Top

§23.155   Calculation of variation margin.

(a) Means of calculation. (1) Each business day each covered swap entity shall calculate variation margin for itself and for each counterparty that is a swap entity or a financial end user using methods, procedures, rules, and inputs that to the maximum extent practicable rely on recently-executed transactions, valuations provided by independent third parties, or other objective criteria.

(2) Each covered swap entity shall have in place alternative methods for determining the value of an uncleared swap in the event of the unavailability or other failure of any input required to value a swap.

(b) Control mechanisms. (1) Each covered swap entity shall create and maintain documentation setting forth the variation methodology with sufficient specificity to allow the counterparty, the Commission, the registered futures association, and any applicable prudential regulator to calculate a reasonable approximation of the margin requirement independently.

(2) Each covered swap entity shall evaluate the reliability of its data sources at least annually, and make adjustments, as appropriate.

(3) The Commission or the registered futures association at any time may require a covered swap entity to provide further data or analysis concerning the methodology or a data source, including:

(i) An explanation of the manner in which the methodology meets the requirements of this section;

(ii) A description of the mechanics of the methodology;

(iii) The conceptual basis of the methodology;

(iv) The empirical support for the methodology; and

(v) The empirical support for the assessment of the data sources.

return arrow Back to Top

§23.156   Forms of margin.

(a) Initial margin—(1) Eligible collateral. A covered swap entity shall collect and post as initial margin for trades with a covered counterparty only the following types of collateral:

(i) Immediately available cash funds denominated in:

(A) U.S. dollars;

(B) A major currency;

(C) A currency of settlement for the uncleared swap;

(ii) A security that is issued by, or unconditionally guaranteed as to the timely payment of principal and interest by, the U.S. Department of Treasury;

(iii) A security that is issued by, or unconditionally guaranteed as to the timely payment of principal and interest by, a U.S. government agency (other than the U.S. Department of Treasury) whose obligations are fully guaranteed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government;

(iv) A security that is issued by, or fully guaranteed as to the payment of principal and interest by, the European Central Bank or a sovereign entity that is assigned no higher than a 20 percent risk weight under the capital rules applicable to swap dealers subject to regulation by a prudential regulator;

(v) A publicly traded debt security issued by, or an asset-backed security fully guaranteed as to the timely payment of principal and interest by, a U.S. Government-sponsored enterprise that is operating with capital support or another form of direct financial assistance received from the U.S. government that enables the repayments of the U.S. Government-sponsored enterprise's eligible securities;

(vi) A security that is issued by, or fully guaranteed as to the payment of principal and interest by, the Bank for International Settlements, the International Monetary Fund, or a multilateral development bank;

(vii) Other publicly-traded debt that has been deemed acceptable as initial margin by a prudential regulator;

(viii) A publicly traded common equity security that is included in:

(A) The Standard & Poor's Composite 1500 Index or any other similar index of liquid and readily marketable equity securities as determined by the Commission; or

(B) An index that a covered swap entity's supervisor in a foreign jurisdiction recognizes for purposes of including publicly traded common equity as initial margin under applicable regulatory policy, if held in that foreign jurisdiction;

(ix) Securities in the form of redeemable securities in a pooled investment fund representing the security-holder's proportional interest in the fund's net assets and that are issued and redeemed only on the basis of the market value of the fund's net assets prepared each business day after the security-holder makes its investment commitment or redemption request to the fund, if the fund's investments are limited to the following:

(A) Securities that are issued by, or unconditionally guaranteed as to the timely payment of principal and interest by, the U.S. Department of the Treasury, and immediately-available cash funds denominated in U.S. dollars; or

(B) Securities denominated in a common currency and issued by, or fully guaranteed as to the payment of principal and interest by, the European Central Bank or a sovereign entity that is assigned no higher than a 20 percent risk weight under the capital rules applicable to swap dealers subject to regulation by a prudential regulator, and immediately-available cash funds denominated in the same currency; and

(C) Assets of the fund may not be transferred through securities lending, securities borrowing, repurchase agreements, reverse repurchase agreements, or other means that involve the fund having rights to acquire the same or similar assets from the transferee, or

(x) Gold.

(2) Prohibition of certain assets. A covered swap entity may not collect or post as initial margin any asset that is a security issued by:

(i) The covered swap entity or a margin affiliate of the covered swap entity (in the case of posting) or the counterparty or any margin affiliate of the counterparty (in the case of collection);

(ii) A bank holding company, a savings and loan holding company, a U.S. intermediate holding company established or designated for purposes of compliance with 12 CFR 252.153, a foreign bank, a depository institution, a market intermediary, a company that would be any of the foregoing if it were organized under the laws of the United States or any State, or a margin affiliate of any of the foregoing institutions, or

(iii) A nonbank financial institution supervised by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System under Title I of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (12 U.S.C. 5323).

