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e-CFR data is current as of March 4, 2021

Title 16Chapter IISubchapter DPart 1610 → Subpart B


Title 16: Commercial Practices
PART 1610—STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES


Subpart B—Rules and Regulations


Contents
§1610.31   Definitions.
§1610.32   General requirements.
§1610.33   Test procedures for textile fabrics and film.
§1610.34   Only uncovered or exposed parts of wearing apparel to be tested.
§1610.35   Procedures for testing special types of textile fabrics under the standard.
§1610.36   Application of Act to particular types of products.
§1610.37   Reasonable and representative tests to support guaranties.
§1610.38   Maintenance of records by those furnishing guaranties.
§1610.39   Shipments under section 11(c) of the Act.
§1610.40   Use of alternate apparatus, procedures, or criteria for tests for guaranty purposes.

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§1610.31   Definitions.

In addition to the definitions provided in section 2 of the Flammable Fabrics Act as amended (15 U.S.C. 1191), and in §1610.2 of the Standard, the following definitions apply for this subpart.

(a) Act means the “Flammable Fabrics Act” (approved June 30, 1953, Pub. Law 88, 83d Congress, 1st sess., 15 U.S.C. 1191; 67 Stat. 111) as amended, 68 Stat. 770, August 23, 1954.

(b) Rule, rules, regulations, and rules and regulations, mean the rules and regulations prescribed by the Commission pursuant to section 5(c) of the act.

(c) United States means, the several States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Territories, and Possessions of the United States.

(d) Marketing or handling means the transactions referred to in section 3 of the Flammable Fabrics Act, as amended in 1967.

(e) Test means the application of the relevant test method prescribed in the procedures provided under section 4(a) of the Act (16 CFR part 1609).

(f) Finish type means a particular finish, but does not include such variables as changes in color, pattern, print, or design, or minor variations in the amount or type of ingredients in the finish formulation. Examples of finish types would be starch finishes, resin finishes or parchmentized finishes.

(g) Uncovered or exposed part means that part of an article of wearing apparel that might during normal wear be open to flame or other means of ignition. The outer surface of an undergarment is considered to be an uncovered or exposed part of an article of wearing apparel, and thus subject to the Act. Other examples of exposed parts of an article of wearing apparel subject to the Act include, but are not limited to:

(1) Linings, with exposed areas, such as full front zippered jackets;

(2) Sweatshirts with exposed raised fiber surface inside and capable of being worn napped side out;

(3) Unlined hoods;

(4) Rolled cuffs.

(h) Coated fabrics means a flexible material composed of a fabric and any adherent polymeric material applied to one or both surfaces.

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§1610.32   General requirements.

No article of wearing apparel or fabric subject to the Act and regulations shall be marketed or handled if such article or fabric, when tested according to the procedures prescribed in section 4(a) of the Act (16 CFR 1609), is so highly flammable as to be dangerous when worn by individuals.

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§1610.33   Test procedures for textile fabrics and film.

(a)(1) All textile fabrics (except those with a nitro-cellulose fiber, finish or coating) intended or sold for use in wearing apparel, and all such fabrics contained in articles of wearing apparel, shall be subject to the requirements of the Act, and shall be deemed to be so highly flammable as to be dangerous when worn by individuals if such fabrics or any uncovered or exposed part of such articles of wearing apparel exhibits rapid and intense burning when tested under the conditions and in the manner prescribed in subpart A of this part 1610.

(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (a)(1) of this section, coated fabrics, except those with a nitro-cellulose coating, may be tested under the procedures outlined in part 1611, Standard for the Flammability of Vinyl Plastic Film, and if such coated fabrics do not exhibit a rate of burning in excess of that specified in §1611.3 they shall not be deemed to be so highly flammable as to be dangerous when worn by individuals.

(b) All film, and textile fabrics with a nitro-cellulose fiber, finish or coating intended or sold for use in wearing apparel, and all film and such textile fabrics referred to in this rule which are contained in articles of wearing apparel, shall be subject to the requirements of the Act, and shall be deemed to be so highly flammable as to be dangerous when worn by individuals if such film or such textile fabrics or any uncovered or exposed part of such articles of wearing apparel exhibit a rate of burning in excess of that specified in part 1611, Standard for the Flammability of Vinyl Plastic Film.

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§1610.34   Only uncovered or exposed parts of wearing apparel to be tested.

(a) In determining whether an article of wearing apparel is so highly flammable as to be dangerous when worn by individuals, only the uncovered or exposed part of such article of wearing apparel shall be tested according to the applicable procedures set forth in §1610.6.