(3) Haircuts. (i) The value of any eligible collateral collected or posted to satisfy initial margin requirements shall be subject to the sum of the following discounts, as applicable:

(A) An 8 percent discount for initial margin collateral denominated in a currency that is not the currency of settlement for the uncleared swap, except for eligible types of collateral denominated in a single termination currency designated as payable to the non-posting counterparty as part of the eligible master netting agreement; and

(B) The discounts set forth in the following table:

Standardized Haircut Schedule

      
Cash in same currency as swap obligation0.0
Eligible government and related debt (e.g., central bank, multilateral development bank, GSE securities identified in paragraph (a)(1)(v) of this section): Residual maturity less than one-year0.5
Eligible government and related debt (e.g., central bank, multilateral development bank, GSE securities identified in paragraph (a)(1)(v) of this section): Residual maturity between one and five years2.0
Eligible government and related debt (e.g., central bank, multilateral development bank, GSE securities identified in paragraph (a)(1)(v) of this section): Residual maturity greater than five years4.0
Eligible corporate debt (including eligible GSE debt securities not identified in paragraph (a)(1)(v) of this section): Residual maturity less than one-year1.0
Eligible corporate debt (including eligible GSE debt securities not identified in paragraph (a)(1)(v) of this section): Residual maturity between one and five years4.0
Eligible corporate debt (including eligible GSE debt securities not identified in paragraph (a)(1)(v) of this section): Residual maturity greater than five years8.0
Equities included in S&P 500 or related index15.0
Equities included in S&P 1500 Composite or related index but not S&P 500 or related index25.0
Gold15.0
Additional (additive) haircut on asset in which the currency of the swap obligation differs from that of the collateral asset8.0

(ii) The value of initial margin collateral shall be computed as the product of the cash or market value of the eligible collateral asset times one minus the applicable haircut expressed in percentage terms. The total value of all initial margin collateral is calculated as the sum of those values for each eligible collateral asset.

(b) Variation margin—(1) Eligible collateral—(i) Swaps with a swap entity. (A) A covered swap entity shall post and collect as variation margin to or from a counterparty that is a swap entity only immediately available cash funds that are denominated in: U.S. dollars;

(B) Another major currency; or

(C) The currency of settlement of the uncleared swap.

(ii) Swaps with a financial end user. A covered swap entity may post and collect as variation margin to or from a counterparty that is a financial end user any asset that is eligible to be posted or collected as initial margin under paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of this section.

(2) Haircuts. (i) The value of any eligible collateral collected or posted to satisfy variation margin requirements shall be subject to the sum of the following discounts, as applicable:

(A) An 8% discount for variation margin collateral denominated in a currency that is not the currency of settlement for the uncleared swap except for immediately available cash funds denominated in U.S. cash funds or another major currency; and

(B) The discounts for initial margin set forth in the table in paragraph (a)(3)(i)(B) of this section.

(ii) The value of variation margin collateral shall be computed as the product of the cash or market value of the eligible collateral asset times one minus the applicable haircut expressed in percentage terms. The total value of all variation margin collateral shall be calculated as the sum of those values of each eligible collateral asset.

(c) Monitoring obligation. A covered swap entity shall monitor the market value and eligibility of all collateral collected and posted to satisfy the margin requirements of §§23.150 through 23.161. To the extent that the market value of such collateral has declined, the covered swap entity shall promptly collect or post such additional eligible collateral as is necessary to maintain compliance with the margin requirements of §§23.150 through 23.161. To the extent that the collateral is no longer eligible, the covered swap entity shall promptly collect or post sufficient eligible replacement collateral to comply with the margin requirements of §§23.150 through 23.161.

(d) Excess margin. A covered swap entity may collect or post initial margin or variation margin that is not required pursuant to §§23.150 through 23.161 in any form of collateral.

[81 FR 695, Jan. 6, 2016, as amended at 82 FR 56169, Nov. 28, 2017]

return arrow Back to Top

§23.157   Custodial arrangements.

(a) Initial margin posted by covered swap entities. Each covered swap entity that posts initial margin with respect to an uncleared swap shall require that all funds or other property that the covered swap entity provides as initial margin be held by one or more custodians that are not the covered swap entity, the counterparty, or margin affiliates of the covered swap entity or the counterparty.

(b) Initial margin collected by covered swap entities. Each covered swap entity that collects initial margin required by §23.152 with respect to an uncleared swap shall require that such initial margin be held by one or more custodians that are not the covered swap entity, the counterparty, or margin affiliates of the covered swap entity or the counterparty.

(c) Custodial agreement. Each covered swap entity shall enter into an agreement with each custodian that holds funds pursuant to paragraphs (a) or (b) of this section that:

(1) Prohibits the custodian from rehypothecating, repledging, reusing, or otherwise transferring (through securities lending, securities borrowing, repurchase agreement, reverse repurchase agreement or other means) the collateral held by the custodian except that cash collateral may be held in a general deposit account with the custodian if the funds in the account are used to purchase an asset described in §23.156(a)(1)(ii) through (x), such asset is held in compliance with this section, and such purchase takes place within a time period reasonably necessary to consummate such purchase after the cash collateral is posted as initial margin; and

(2) Is a legal, valid, binding, and enforceable agreement under the laws of all relevant jurisdictions including in the event of bankruptcy, insolvency, or a similar proceeding.

(3) Notwithstanding paragraph (c)(1) of this section, a custody agreement may permit the posting party to substitute or direct any reinvestment of posted collateral held by the custodian, provided that, with respect to collateral posted or collected pursuant to §23.152, the agreement requires the posting party, when it substitutes or directs the reinvestment of posted collateral held by the custodian.

(i) To substitute only funds or other property that would qualify as eligible collateral under §23.156, and for which the amount net of applicable discounts described in §23.156 would be sufficient to meet the requirements of §23.152; and

(ii) To direct reinvestment of funds only in assets that would qualify as eligible collateral under §23.156, and for which the amount net of applicable discounts described in §23.156 would be sufficient to meet the requirements of §23.152.

[81 FR 695, Jan. 6, 2016, as amended at 85 FR 27678, May 11, 2020]

return arrow Back to Top

§23.158   Margin documentation.

(a) General requirement. Each covered swap entity shall execute documentation with each counterparty that complies with the requirements of §23.504 and that complies with this section, as applicable. For uncleared swaps between a covered swap entity and a counterparty that is a swap entity or a financial end user, the documentation shall provide the covered swap entity with the contractual right and obligation to exchange initial margin and variation margin in such amounts, in such form, and under such circumstances as are required by §§23.150 through 23.161.

(b) Contents of the documentation. The margin documentation shall:

(1) Specify the methods, procedures, rules, inputs, and data sources to be used for determining the value of uncleared swaps for purposes of calculating variation margin;

(2) Describe the methods, procedures, rules, inputs, and data sources to be used to calculate initial margin for uncleared swaps entered into between the covered swap entity and the counterparty; and

(3) Specify the procedures by which any disputes concerning the valuation of uncleared swaps, or the valuation of assets collected or posted as initial margin or variation margin may be resolved.

return arrow Back to Top

§23.159   Special rules for affiliates.

(a) Initial margin. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, a covered swap entity shall not be required to collect initial margin from a margin affiliate provided that the covered swap entity meets the following conditions:

(i) The swaps are subject to a centralized risk management program that is reasonably designed to monitor and to manage the risks associated with the inter-affiliate swaps; and

(ii) The covered swap entity exchanges variation margin with the margin affiliate in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section.

(2)(i) A covered swap entity shall post initial margin to any margin affiliate that is a swap entity subject to the rules of a Prudential Regulator in an amount equal to the amount that the swap entity is required to collect from the covered swap entity pursuant to the rules of the Prudential Regulator.

(ii) A covered swap entity shall not be required to post initial margin to any other margin affiliate pursuant to §§23.150 through 23.161.

(b) Variation margin. Each covered swap entity shall post and collect variation margin with each margin affiliate that is a swap entity or a financial end user in accordance with all applicable provisions of §§23.150 through 23.161.

(c) Foreign margin affiliates. (1) For purposes of this section, the term outward facing margin affiliate means a margin affiliate that enters into swaps with third parties.

(2) Except as provided in paragraph (c)(3) of this section, each covered swap entity shall collect initial margin in accordance with all applicable provisions of §§23.150 through 23.161 from each margin affiliate that meets the following criteria:

(i) The margin affiliate is a financial end user;

(ii) The margin affiliate enters into swaps with third parties, or enters into swaps with any other margin affiliate that, directly or indirectly (including through a series of transactions), enters into swaps with third parties, for which the provisions of §§23.150 through 23.161 would apply if any such margin affiliate were a swap entity; and

(iii) Any such outward facing margin affiliate is located in a jurisdiction that the Commission has not found to be eligible for substituted compliance with regard to the provisions of §§23.150 through 23.161 and does not collect initial margin for such swaps in a manner that would comply with the provisions of §§23.150 through 23.161.

(3) The custodian for initial margin collected pursuant to paragraph (c)(1) of this section may be the covered swap entity or a margin affiliate of the covered swap entity.

return arrow Back to Top

§23.160   Cross-border application.

(a) Definitions. For purposes of this section only:

(1) Foreign Consolidated Subsidiary means a non-U.S. CSE in which an ultimate parent entity that is a U.S. person has a controlling financial interest, in accordance with U.S. GAAP, such that the U.S. ultimate parent entity includes the non-U.S. CSE's operating results, financial position and statement of cash flows in the U.S. ultimate parent entity's consolidated financial statements, in accordance with U.S. GAAP.