(b) If the outer layer of plastic film or plastic-coated fabric of a multilayer fabric separates readily from the other layers, the outer layer shall be tested under part 1611—Standard for the Flammability of Vinyl Plastic Film. If the outer layer adheres to all or a portion of one or more layers of the underlaying fabric, the multi-layered fabric may be tested under either part 1610—Standard for the Flammability of Clothing Textiles or part 1611. However, if the conditioning procedures required by §1610.6(a)(2)(iv) and §1610.6(a)(3)(v) would damage or alter the physical characteristics of the film or coating, the uncovered or exposed layer shall be tested in accordance with part 1611.

(c) Plastic film or plastic-coated fabric used, or intended for use as the outer layer of disposable diapers is exempt from the requirements of the Standard, provided that a sample taken from a full thickness of the assembled article passes the test in the Standard (part 1610 or part 1611) otherwise applicable to the outer fabric or film when the flame is applied to the exposed or uncovered surface. See §§1610.36(f) and 1611.36(f).

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§1610.35   Procedures for testing special types of textile fabrics under the standard.

(a) Fabric not customarily washed or dry cleaned. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, any textile fabric or article of wearing apparel which, in its normal and customary use as wearing apparel would not be dry cleaned or washed, need not be dry cleaned or washed as prescribed in §1610.6(b) when tested under the Standard if such fabric or article of wearing apparel, when marketed or handled, is marked in a clear and legible manner with the statement: “Fabric may be dangerously flammable if dry cleaned or washed.” An example of the type of fabric referred to in this paragraph is bridal illusion.

(2) Section 1610.3, which requires that all textiles shall be refurbished before testing, shall not apply to disposable fabrics and garments. Additionally, such disposable fabrics and garments shall not be subject to the labeling requirements set forth in paragraph (a)(1) of this section.

(b) A coated fabric need not, upon test under the procedures outlined in subpart A of part 1610, be dry cleaned as set forth in §1610.6(b)(1)(i).

(c) In determining whether a textile fabric having a raised-fiber surface, which surface is to be used in the covered or unexposed parts of articles of wearing apparel, is so highly flammable as to be dangerous when worn by individuals, only the opposite surface or surface intended to be exposed need be tested under the applicable procedures set forth in §1610.6, providing an invoice or other paper covering the marketing or handling of such fabric is given which clearly designates that the raised-fiber surface is to be used only in the covered or unexposed parts of articles of wearing apparel.

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§1610.36   Application of Act to particular types of products.

(a) Interlinings. Fabrics intended or sold for processing into interlinings or other covered or unexposed parts of articles of wearing apparel shall not be subject to the provisions of section 3 of the Act: Provided, that an invoice or other paper covering the marketing or handling of such fabrics is given which specifically designates their intended end use: And provided further, that with respect to fabrics which under the provisions of section 4 of the Act, as amended, are so highly flammable as to be dangerous when worn by individuals, any person marketing or handling such fabrics maintains records which show the acquisition, disposition and intended end use of such fabrics, and any person manufacturing articles of wearing apparel containing such fabrics maintains records which show the acquisition, and use and disposition of such fabrics. Any person who fails to maintain such records or to furnish such invoice or other paper shall be deemed to have engaged in the marketing or handling of such products for purposes subject to the requirements of the Act and such person and the products shall be subject to the provisions of sections 3, 6, 7, and 9 of the Act.

(b) Hats, gloves, and footwear. Fabrics intended or sold for use in those hats, gloves, and footwear which are excluded under the definition of articles of wearing apparel in section 2(d) of the Act shall not be subject to the provisions of section 3 of the Act: Provided, that an invoice or other paper covering the marketing or handling of such fabrics is given which specifically designates their intended use in such products: And provided further, that with respect to fabrics which under the provisions of section 4 of the Act, as amended, are so highly flammable as to be dangerous when worn by individuals, any person marketing or handling such fabrics maintains records which show the acquisition, disposition, and intended end use of such fabrics, and any person manufacturing hats, gloves, or footwear containing such fabrics maintains records which show the acquisition, end use and disposition of such fabrics. Any person who fails to maintain such records or to furnish such invoice or other paper shall be deemed to have engaged in the marketing or handling of such products for purposes subject to the requirements of the Act and such person and the products shall be subject to the provisions of sections 3, 6, 7, and 9 of the Act.

(c) Veils and hats. (1) Ornamental millinery veils or veilings when used as a part of, in conjunction with, or as a hat, are not to be considered such a “covering for the neck, face, or shoulders” as would, under the first proviso of section 2(d) of the Act, cause the hat to be included within the definition of the term “article of wearing apparel” where such ornamental millinery veils or veilings do not extend more than nine (9) inches from the tip of the crown of the hat to which they are attached and do not extend more than two (2) inches beyond the edge of the brim of the hat.