(2) Guarantee means an arrangement pursuant to which one party to an uncleared swap has rights of recourse against a guarantor, with respect to its counterparty's obligations under the uncleared swap. For these purposes, a party to an uncleared swap has rights of recourse against a guarantor if the party has a conditional or unconditional legally enforceable right to receive or otherwise collect, in whole or in part, payments from the guarantor with respect to its counterparty's obligations under the uncleared swap. In addition, in the case of any arrangement pursuant to which the guarantor has a conditional or unconditional legally enforceable right to receive or otherwise collect, in whole or in part, payments from any other guarantor with respect to the counterparty's obligations under the uncleared swap, such arrangement will be deemed a guarantee of the counterparty's obligations under the uncleared swap by the other guarantor.

(3) International standards mean the margin policy framework for non-cleared, bilateral derivatives issued by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision and the International Organization of Securities in September 2013, as subsequently updated, revised, or otherwise amended, or any other international standards, principles or guidance relating to margin requirements for non-cleared, bilateral derivatives that the Commission may in the future recognize, to the extent that they are consistent with United States law (including the margin requirements in the Commodity Exchange Act).

(4) Non-U.S. CSE means a covered swap entity that is not a U.S. person. The term “non-U.S. CSE” includes a “Foreign Consolidated Subsidiary” or a U.S. branch of a non-U.S. CSE.

(5) Non-U.S. person means any person that is not a U.S. person.

(6) Ultimate parent entity means the parent entity in a consolidated group in which none of the other entities in the consolidated group has a controlling interest, in accordance with U.S. GAAP.

(7) United States means the United States of America, its territories and possessions, any State of the United States, and the District of Columbia.

(8) U.S. CSE means a covered swap entity that is a U.S. person.

(9) U.S. GAAP means U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.

(10) U.S. person means:

(i) A natural person who is a resident of the United States;

(ii) An estate of a decedent who was a resident of the United States at the time of death;

(iii) A corporation, partnership, limited liability company, business or other trust, association, joint-stock company, fund or any form of entity similar to any of the foregoing (other than an entity described in paragraph (a)(10)(iv) or (v) of this section) (a “legal entity”), in each case that is organized or incorporated under the laws of the United States or that has its principal place of business in the United States, including any branch of such legal entity;

(iv) A pension plan for the employees, officers or principals of a legal entity described in paragraph (a)(10)(iii) of this section, unless the pension plan is primarily for foreign employees of such entity;

(v) A trust governed by the laws of a state or other jurisdiction in the United States, if a court within the United States is able to exercise primary supervision over the administration of the trust;

(vi) A legal entity (other than a limited liability company, limited liability partnership or similar entity where all of the owners of the entity have limited liability) that is owned by one or more persons described in paragraphs (a)(10)(i) through (v) of this section and for which such person(s) bears unlimited responsibility for the obligations and liabilities of the legal entity, including any branch of the legal entity; or

(vii) An individual account or joint account (discretionary or not) where the beneficial owner (or one of the beneficial owners in the case of a joint account) is a person described in paragraphs (a)(10)(i) through (vi) of this section.

(b) Applicability of margin requirements. The requirements of §§23.150 through 23.161 apply as follows.

(1) Uncleared swaps of U.S. CSEs or Non-U.S. CSEs whose obligations under the relevant swap are guaranteed by a U.S. person—(i) Applicability of U.S. margin requirements; availability of substituted compliance for requirement to post initial margin. With respect to each uncleared swap entered into by a U.S. CSE or a non-U.S. CSE whose obligations under the swap are guaranteed by a U.S. person, the U.S. CSE or non-U.S. CSE whose obligations under the swap are guaranteed by a U.S. person shall comply with the requirements of §§23.150 through 23.161 of this part, provided that the U.S. CSE or non-U.S. CSE whose obligations under the swap are guaranteed by a U.S. person may satisfy its requirement to post initial margin to certain counterparties to the extent provided in paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section.

(ii) Compliance with foreign initial margin collection requirement. A covered swap entity that is covered by paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section may satisfy its requirement to post initial margin under this part by posting initial margin in the form and amount, and at such times, that its counterparty is required to collect initial margin pursuant to a foreign jurisdiction's margin requirements, but only to the extent that:

(A) The counterparty is neither a U.S. person nor a non-U.S. person whose obligations under the relevant swap are guaranteed by a U.S. person;

(B) The counterparty is subject to such foreign jurisdiction's margin requirements; and

(C) The Commission has issued a comparability determination under paragraph (c) of this section (“Comparability Determination”) with respect to such foreign jurisdiction's requirements regarding the posting of initial margin by the covered swap entity (that is covered in paragraph (b)(1) of this section).

(2) Uncleared swaps of Non-U.S. CSEs whose obligations under the relevant swap are not guaranteed by a U.S. person—(i) Applicability of U.S. Margin requirements except where an exclusion applies; Availability of substituted compliance. With respect to each uncleared swap entered into by a non-U.S. CSE whose obligations under the relevant swap are not guaranteed by a U.S. person, the non-U.S. CSE shall comply with the requirements of §§23.150 through 23.161 except to the extent that an exclusion is available under paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section, provided that a non-U.S. CSE whose obligations under the relevant swap are not guaranteed by a U.S. person may satisfy its margin requirements under this part to the extent provided in paragraphs (b)(2)(iii) and (b)(2)(iv) of this section.

(ii) Exclusion. (A) Except as provided in paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(B) of this section, a non-U.S. CSE shall not be required to comply with the requirements of §§23.150 through 23.161 with respect to each uncleared swap it enters into to the extent that the following conditions are met:

(1) The non-U.S. CSE's obligations under the relevant swap are not guaranteed by a U.S. person;

(2) The non-U.S. CSE is not a U.S. branch of a non-U.S. CSE;

(3) The non-U.S. CSE is not a Foreign Consolidated Subsidiary; and

(4) The counterparty to the uncleared swap is a non-U.S. person (excluding a Foreign Consolidated Subsidiary or the U.S. branch of a non-U.S. CSE), whose obligations under the relevant swap are not guaranteed by a U.S. person.

(B) Notwithstanding paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(A) of this section, any uncleared swap of a non-U.S. CSE that meets the conditions for the Exclusion set forth in paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(A) must nevertheless comply with §§23.150 through 23.161 if:

(1) The uncleared swap of the non-U.S. CSE is not covered by a Comparability Determination with respect to the initial margin collection requirements in the relevant foreign jurisdiction in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section; and

(2) The non-U.S. CSE enters into an inter-affiliate swap(s), transferring any risk arising out of the uncleared swap described in paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(B)(1) of this section directly or indirectly, to a margin affiliate (as the term “margin affiliate” is defined in §23.151 of this part) that is a U.S. CSE or a U.S. Guaranteed CSE.

(iii) Availability of substituted compliance where the counterparty is not a U.S. CSE or a non-U.S. CSE whose obligations under the relevant swap are guaranteed by a U.S. person. Except to the extent that an exclusion is available under paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section, with respect to each uncleared swap entered into by a non-U.S. CSE whose obligations under the relevant swap are not guaranteed by a U.S. person with a counterparty (except where the counterparty is either a U.S. CSE or a non-U.S. CSE whose obligations under the relevant swap are guaranteed by a U.S. person), the non-U.S. CSE whose obligations under the relevant swap are not guaranteed by a U.S. person may satisfy margin requirements under this part by complying with the margin requirements of a foreign jurisdiction to which such non-U.S. CSE (whose obligations under the relevant swap are not guaranteed by a U.S. person) is subject, but only to the extent that the Commission has issued a Comparability Determination under paragraph (c) of this section for such foreign jurisdiction.

(iv) Availability of substituted compliance where the counterparty is a U.S. CSE or a non-U.S. CSE whose obligations under the relevant swap are guaranteed by a U.S. person. With respect to each uncleared swap entered into by a non-U.S. CSE whose obligations under the relevant swap are not guaranteed by a U.S. person with a counterparty that is a U.S. CSE or a non-U.S. CSE whose obligations under the relevant swap are guaranteed by a U.S. person, the non-U.S. CSE (whose obligations under the relevant swap are not guaranteed by a U.S. person) may satisfy its requirement to collect initial margin under this part by collecting initial margin in the form and amount, and at such times and under such arrangements, that the non-U.S. CSE (whose obligations under the relevant swap are not guaranteed by a U.S. Person) is required to collect initial margin pursuant to a foreign jurisdiction's margin requirements, provided that:

(A) The non-U.S. CSE (whose obligations under the relevant swap are not guaranteed by a U.S. person) is subject to the foreign jurisdiction's regulatory requirements; and

(B) The Commission has issued a Comparability Determination with respect to such foreign jurisdiction's margin requirements.

(c) Comparability determinations—(1) Eligibility requirements. The following persons may, either individually or collectively, request a Comparability Determination with respect to some or all of the Commission's margin requirements:

(i) A covered swap entity that is eligible for substituted compliance under this section; or

(ii) A foreign regulatory authority that has direct supervisory authority over one or more covered swap entities and that is responsible for administering the relevant foreign jurisdiction's margin requirements.