(2) Where hats are composed entirely of ornamental millinery veils or veilings such hats will not be considered as subject to the Act if the veils or veilings from which they are manufactured were not more than nine (9) inches in width and do not extend more than nine (9) inches from the tip of the crown of the completed hat.

(d) Handkerchiefs. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (d)(2) of this section, handkerchiefs not exceeding a finished size of twenty-four (24) inches on any side or not exceeding five hundred seventy-six (576) square inches in area are not deemed “articles of wearing apparel” as that term is used in the Act.

(2) Handkerchiefs or other articles affixed to, incorporated in, or sold as a part of articles of wearing apparel as decoration, trimming, or for any other purpose, are considered an integral part of such articles of wearing apparel, and the articles of wearing apparel and all parts thereof are subject to the provisions of the Act. Handkerchiefs or other articles intended or sold to be affixed to, incorporated in or sold as a part of articles of wearing apparel as aforesaid constitute “fabric” as that term is defined in section 2(e) of the Act and are subject to the provisions of the Act, such handkerchiefs or other articles constitute textile fabrics as the term “textile fabric” is defined in §1610.2(r).

(3) If, because of construction, design, color, type of fabric, or any other factor, a piece of cloth of a finished type or any other product of a finished type appears to be likely to be used as a covering for the head, neck, face, shoulders, or any part thereof, or otherwise appears likely to be used as an article of clothing, garment, such product is not a handkerchief and constitutes an article of wearing apparel as defined in and subject to the provisions of the Act, irrespective of its size, or its description or designation as a handkerchief or any other term.

(e) Raised-fiber surface wearing apparel. Where an article of wearing apparel has a raised-fiber surface which is intended for use as a covered or unexposed part of the article of wearing apparel but the article of wearing apparel is, because of its design and construction, capable of being worn with the raised-fiber surface exposed, such raised-fiber surface shall be considered to be an uncovered or exposed part of the article of wearing apparel. Examples of the type of products referred to in this paragraph are athletic shirts or so-called “sweat shirts” with a raised-fiber inner side.

(f) Multilayer fabric and wearing apparel with a film or coating on the uncovered or exposed surface. Plastic film or plastic-coated fabric used, or intended for use, as the outer layer of disposable diapers is exempt from the requirements of the standard, provided that a full thickness of the assembled article passes the test in the Standard otherwise applicable to the outer fabric or film when the flame is applied to the exposed or uncovered surface.

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§1610.37   Reasonable and representative tests to support guaranties.

(a) Purpose. The purpose of this §1610.37 is to establish requirements for reasonable and representative tests to support initial guaranties of products, fabrics, and related materials which are subject to the Standard for the Flammability of Clothing Textiles (the Standard, 16 CFR part 1610).

(b) Statutory provisions. (1) Section 8(a) of the Act (15 U.S.C. 1197(a)) provides that no person shall be subject to criminal prosecution under section 7 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 1196) for a violation of section 3 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 1192) if such person establishes a guaranty received in good faith to the effect that the product, fabric, or related material complies with the applicable flammability standard. A guaranty does not provide the holder any defense to an administrative action for an order to cease and desist from violation of the applicable standard, the Act, and the Federal Trade Commission Act (15 U.S.C. 45), nor to any civil action for injunction or seizure brought under section 6 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 1195).

(2) Section 8 of the Act provides for two types of guaranties:

(i) An initial guaranty based on “reasonable and representative tests” made in accordance with the applicable standard issued under the Act; and

(ii) A guaranty based on a previous guaranty, received in good faith, to the effect that reasonable and representative tests show conformance with the applicable standard.

(c) Requirements. (1) Each person or firm issuing an initial guaranty of a product, fabric, or related material subject to the Standard shall devise and implement a program of reasonable and representative tests to support such a guaranty.

(2) The term program of reasonable and representative tests as used in this §1610.37 means at least one test with results demonstrating conformance with the Standard for the product, fabric or related material which is the subject of an initial guaranty. The program of reasonable and representative tests required by this §1610.37 may include tests performed before the effective date of this section, and may include tests performed by persons or firms outside of the territories of the United States or other than the one issuing the initial guaranty. The number of tests and the frequency of testing shall be left to the discretion of the person or firm issuing the initial guaranty.

(3) In the case of an initial guaranty of a fabric or related material, a program of reasonable and representative tests may consist of one or more tests of the particular fabric or related material which is the subject of the guaranty, or of a fabric or related material of the same “class” of fabrics or related materials as the one which is the subject of the guaranty. For purposes of this §1610.37, the term class means a category of fabrics or related materials having general constructional or finished characteristics, sometimes in association with a particular fiber, and covered by a class or type description generally recognized in the trade.

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§1610.38   Maintenance of records by those furnishing guaranties.

(a) Any person or firm issuing an initial guaranty of a product, fabric, or related material which is subject to the Standard for the Flammability of Clothing Textiles (the Standard, 16 CFR part 1610) shall keep and maintain a record of the test or tests relied upon to support that guaranty. The records to be maintained shall show:

(1) The style or range number, fiber composition, construction and finish type of each textile fabric or related material covered by an initial guaranty; or the identification, fiber composition, construction and finish type of each textile fabric (including those with a nitrocellulose fiber, finish or coating), and of each related material, used or contained in a product of wearing apparel covered by an initial guaranty.

(2) The results of the actual test or tests made of the textile fabric or related material covered by an initial guaranty; or of any fabric or related material used in the product of wearing apparel covered by an initial guaranty.

(3) When the person or firm issuing an initial guaranty has conducted the test or tests relied upon to support that guaranty, that person or firm shall also include with the information required by paragraphs (a) (1) and (2) of this section, a sample of each fabric or related material which has been tested.

(b) Persons furnishing guaranties based upon class tests shall maintain records showing:

(1) Identification of the class test.

(2) Fiber composition, construction and finish type of the fabrics, or the fabrics used or contained in articles of wearing apparel so guaranteed.

(3) A swatch of each class of fabrics guaranteed.

(c) Persons furnishing guaranties based upon guaranties received by them shall maintain records showing the guaranty received and identification of the fabrics or fabrics contained in articles of wearing apparel guaranteed in turn by them.

(d) The records referred to in this section shall be preserved for a period of 3 years from the date the tests were performed, or in the case of paragraph (c) of this section from the date the guaranties were furnished.

(e) Any person furnishing a guaranty under section 8(a) of the Act who neglects or refuses to maintain and preserve the records prescribed in this section shall be deemed to have furnished a false guaranty under the provisions of section 8(b) of the Act.

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§1610.39   Shipments under section 11(c) of the Act.

(a) The invoice or other paper relating to the shipment or delivery for shipment in commerce of articles of wearing apparel or textile fabrics for the purpose of finishing or processing to render them not so highly flammable as to be dangerous when worn by individuals, shall contain a statement disclosing such purpose.

(b) An article of wearing apparel or textile fabric shall not be deemed to fall within the provisions of section 11(c) of the Act as being shipped or delivered for shipment in commerce for the purpose of finishing or processing to render such article of wearing apparel or textile fabric not so highly flammable under section 4 of the Act, as to be dangerous when worn by individuals, unless the shipment or delivery for shipment in commerce of such article of wearing apparel or textile fabric is made directly to the person engaged in the business of processing or finishing textile products for the prearranged purpose of having such article of apparel or textile fabric processed or finished to render it not so highly flammable under section 4 of the Act, as to be dangerous when worn by individuals, and any person shipping or delivering for shipment the article of wearing apparel or fabric in commerce for such purpose maintains records which establish that the textile fabric or article of wearing apparel has been shipped for appropriate flammability treatment, and that such treatment has been completed, as well as records to show the disposition of such textile fabric or article of wearing apparel subsequent to the completion of such treatment.

(c) The importation of textile fabrics or articles of wearing apparel may be considered as incidental to a transaction involving shipment or delivery for shipment for the purpose of rendering such textile fabrics or articles of wearing apparel not so highly flammable under the provisions of section 4 of the Act, as to be dangerous when worn by individuals, if:

(1) The importer maintains records which establish that: (i) The imported textile fabrics or articles of wearing apparel have been shipped for appropriate flammability treatment, and

(ii) Such treatment has been completed, as well as records to show the disposition of such textile fabrics or articles of wearing apparel subsequent to the completion of such treatment.

(2) The importer, at the time of importation, executes and furnishes to the U.S. Customs and Border Protection an affidavit stating: These fabrics (or articles of wearing apparel) are dangerously flammable under the provisions of section 4 of the Act, and will not be sold or used in their present condition but will be processed or finished by the undersigned or by a duly authorized agent so as to render them not so highly flammable under the provisions of section 4 of the Flammable Fabrics Act, as to be dangerously flammable when worn by individuals. The importer agrees to maintain the records required by 16 CFR 1610.39(c)(1).