(2) Submission requirements. Persons requesting a Comparability Determination should provide the Commission (either by hard copy or electronically):

(i) A description of the objectives of the relevant foreign jurisdiction's margin requirements;

(ii) A description of how the relevant foreign jurisdiction's margin requirements address, at minimum, each of the following elements of the Commission's margin requirements. Such description should identify the specific legal and regulatory provisions that correspond to each element and, if necessary, whether the relevant foreign jurisdiction's margin requirements do not address a particular element:

(A) The products subject to the foreign jurisdiction's margin requirements;

(B) The entities subject to the foreign jurisdiction's margin requirements;

(C) The treatment of inter-affiliate derivative transactions;

(D) The methodologies for calculating the amounts of initial and variation margin;

(E) The process and standards for approving models for calculating initial and variation margin models;

(F) The timing and manner in which initial and variation margin must be collected and/or paid;

(G) Any threshold levels or amounts;

(H) Risk management controls for the calculation of initial and variation margin;

(I) Eligible collateral for initial and variation margin;

(J) The requirements of custodial arrangements, including segregation of margin and rehypothecation;

(K) Margin documentation requirements; and

(L) The cross-border application of the foreign jurisdiction's margin regime.

(iii) A description of the differences between the relevant foreign jurisdiction's margin requirements and the International Standards;

(iv) A description of the ability of the relevant foreign regulatory authority or authorities to supervise and enforce compliance with the relevant foreign jurisdiction's margin requirements. Such description should discuss the powers of the foreign regulatory authority or authorities to supervise, investigate, and discipline entities for compliance with the margin requirements and the ongoing efforts of the regulatory authority or authorities to detect and deter violations of, and ensure compliance with, the margin requirements; and

(v) Copies of the foreign jurisdiction's margin requirements (including an English translation of any foreign language document);

(vi) Any other information and documentation that the Commission deems appropriate.

(3) Standard of review. The Commission will issue a Comparability Determination to the extent that it determines that some or all of the relevant foreign jurisdiction's margin requirements are comparable to the Commission's corresponding margin requirements. In determining whether the requirements are comparable, the Commission will consider all relevant factors, including:

(i) The scope and objectives of the relevant foreign jurisdiction's margin requirements;

(ii) Whether the relevant foreign jurisdiction's margin requirements achieve comparable outcomes to the Commission's corresponding margin requirements;

(iii) The ability of the relevant regulatory authority or authorities to supervise and enforce compliance with the relevant foreign jurisdiction's margin requirements; and

(iv) Any other facts and circumstances the Commission deems relevant.

(4) Reliance. Any covered swap entity that, in accordance with a Comparability Determination, complies with a foreign jurisdiction's margin requirements, would be deemed to be in compliance with the Commission's corresponding margin requirements. Accordingly, if the Commission determines that a covered swap entity has failed to comply with the foreign jurisdiction's margin requirements, it could initiate an action for a violation of the Commission's margin requirements. All covered swap entities, regardless of whether they rely on a Comparability Determination, remain subject to the Commission's examination and enforcement authority.

(5) Conditions. In issuing a Comparability Determination, the Commission may impose any terms and conditions it deems appropriate.

(6) Modifications. The Commission reserves the right to further condition, modify, suspend, terminate or otherwise restrict a Comparability Determination in the Commission's discretion.

(7) Delegation of authority. The Commission hereby delegates to the Director of the Division of Swap Dealer and Intermediary Oversight, or such other employee or employees as the Director may designate from time to time, the authority to request information and/or documentation in connection with the Commission's issuance of a Comparability Determination.

(d) Non-netting jurisdiction requirements. Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, if a CSE cannot conclude after sufficient legal review with a well-founded basis that the netting agreement described in §23.152(c) meets the definition of “eligible master netting agreement” set forth in §23.151, the CSE must treat the uncleared swaps covered by the agreement on a gross basis for the purposes of calculating and complying with the requirements of §23.152(a) and §23.153(a) to collect margin, but the CSE may net those uncleared swaps in accordance with §23.152(c) and §23.153(d) for the purposes of calculating and complying with the requirements of this part to post margin. A CSE that relies on this paragraph (d) must have policies and procedures ensuring that it is in compliance with the requirements of this paragraph, and maintain books and records properly documenting that all of the requirements of this paragraph (d) are satisfied.

(e) Jurisdictions Where Compliance with Custodial Arrangement Requirements is Unavailable. Sections 23.152(b), 23.157(b), and paragraph (d) of this section do not apply to an uncleared swap entered into by a Foreign Consolidated Subsidiary or a foreign branch of a U.S. CSE if:

(1) Inherent limitations in the legal or operational infrastructure in the applicable foreign jurisdiction make it impracticable for the CSE and its counterparty to post any form of eligible initial margin collateral recognized pursuant to §23.156 in compliance with the custodial arrangement requirements of §23.157;