(3) The importer, if requested to do so by the U.S. Customs and Border Protection, furnishes an adequate specific-performance bond conditioned upon the complete discharge of the obligations assumed in paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of this section.

(d) The purpose of section 11(c) of the Act is only to permit articles of wearing apparel or textile fabrics which are dangerously flammable to be shipped or delivered for shipment in commerce for the purpose of treatment or processing to render them not dangerously flammable. Section 11(c)of the Act does not in any other respect limit the force and effect of sections 3, 6, 7, and 9 of the Act. In particular, section 11(c) of the Act does not authorize the sale or offering for sale of any article of wearing apparel or textile fabric which is in fact dangerously flammable at the time of sale or offering for sale, even though the seller intends to ship the article for treatment prior to delivery to the purchaser or has already done so. Moreover, under section 3 of the Act a person is liable for a subsequent sale or offering for sale if, despite the purported completion of treatment to render it not dangerously flammable, the article in fact remains dangerously flammable.

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§1610.40   Use of alternate apparatus, procedures, or criteria for tests for guaranty purposes.

(a) Section 8(a) of the Act provides that no person shall be subject to criminal prosecution under section 7 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 1196) for a violation of section 3 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 1192) if that person establishes a guaranty received in good faith which meets all requirements set forth in section 8 the Act. One of those requirements is that the guaranty must be based upon “reasonable and representative tests” in accordance with the applicable standard.

(b) Subpart A of this part 1610 prescribes apparatus and procedures for testing fabrics and garments subject to its provisions. See §§1610.5 & 1610.6. Subpart A prescribes criteria for classifying the flammability of fabrics and garments subject to its provisions as “Normal flammability, Class 1,” “Intermediate flammability, Class 2,” and “Rapid and Intense Burning, Class 3.” See §1610.4. Sections 3 and 4 of the Act prohibit the manufacture for sale, importation into the United States, or introduction in commerce of any fabric or article of wearing apparel subject to the Standard which exhibits “rapid and intense burning” when tested in accordance with the Standard. See 16 CFR part 1609.

(c) The Commission recognizes that for purposes of supporting guaranties, “reasonable and representative tests” could be either the test in subpart A of this part, or alternate tests which utilize apparatus or procedures other than those in subpart A of this part. This §1610.40 sets forth conditions under which the Commission will allow use of alternate tests with apparatus or procedures other than those in subpart A of this part to serve as the basis for guaranties.

(d)(1) Persons and firms issuing guaranties that fabrics or garments subject to the Standard meet its requirements may base those guaranties on any alternate test utilizing apparatus or procedures other than those in subpart A of this part, if such alternate test is as stringent as, or more stringent than, the test in subpart A of this part. The Commission considers an alternate test to be “as stringent as, or more stringent than” the test in subpart A of this part if, when testing identical specimens, the alternate test yields failing results as often as, or more often than, the test in subpart A of this part. Any person using such an alternate test must have data or information to demonstrate that the alternate test is as stringent as, or more stringent than, the test in subpart A of this part.

(2) The data or information required by this paragraph (d) of this section to demonstrate equivalent or greater stringency of any alternate test using apparatus or procedures other than those in subpart A of this part must be in the possession of the person or firm desiring to use such alternate test before the alternate test may be used to support guaranties of items subject to the Standard.

(3) The data or information required by paragraph (d) of this section to demonstrate equivalent or greater stringency of any alternate test using apparatus or procedures other than those in subpart A of this part must be retained for as long as that alternate test is used to support guaranties of items subject to the Standard, and for one year thereafter.

(e) Specific approval from the Commission in advance of the use of any alternate test using apparatus or procedures other than those in Subpart A is not required. The Commission will not approve or disapprove any specific alternate test utilizing apparatus or procedures other than those in subpart A of this part.

(f) Use of any alternate test to support guaranties of items subject to the Standard without the information required by this section may result in violation of section 8(b), of the Act (15 U.S.C. 1197(b)), which prohibits the furnishing of a false guaranty.

(g) The Commission will test fabrics and garments subject to the Standard for compliance with the Standard using the apparatus and procedures set forth in subpart A of this part. The Commission will consider any failing results from compliance testing as evidence that:

(1) The manufacture for sale, importation into the United States, or introduction in commerce of the fabric or garment which yielded failing results was in violation of the Standard and of section 3 of the Act; and

(2) The person or firm using the alternate test as the basis for a guaranty has furnished a false guaranty, in violation of section 8(b) of the Act.

(Reporting requirements contained in paragraph (d) were approved by Office of Management and Budget under control number 3041-0024.)

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