(2) The CSE is subject to foreign regulatory restrictions that require the CSE to transact in uncleared swaps with the counterparty through an establishment within the foreign jurisdiction and do not accommodate the posting of collateral for the uncleared swap in compliance with the custodial arrangements of §23.157 in the United States or a jurisdiction for which the Commission has issued a comparability determination under paragraph (c) of this section with respect to §23.157;

(3) The counterparty to the uncleared swap is a non-U.S. person that is not a CSE, and the counterparty's obligations under the uncleared swap are not guaranteed by a U.S. person;

(4) The CSE collects initial margin for the uncleared swap in accordance with §23.152(a) in the form of cash pursuant to §23.156(a)(1)(i), and posts and collects variation margin in accordance with §23.153(a) in the form of cash pursuant to §23.156(a)(1)(i);

(5) For each broad risk category, as set out in §23.154(b)(2)(v), the total outstanding notional value of all uncleared swaps in that broad risk category, as to which the CSE is relying on this paragraph (e), may not exceed 5% of the CSE's total outstanding notional value for all uncleared swaps in the same broad risk category;

(6) The CSE has policies and procedures ensuring that it is in compliance with the requirements of this paragraph (e); and

(7) The CSE maintains books and records properly documenting that all of the requirements of this paragraph (e) are satisfied.

[81 FR 34847, May 31, 2016]

return arrow Back to Top

§23.161   Compliance dates.

(a) Covered swap entities shall comply with the minimum margin requirements for uncleared swaps on or before the following dates for uncleared swaps entered into on or after the following dates:

(1) September 1, 2016 for the requirements in §23.152 for initial margin and in §23.153 for variation margin for any uncleared swaps where both—

(i) The covered swap entity combined with all its margin affiliates; and

(ii) Its counterparty combined with all its margin affiliates, have an average daily aggregate notional amount of uncleared swaps, uncleared security-based swaps, foreign exchange forwards, and foreign exchange swaps in March, April, and May 2016 that exceeds $3 trillion, where such amounts are calculated only for business days; and where

(iii) In calculating the amounts in paragraphs (a)(1)(i) and (ii) of this section, an entity shall count the average daily notional amount of an uncleared swap, an uncleared security-based swap, a foreign-exchange forward, or a foreign exchange swap between the entity and a margin affiliate only one time and shall not count a swap that is exempt pursuant to §23.150(b) or a security-based swap that is exempt pursuant to section 15F(e) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78o-10(e)).

(2) March 1, 2017 for the requirements in §23.153 for variation margin for any other covered swap entity for uncleared swaps entered into with any other counterparty.

(3) September 1, 2017 for the requirements in §23.152 for initial margin for any uncleared swaps where both—

(i) The covered swap entity combined with all its margin affiliates; and

(ii) Its counterparty combined with all its margin affiliates, have an average daily aggregate notional amount of uncleared swaps, uncleared security-based swaps, foreign exchange forwards, and foreign exchange swaps in March, April, and May 2017 that exceeds $2.25 trillion, where such amounts are calculated only for business days; and where

(iii) In calculating the amounts in paragraphs (a)(3)(i) and (ii) of this section, an entity shall count the average daily notional amount of an uncleared swap, an uncleared security-based swap, a foreign-exchange forward, or a foreign exchange swap between the entity and a margin affiliate only one time and shall not count a swap that is exempt pursuant to §23.150(b) or a security-based swap that is exempt pursuant to section 15F(e) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78o-10(e)).

(4) September 1, 2018, for the requirements in §23.152 for initial margin for any uncleared swaps where both—

(i) The covered swap entity combined with all its margin affiliates; and

(ii) Its counterparty combined with all its margin affiliates have an average daily aggregate notional amount of uncleared swaps, uncleared security-based swaps, foreign exchange forwards, and foreign exchange swaps in March, April, and May 2018 that exceeds $1.5 trillion, where such amounts are calculated only for business days; and where

(iii) In calculating the amounts in paragraphs (a)(4)(i) and (ii) of this section, an entity shall count the average daily notional amount of an uncleared swap, an uncleared security-based swap, a foreign-exchange forward, or a foreign exchange swap between the entity and a margin affiliate only one time and shall not count a swap that is exempt pursuant to §23.150(b) or a security-based swap that is exempt pursuant to section 15F(e) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78o-10(e)).

(5) September 1, 2019 for the requirements in §23.152 for initial margin for any uncleared swaps where both—

(i) The covered swap entity combined with all its margin affiliates; and

(ii) Its counterparty combined with all its margin affiliates have an average daily aggregate notional amount of uncleared swaps, uncleared security-based swaps, foreign exchange forwards, and foreign exchange swaps in March, April, and May 2019 that exceeds $0.75 trillion, where such amounts are calculated only for business days; and where

(iii) In calculating the amounts in paragraphs (a)(5)(i) and (ii) of this section, an entity shall count the average daily notional amount of an uncleared swap, an uncleared security-based swap, a foreign-exchange forward, or a foreign exchange swap between the entity and a margin affiliate only one time and shall not count a swap that is exempt pursuant to §23.150(b) or a security-based swap that is exempt pursuant to section 15F(e) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78o-10(e)).

(6) September 1, 2021 for the requirements in §23.152 for initial margin for any uncleared swaps where both—

(i) The covered swap entity combined with all its margin affiliates; and

(ii) Its counterparty combined with all its margin affiliates have an average daily aggregate notional amount of uncleared swaps, uncleared security-based swaps, foreign exchange forwards, and foreign exchange swaps in March, April, and May 2021 that exceeds $50 billion, where such amounts are calculated only for business days; and where

(iii) In calculating the amounts in paragraphs (a)(6)(i) and (ii) of this section, an entity shall count the average daily notional amount of an uncleared swap, an uncleared security-based swap, a foreign exchange forward, or a foreign exchange swap between the entity and a margin affiliate only one time and shall not count a swap that is exempt pursuant to §23.150(b) or a security-based swap that is exempt pursuant to section 15F(e) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78o.10(e)).

(7) September 1, 2021 for the requirements in §23.152 for initial margin for any other covered swap entity with respect to uncleared swaps entered into with any other counterparty.

(b) Once a covered swap entity and its counterparty must comply with the margin requirements for uncleared swaps based on the compliance dates in paragraph (a) of this section, the covered swap entity and its counterparty shall remain subject to the requirements of §§23.150 through 23.161 with respect to that counterparty.

(c)(1) If a covered swap entity's counterparty changes its status such that an uncleared swap with that counterparty becomes subject to a stricter margin requirement under §§23.150 through 23.161 (for example, if the counterparty's status changes from a financial end user without material swaps exposure to a financial end user with material swaps exposure), then the covered swap entity shall comply with the stricter margin requirements for any uncleared swaps entered into with that counterparty after the counterparty changes its status.

(2) If a covered swap entity's counterparty changes its status such that an uncleared swap with that counterparty becomes subject to less strict margin requirement under §§23.150 through 23.161 (for example, if the counterparty's status changes from a financial end user with material swaps exposure to a financial end user without material swaps exposure), then the covered swap entity may comply with the less strict margin requirements for any uncleared swaps entered into with that counterparty after the counterparty changes its status as well as for any outstanding uncleared swap entered into after the applicable compliance date under paragraph (a) of this section and before the counterparty changed its status.

(d) For purposes of determining whether an uncleared swap was entered into prior to the applicable compliance date under this section, a covered swap entity may disregard:

(1) Amendments to the uncleared swap that were entered into solely to comply with the requirements of 12 CFR part 47; 12 CFR part 252, subpart I; or 12 CFR part 382, as applicable; or

(2) Amendments to the uncleared swap that were entered into in compliance with each of the following conditions:

(i) The law of the European Union ceases to apply to the United Kingdom pursuant to Article 50(3) of the Treaty on European Union, without conclusion of a withdrawal agreement between the United Kingdom and the European Union pursuant to Article 50(2) thereof; and

(ii) Solely in connection with a party to the swap's planning for or response to the event described in paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section, one or both parties to the swap transfers the swap to its margin affiliate, or a branch or other authorized form of establishment of the transferor, and the parties make no other transfers of the swap; and

(A) A covered swap entity is a transferee from a party to the swap; or

(B) A covered swap entity is a remaining party to the swap, and the transferor represents to the covered swap entity that the transferee is a margin affiliate, or a branch or other authorized form of establishment of the transferor, and the transfer was made solely in connection with the transferor's planning for or response to the event described in paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section; and

(iii) The amendments do not modify any of the following: the payment amount calculation methods, the maturity date, or the notional amount of the swap; and

(iv) The amendments take effect no earlier than the date of the event described in paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section transpires; and

(v) The amendments take effect no later than:

(A) The date that is one year after the date of the event described in paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section; or

(B) Such other date permitted by transitional provisions under Article 35 of Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) No. 2016/2251, as amended.

[81 FR 695, Jan. 6, 2016, as amended at 83 FR 60346, Nov. 26, 2018; 84 FR 12071, Apr. 1, 2019; 85 FR 19882, Apr. 9, 2020; 85 FR 41352, July 10, 2020]

return arrow Back to Top

§§23.162-23.199   [Reserved]

return arrow Back to Top

Appendix A to Subpart E—XXX

Link to an amendment published at 85 FR 57556, Sept. 15, 2020.

   

return arrow Back to Top

Appendix B to Subpart E—XXX

Link to an amendment published at 85 FR 57561, Sept. 15, 2020.

   

return arrow Back to Top

Appendix C to Subpart E—XXX

Link to an amendment published at 85 FR 57565, Sept. 15, 2020.

   

return arrow Back to Top

Need assistance?